The objective of the study was to create a model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in the rat without causing urinary retention by ligation of the ureter.
Mixed bacterial suspension containing 1.5×106 colony-forming units (CFU) of S. aureus and 3.0×106 CFU of E. coli was inoculated in the caudal vein at a dose of 0.5 ml/kg. Control animals received the same amount of saline solution. Pyelonephritis was confirmed by lab urine tests and histopathological study of the kidneys.
Infected animals initially developed sepsis with a significant increase of leukocytes and Creactive protein in the blood. Originally only bacteriuria was found in the urine of experimental animals, but later, in the course of the development of pyelonephritis (12-18 days), leucocyturia and active leukocytes (glitter cells) were also available in urine. The levels of β-2 microglobulin in the urine of infected animals (4.02 ± 0.04 mmol/l on day 16 and 4.18 ± 0.07 mmol/l on day 18) were significantly highly increased (p < 0.0001) in comparison with the value of the control group (0.088 ± 0.005 mmol/l). In the early days the histopathological examination of the kidneys established erythrocyte stasis. Later leukocyte infiltrates were observed in the interstitial tissue around the kidney tubules, glomeruli and vascular walls, and inflammatory cell infiltration and degenerative changes were present in the epithelium of the canaliculi.
Combined hematogenous infection with S. aureus and E. coli led to the development of pyelonephritis in rats. The pathology in the kidney tubules was confirmed by histopathological study and by the elevated levels of β-2 microglobulin and the presence of active leukocytes in urine.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Yagmurlu A Boleken ME Ertoy D et al. Preventive effect of pentoxifylline on renal scarring in rat model of pyelonephritis. Urology 2003;61(5):1037-41.
2. Li ML Liang B Tang JW et. al. Pharmacodynamic study of Relinqing granules on bacterial pyelonephritis model in rats. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi 2006;31(2):153-5.
3. Emamghorashi F Owji SM Kohanteb J et al. Every other day gentamicin injection in experimental pyelonephritis in rats: risk of scar formation. Iran J Med Sci 2007;32(1):9-11.
4. Sadeghi Z Kajbafzadeh A-M Tajik P et al. Vitamin E administration at the onset of fever prevents renal scarring in acute pyelonephritis. Pediatric Nephrology 2008;23(9):1503-10.
5. Görür S Çelik S Hakverdi S et al. Preventive effect of rolipram a phosphodiesterase 4 enzyme inhibitor on oxidative renal injury in acute ascending pyelonephritis model in rats. Urology 2008;72(4):743-8.
6. Kaijser B Olling S. Experimental hematogenous pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli in rabbits: the antibody response and its protective capacity. J Infect Dis 1973;128(1):41-9.
7. Guze LB Hubert E Kalmanson GM. Pyelonephritis: VI. Observations of the effects of congenital partial ureteral obstruction on susceptibility of the rat kidney to infection. Journal Infect Dis 1965;115(5):500-5.
8. Breunung M Breunung MM Peschel HG. Staphylococcal infection as a predisposing factor in experimental colipyelonephritis. Padiatr Padol 1971;6(1):58-74.
9. Kaijser B Larsson P Olling S. Protection against ascending Escherichia coli pyelonephritis in rats and significance of local immunity. Infect Immun 1978;20(1):78-81.
10. Povoa P. C-reactive protein: a valuable marker of sepsis. Intensive Care Med 2002;28:235-43.
11. Tuan H Hagemann I Briedigkeit H et al. Experimental pyelonephritis route of infection course and immunological aspects. Int Urol Nephrol 1972;4(3):285-95.
12. Panizzi P Friedrich R Fuentes-Prior P et al. Fibrinogen substrate recognition by staphylocoagulase.( pro)thrombin complexes. J Biol Chem 2006; 281(2):1179-87.
13. Sanford JP Hunter BW Donaldson P. Localization and fate of Escherichia coli in hematogenous pyelonephritis. J Exp Med 1962;116:285-94.
14. Kaboré AF Simard M Bergeron MG. Local production of inflammatory mediators in an experimental model of acute obstructive pyelonephritis. J Infect Dis 1999;179(5):1162-72.
15. Hida Y Yamashita M Ichikawa M et al. The clinical significance of glitter-cells in the urine during urinary tract infection. Rinsho Byori Jpn J Clin Pathol 1996;44(10): 977-82.
16. Schardijn GH Statius van Eps LW Pauw W et al. Comparison of reliability of tests to distinguish upper from lower urinary tract infection. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1984;289(6440):284-7.
17. Fredriksson А. Renal handling of β2-microglobulin in experimental renal disease. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1975;35(6):591-600.