Contents of nutrients and arsenic in litterfall and surface humus in mature nudal beech stands subjected to different emission-immission loads

Open access

Abstract

The aim of the paper was to compare the litterfall and surface humus (Oo) quality in nudal beech stands with different emission-immission load from the Al smelter Žiar nad Hronom. The study was carried out in the Kremnické vrchy Mts (control stand, 18 km from the emission source) and the Štiavnické vrchy Mts (stressed stand, 1.5 km from the emission source), both in Central Slovakia. The contents of arsenic and nutrients (Cat, Mgt, Kt, Nat), with exception of calcium in the beech litterfall from the stressed stand were markedly higher (by 4.3%, 23.9%, 2.1% and 87.9%, respectively) compared to the samples taken from the control plot. On the contrary, the surface humus samples (with the exception of Na in the necrotic Oon subhorizon) from control plot were richer in nutrients. However, significant differences (p < 0.01) between the plots were observed for Ca content in the litterfall as well as in the surface humus. The concentrations of As in Oo samples from the stressed stand mainly increased with the organic horizon depth (mg kg-1): necrotic Oon 1.10 < fermentation Oof 3.1 < humification Ooh 55.6. The results showed, that As amounts detected in subhorizon Ooh and in beech litterfall from the stressed stand were higher than the limit values, thus indicating that the environment of the Žiar territory is exposed to persistent negative impacts of industrial activities.

Zákon č. 220/2004 o ochrane a využívaní poľnohospodárskej pôdy. Príloha 2 - Limitné hodnoty rizikových látok v poľnohospodárskej pôde [Act No. 220/2004 on protection and use of agricultural soil. Appendix 2 - Limit values of risk elements in agricultural soil].

Adriano, D.C., 2002. Trace elements in the terrestrial environment. New York: Springer. 867 p.

Augusto, A., Dupouey, J.L., Ranger, J., 2003. Effect of tree species on understory vegetation and environmental conditions in temperate forests. Annals of Forest Science, 60: 823-831.

Augusto, L., Ranger, J., Binkley, D. Rothe, A., 2002. Impact of several common tree species of European temperate forests on soil fertility. Annals of Forest Science, 59: 233-253.

Bech, J., Poschenrieder, C., Llugany, M., Barceló, J., Tume, P., Tobias, F.J., Barranzuela, J.L., Vásquez, E.R., 1997. Arsenic and heavy metal contamination of soil and vegetation around a copper mine in Northern Peru. Science of the Total Environment, 203: 83-91.

Berger, T. W., Untersteiner, H., Toplitzer, M., Neubauer, Ch., 2009. Nutrient fluxes in pure and mixed stands of spruce (Picea abies) and beech (Fagus sylvatica). Plant and Soil, 322: 317-342.

Bieńkowski, P., Titlyanova, A.A., Shibareva, S.V., 2006. Chemical properties of litter of forest and grassland ecosystems: transect studies in Siberia (Russia). Polish Journal of Ecology, 54: 91-104.

Bublinec, E., 1994. Koncentrácia, akumulácia a kolobeh prvkov v bukovom a smrekovom ekosystéme [Concentration, accumulation and cycling of elements in beech and spruce ecosystems]. Acta Dendrobiologica. Bratislava: Veda. 132 p.

Carnol, M., Bazgir, M., 2013. Nutrient return to the forest floor through litter and througufall under 7 forest species after conversion from Norway spruce. Forest Ecology and Management, 309: 66 - 75.

Ditmarová, Ľ., KmeŤ, J., 2002. Physiological and biochemical aspects of stress impact on beech saplings growing under varying site conditions. Biologia, Bratislava, 57: 533-540.

Dubová, M., Bublinec E., 2006. Evaluation of sulphur and nitrate-nitrogen deposition to forest ecosystems. Ekológia (Bratislava), 25: 366-376.

Geisler, R., Hogberg, M., Hogberg, P., 1998. Soil chemistry and plants in Fennoscandian boreal forest as exemplified by a local gradient. Ecology, 79: 119-137.

González-Arias, A., Amezaga, I., Echeandia, A., Domingo, M., Onaindia, M., 1998. Effects of pollution on the nutrient return vialitterfall for Pinus radiata plantations in the Basque Country. Plant Ecology, 139: 247-258.

IUSS Working Group WRB. World reference base for soil resources 2014, update 2015. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Resources Reports, No. 106. Rome: FAO. 193 p.

Izakovičová, Z., Miklós, L., Pauditšová, E., 1998. Ecological problems resulting from the conflict of interest in Žiarska kotlina region. Životné Prostredie, 32 (6): 318-324.

Jamnická, G., Bučinová, K., Havranová, I., Urban, A., 2007. Current state of mineral nutrition and risk elements in a beech ecosystem situated near the aluminium smelter in Žiar nad Hronom, Central Slovakia. Forest Ecology and Management, 248 (1-2): 26-35.

Kavvadias, V.A., Alifragis, D., Tsiontsis, A., Brosfas, G., Stamatelos, G., 2001. Litterfall, litter accumulation and litter decomposition rates in four forest ecosystems in northern Greece. Forest Ecology and Management, 144 (1): 113-127.

Kobza, J., Gašová, K., 2014. Soil monitoring system as a basic tool for protection of soils and sustainable land use in Slovakia. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 4: 504-513.

Kuklová, M., Hniličková, H., Kukla, J., Hnilička, F., 2015. Environmental impact of the Al smelter on physiology and macronutrient contents in plants and Cambisols. Plant, Soil and Environment, 61: 72 - 78.

Langenbruch, Ch., Helfrich, M., Flessa, H., 2012. Effects of beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and lime (Tilia spec.) on soil chemical properties in a mixed deciduous forest. Plant and Soil, 352 (1): 389 - 403.

Liao, J.H., Wang, H.H., Tsai, Ch.Ch., Hseu, Z.Y., 2006. Litter production, decomposition and nutrient return of uplifted coral reef tropical forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 235 (1-3): 174-185.

Markert, B., 1995. Instrumental multielement analysis in plant materials. A modern method in environmental chemistry and tropical system research. Série Tecnologia Ambiental, 8. Rio de Janeiro: CETEM. 33 p.

Miklós, L. et al. (eds.), 2002. Atlas krajiny Slovenskej republiky [Landscape atlas of the Slovak Republic]. Bratislava: Ministerstvo životného prostredia SR. 343 p.

Neirynck, J., Mirtcheva, S., Sioen, G., Lust, N., 2000. Impact of Tilia platyphyllos Scop., Fraxinus excelsior L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Quercus robur L., and Fagus sylvatica L. on earthworm biomass and physico-chemical properties of loamy topsoil. Forest Ecology and Management, 133 (3): 275-286.

Novák, J., Dušek, D., Slodičák, M., 2014. Quantity and quality of litterfall in young oak stands. Journal of Forest Science, 60: 219-225.

Novák, M., Emmanuel, S., Vile, M.A., Erel, Y., Veron, A., Paces, T., Wieder, R.K., Vanecek, M., Stepanova, M., Brizova, E., Hovorka, J., 2003. Origin of lead in eight Central European peat bogs determined from isotope ratios, strengths, and operation times of regional pollution sources. Environmental Science and Technology, 37: 437-445.

Pelíšek, J., 1964. Lesnické půdoznalectví [Pedology basics]. Praha: SZN. 568 p.

Porter, E.K., Peterson, P.J., 1975. Arsenic accumulation by plants on mine waste (United Kingdom). Science of the Total Environment, 4 (4): 365-371.

Shotyk, W., Weiss, D., Appleby, P.G., Cheburkin, A.K., Frei, R., Gloor, M., Kramers, J.D., Reese, S., Van Der Knaap, W.O., 1998. History of atmospheric lead deposition since 12,370 14C yr BP from a Peat Bog, Jura Mountains. Switzerland. Science, 281: 1635-1640.

Slovalco, 2014. Statistics, the quantities of pollutants in emissions in 1997-2014 [cit. 2016-06-13]. https://www.slovalco.sk/web/homepage_ns.nsf/mainFrameset?OpenFramese

Societas pedologica slovaca, 2014. Morfogenetický klasifikačný systém pôd Slovenska. Bazálna referenčná taxonómia [Morphogenetic soil classification system of Slovakia. Basal reference taxonomy]. Bratislava: NPPC - VÚPOP. 96 p.

Staelens, J., Nachtergale, L., Schrijver, A., Vanhellemont, M., Wuyts, K., Veheyen, K., 2011. Spatio-temporal litterfall dynamics in a 60-year-old mixed deciduous forest. Annals of Forest Science, 68: 89-98.

Swank, W., 1986. Biological control of solute losses from forest ecosystems. In Trudgill, S. T. (ed.). Solute processes. London: John Wiley and Sons, p. 85-139.

Šimková, I., 2014. Vplyv porastotvornej dreviny na vlastnosti lesných pôd a diverzitu fytocenóz [Influence of edificator tree species on the properties of forest soils and diversity of phytocoenoses]. PhD thesis. Zvolen: Technical University in Zvolen, Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 121 p.

Šimková, I., Kuklová, M., Kukla, J., 2014. Accumulation of Ct and Nt in humus and mineral soil layers: the effect of change of tree species composition in nudal beech forests. Folia Oecologica, 41: 82-91.

Tang, R., Wang, H., Luo, J., Gong, Y., She, J., Chen, Y., Dandan, Y., Zhan, J., 2015. Spatial distribution and temporal trends of mercury and arsenic in remote timberline coniferous forests, eastern of the Tibet Platau, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 22: 11658-11668.

Temple, P.J., Linzon, S.N., Chai, B.L., 1977. Contamination of vegetation and soil by arsenic emissions from secondary lead smelters. Environmental Pollution, 12 (4): 311-320.

Vitousek, P. M., Sanford, R. L., 1986. Nutrient cycling in moist tropical forest. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 17: 137-167.

Wannaz, E.D., Rodriguez, J.H., Wolfsberger, T., Carreras, H.A., Pignata, M.L., Fangmeier, A., Franzaring, J., 2012. Accumulation of aluminium and physiological status of tree foliage in the vicinity of large aluminium smelter. The Scientific World Journal, vol. 112, Article ID 865927: 7 pages.

Wulf, M., Naaf, T., 2009. Herb layer response to broadleaf tree species with different leaf litter quality and canopy structure in temperate forests. Journal of Vegetation Science, 20: 517-526.

Xiaogai, G., Lixiong, Z., Wenfa, X., Zhilin, H., Xiansheng, G., Benwang, T., 2013. Effect of litter substrate quality and soil nutrients on forest litter decomposition: a review. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 33: 102-108.

Zlatník, A., 1976. The survey of groups of types of geobiocoenoses primarily forest and shrubby in the C.S.S.R. News of Geographic Institute Brno, 13: 55-64.

Journal Information

CiteScore 2017: 0.21

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.162
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.211

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 89 89 11
PDF Downloads 32 32 5