In this review, we present genetically modified (GM) horticultural events that have passed the regulatory process and have been approved for cultivation or food use in different countries. The first authorization or deregulation of a GM horticultural plant issued 25 years ago initiated a fast expansion of GM organisms (GMO) engineered by using gene transfer technology. The list of GM horticultural species comprises representatives of vegetables, fruit plants and ornamentals. We describe their unique characteristics, often not achievable by conventional breeding, and how they were developed, and the approval process. Information on the adoption of GM horticultural cultivars and sale is accessed if commercialization has occurred. The review comprises, among others, Flavr SavrTM and other tomato cultivars with delayed ripening and improved shelf-life, insect-resistant eggplant (or brinjal), as well as virus-resistant squash, melon and the common bean, and also fruit trees, plum and papaya. Cultivation of the latter was particularly valuable to farmers in Hawaii as it ensured restoration of papaya production devastated earlier by the Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). In contrast, a plum resistant to sharka (Plum pox virus; PPV) deregulated in the USA is still awaiting commercialization. GM events with improved quality include the recently marketed non-browning apple and high-lycopene pineapple. We also present orange petunia, blue ‘Applause’ rose and Moon-series carnations with a modified purple and violet flower colour. Finally, we discuss prospects of GM horticultural plants, including their development using promising new breeding technologies relying on genome editing and considered as an alternative to the transgenic approach.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
ABCA 2012. GM carnations in Australia: a resource guide. http://www.abca.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/ABCA_Resource_Guide_2_v2.pdf. Accessed 18 January 2018.
ACBIO 2013. GM industry called to account: ISAAA’s report mischievous and erroneous. African Centre for Biosafety. https://acbio.org.za/gm-industry-called-to-account-isaaas-report-mischievous-and-erroneous. Accessed 1 October 2017.
AFCD 2015. Review of the exemption of genetically modified papayas in Hong Kong. Discussion Paper GMO 04/2015. Agriculture Fisheries and Conservation Department Hong Kong. https://www.afcd.gov.hk/english/conservation/con_gmo/gmo_exp/files/Discussion_Paper_GMO_04_2015.pdf.pdf. Accessed 30 September 2017.
AFCD 2017. Report on the Survey of Genetically Modified Organisms in Hong Kong. Discussion Paper GMO 02/2017. Agriculture Fisheries and Conservation Department Hong Kong. https://www.afcd.gov.hk/english/conservation/con_gmo/gmo_exp/files/Discussion_Paper_GMO_04_2015.pdf.pdf. Accessed 23 March 2018.
Alonso-Prados J.L. Fraile A. Garcia-Arenal F. 1997. Impact of Cucumber mosaic virus and Watermelon mosaic virus-2 infection on melon production in central Spain. J. Plant Pathol. 79(2) 131-134.
AP 2016. Hawaii counties can’t regulate GMOs and pesticides according to new ruling. The Associated Press November. 19 2016. http://fortune.com/2016/11/19/hawaii-gmo-pesticide-regulation. Accessed 1 October 2017.
APHIS 1992a. Petition for determination: Flavr Savr™ Tomato as non-regulated under CFR340 1992. USDA APHIS. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs/92_19601p.pdf. Accessed 1 March 2018.
APHIS 1992b. Response to Calgene petition for determination of regulatory status. USDA A PH IS. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs2/92_19601p_com.pdf. Accessed 1 March 2018.
APHIS 1992c. Petition for determination regulatory status of Cucurbita pepo L. cultivar YC77E ZW-20. USDA APHIS Petition No. 92-204-01p. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs/92_20401p.pdf. Accessed 17 March 2018.
APHIS 1994a. Petition for release from regulation for modified lines B Da F derived from T7 varieties of processing tomato. USDA APHIS. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs/94_29001p.pdf. Accessed 1 March 2018.
APHIS 1994b. Addition of one genetically engineered tomato line to determination of non-regulated status for Calgene Inc. USDA APHIS. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs2/94_22701p_com.pdf. Accessed 1 March 2018.
APHIS 1994c. Determination of nonregulated status for additional Calgene Inc. genetically engineered FLAVR SAVR™ tomato lines. USDA APHIS Docket No. 94-125-1. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs2/94_23001p_com.pdf. Accessed 1 March 2018.
APHIS 1994d. Petition for determination of nonregulated status: delayed-ripening tomato line 1345-4. USDA APHIS. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs/94_22801p.pdf. Accessed 5 March 2018.
APHIS 1995a. Petition for determination of nonregulated status for additional Calgene Inc. genetically engineered FLAVR SAVR™ tomato lines. USDA APHIS. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs2/95_03001p_com.pdf. Accessed 1 March 2018.
APHIS 1995b. Addition of two genetically engineered tomato lines to determination of nonregulated status for Calgene Inc. USDA APHIS Docket No. 95-068-1. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs2/95_17901p_com.pdf. Accessed 1 March 2018.
APHIS 1995c. Availability of determination of nonregulated status for genetically engineered tomato lines. USDA APHIS Docket No. 95-016-2. Federal Register 60(121) 32650. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs2/94_29001p_com.pdf. Accessed 1 March 2018.
APHIS 1995d. Petition for determination of nonregulated status: cherry tomatoes with S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase gene. USDA APHIS. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs/95_32401p.pdf. Accessed 5 March 2018.
APHIS 1995e. Petition for determination of nonregulated status: tomatoes with delayed ripening gene. USDA APHIS. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs/95_05301p.pdf 8338. Accessed 5 March 2018.
APHIS 1995f. Availability of determination of nonregulated status for genetically engineered tomato line of Monsanto company. USDA APHIS Docket No. 95-042-1. Federal Register 60(195) 52642. https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-1995-10-10/pdf/FR-1995-10-10.pdf. Accessed 6 March 2018.
APHIS 1995g. Response to DNA Plant Technology Corporation petition for determination of nonregulated status for tomato line 1345-4. USDA APHIS. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs2/94_22801p_com.pdf. Accessed 6 March 2018.
APHIS 1995h. Petition for determination of nonregulated status: squash containing the coat protein genes from Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) Watermelon Mosaic Virus 2 (WMV 2) and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV). USDA APHIS Petition No. 95-352-01p. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs/95_35201p.pdf. Accessed 17 March 2018.
APHIS 1995i. Availability of determination of nonregulated status for virus resistant squash. USDA APHIS Docket No. 92-127-4. Federal Register 59(238) 64187. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs2/92_20401p_com.pdf. Accessed 17 March 2018.
APHIS 1996a. Calgene Inc. Addition of one genetically engineered tomato line to determination of nonregulated status. USDA APHIS Docket No. 96-080-1. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs2/96_24801p_com.pdf. Accessed 1 March 2018.
APHIS 1996b. Agritope Inc. Availability of determination of nonregulated status for cherry tomato line genetically engineered for modified fruit ripening. USDA APHIS Docket No. 95-097-2. Federal Register 61(70) 15919. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs2/95_32401p_com.pdf. Accessed 5 March 2018.
APHIS 1996c. Asgrow Seed Co. Availability of determination of nonregulated status for squash line genetically engineered for virus resistance. USDA APHIS Docket No. 96-002-2. Federal Register 61(125) 33484. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs2/95_35201p_com.pdf. Accessed 17 March 2018.
APHIS 1996d. Petition for determination of regulatory status: transgenic papaya lines 55-1 and 63-1 and their derivatives. USDA APHIS Docket No. 96-024-1 Petition No. 96-051-01p. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs/96_05101p.pdf. Accessed 26 March 2018.
APHIS 1996e. Corenell University and University of Hawaii; Availability of determination of nonregulated status for papaya lines genetically engineered for virus resistance. USDA APHIS Docket No. 96-024-2. Federal Register 61(180) 48663. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs2/96_05101p_com.pdf. Accessed 30 September 2017.
APHIS 1997a. Petition for determination of non-regulated status for insect resistant tomato line 5345. USDA APHIS. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs/97_28701p.pdf. Accessed 7 April 2018.
APHIS 1997b. Monsanto Co. Availability of determination of nonregulated status for tomato genetically engineered for insect resistance. USDA APHIS Docket No. 97-114-2. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs2/97_28701p_com.pdf. Accessed 7 April 2018.
APHIS 1997c. Petition for determination of nonregulated status for radicchio rosso lines with male sterility (SEED LINK™). USDA APHIS. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs/97_14801p.pdf. Accessed 8 March 2018.
APHIS 1997d. Bejo Zaden BV. Availability of determination of nonregulated status for genetically engineered radicchio rosso. USDA APHIS Docket No. 97-067-2. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs2/97_14801p_com.pdf. Accessed 8 March 2018.
APHIS 1999. Agritope Inc. Availability of environmental assessment for determination of nonregulated status. USDA APHIS Docket No. 99-003-2. Federal Register 64(206) 57625. http://en.biosafetyscanner.org/pdf/eventi/148_59700d5e6efd9b2f8c06fa4f63568f8f.pdf. Accessed 10 March 2018.
APHIS 2007a. Approval of USDA-ARS request (04-264-01P) seeking a determination of non-regulated status for C5 plum resistant to Plum Pox Virus. Finding of no significant impact and decision notice. USDA APHIS Combined documents. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs2/04_26401p_com.pdf. Accessed 27 March 2018.
APHIS 2007b. University of Florida. Determination of nonregulated status for plum genetically engineered for resistance to Plum pox virus. USDA APHIS Docket No. APHIS-2008-0054. Federal Register 72(134) 38556. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/fedregister/BRS_20090901.pdf. Accessed 27 March 2018.
APHIS 2008. Petition for nonregulated status for the X17-2 line of papaya: a Papaya ringspot virus – resistant papaya. USDA APHIS. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs/04_33701p.pdf. Accessed 30 September 2017.
APHIS 2009a. Finding of no significant impact. Petition for nonregulated status for University of Florida X17-2 papaya. USDA APHIS. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs2/04_33701p_com.pdf. Accessed 30 September 2017.
APHIS 2009b. University of Florida. Determination of nonregulated status for papaya genetically engineered for resistance to the Papaya ringspot virus. USDA APHIS Docket No. APHIS-2008-0054. Federal Register 74(168) 45163. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/fedregister/BRS_20090901.pdf. Accessed 30 September 2017.
APHIS 2011a. Determination of nonregulated status for altered color roses. USDA APHIS Docket No. APHIS–2010–0040. Federal Register 76(189) 60447. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/fedregister/BRS_20110929a.pdf. Accessed 18 January 2018.
APHIS 2011b. Petition (08-315-01p) for a determination of nonregulated status for Rosa x hybrida varieties IFD-524Ø1-4 and IFD-529Ø1-9 - ADDENDUM 1. USDA APHIS. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs/08_31501p.pdf. Accessed 18 January 2018.
APHIS 2012. Petition for determination of nonregulated status: ArcticTM apple (Malus x domestica) events GD743 and GS784. USDA APHIS Docket No. APHIS-2012-0025 petition No. 10-161-01p. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs/10_16101p.pdf. Accessed 24 September 2017.
APHIS 2014. Determination of nonregulated status for Okanagan Specialty Fruits’ GD743 and GS784 apples. USDA APHIS Docket No. APHIS-2012-0025. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs/10_16101p_det.pdf. Accessed 24 September 2017.
APHIS 2015. Okanagan Specialty Fruits Inc; Determination of nonregulated status of apples genetically engineered to resist browning. USDA APHIS Docket No. APHIS-2012-0025. Federal Register 80(32) 8589. https://www.regulations.gov/document?D=APHIS-2012-0025-6945. Accessed 24 September 2017.
APHIS 2016a. National environmental policy act decision and finding of no significant impact: Request for extension of determination of non-regulated status for non-browning Arctic® Fuji apple (16-004-01p). USDA APHIS Docket No. APHIS-2016-0043. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs/16_00401p_fonsi.pdf. Accessed 24 September 2017.
APHIS 2016b. Response letter to the request for confirmation that transgene-free CRISPR-edited mushroom is not a regulated article. USDA APHIS. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/downloads/reg_loi/15-321-01_air_response_signed.pdf. Accessed 4 April 2018.
APHIS 2017a. BRS list of varieties requiring import authorization. Updated 3 October 2017. USDA APHIS. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/downloads/petunia_varieties.pdf. Accessed 20 April 2018.
APHIS 2017b. Proposed rule. Importation interstate movement and environmental release of certain genetically engineered organisms. USDA APHIS Docket No. APHIS–2015–0057. Federal Register 2017. 82(214) 7008. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/fedregister/BRS_20171107.pdf. Accessed 4 April 2018.
APHIS 2017c. Proposed rule; withdrawal. Importation interstate movement and environmental release of certain genetically engineered organisms. USDA APHIS Docket No. APHIS–2015–0057. Federal Register 2017. 82(12)51582. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/fedregister/BRS_20170119.pdf. Accessed 26 March 2018.
Aragao F.J.L. Faria J.C. 2009. First transgenic geminivirus-resistant plant in the field. Nat. Biotechnol. 27(12) 1086-1088.
Aragao F.J.L. Nogueira E.O.P.L. Tinoco M.L.P. Faria J.C. 2013. Molecular characterization of the first commercial transgenic common bean immune to the Bean golden mosaic virus. J. Biotechnol. 166(1-2) 42-50.
Armstrong J. Lane W.D. 2011. Genetically modified reduced-browning fruit-producing plant and produced fruit thereof and method of obtaining such. US patent 8563805 application by Okanagan Specialty Fruits Inc. filled 26.02.2009 published 6.01.2011. https://www.lens.org/lens/patent/US_8563805_B2. Accessed 19 June 2018.
Bakum J. 2015. Director of General of BARI remarks about BT brinjal. https://bteggplant.cornell.edu/content/blog/blog-tags/1. Accessed 8 April 2018.
Bashandy H. Teeri T. H. 2017. Genetically engineered orange petunias on the market. Planta 246(2) 277-280.
Basso M.F. Lima J.A.A. Deguchi M. Galdeano D.M. Fernandes P.M.B. 2016. Papaya viral diseases: recent advances and perspectives. In: Urbano K.V. (ed.) Advances in Genetics Research 16 135-150.
BCH 2014d. Notification of a transboundary movement of an LMO carried out in contravention of domestic measures to implement the Protocol (Article 25.3). Biosafety Clearing-House Japan country communication. http://bch.cbd.int/database/attachment/?id=14684. Accessed 30 September 2017.
BCH 2018a. Convention on Biological Diversity. Country's decision or any other communication. Biosafety Cleaning-House. http://bch.cbd.int/database/record.shtml?documentid=111644. Accessed 17 May 2017.
BCH 2018b. Convention on Biological Diversity. Risk assessment. Biosafety Cleaning-House. http://bch.cbd.int/database/record.shtml?documentid=111643. Accessed 17 May 2017.
Bedbrook J.R. Howie W.J. Dunsmuir P. Lee K.Y. Joe L.K. 1997. Delayed ripening tomato plants. International Patent WO/1997/001952 application by DNA Plant Technology Corp. filled 28.06.1996 published 23.01.1997. https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO1997001952. Accessed 19 June 2018.
Biology discussion 2016. Bt-brinjal: Production and its development; India. http://www.biologydiscussion.com/vegetable-breeding/bt-brinjal-production-andits-development-india/68749. Accessed 4 March 2018.
BiosafetyScanner 2018. Scheda evento 8805R e metodi di analisi. Fondazione Diritti Genetici. http://www.biosafetyscanner.org/schedaevento.php?radioeventi=radiobutton&evento=242&evento1=#tabs-1a. Accessed 2 June 2018.
Bommineni V.R. Mathews H. Clendennen S.K. Wagoner W. Dewey V. Kellogg J. et al. 2000. Genetic engineering of fruits and vegetables with the ethylene control gene encoding S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase (SAMase) In: Plant Genetic Engineering: Towards the Third Millennium. A.D. Arenciba (ed.) Elsevier Science BV 206-214.
Bonfim K. Faria J.C. Nogueira E.O.P.L. Mendes E.A. Aragao F.J.L. 2007. RNAi-mediated resistance to Bean golden mosaic virus in genetically engineered common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 20(6) 717-726.
Brady C. MacAlpine G. McGlasson W.B. Ueda Y. 1982. Polygalacturonase in tomato fruit and the induction of ripening. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 9 171-178.
Bruening G Lyons J. 2000. The case of the FLAVR SAVR tomato. California Agriculture 54(4) 6-7.
Brugliera F. Ta G.Q. Tems U. Kalc G. Mouradova E. Price K. et al. 2013. Violet/blue chrysanthemums – metabolic engineering of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway results in novel petal colors. Plant Cell Physiol. 54(10) 1696-1710.
Cambra M. Capote N. Myrta A. Lla´cer G. 2006. Plum pox virus and the estimated costs associated with sharka disease. OEPP/EPPO Bull. 36(2) 202-204. 42
Carillo C.A. 2017. GM eggplant completes latest field trials. http://bworldonline.com/gm-eggplant-completes-latest-field-trials/. Accessed 8 April 2018.
CERA 1998. UK Competent Authority: Initial assessment report. Application number 98/UK/1. Report on the safety assessment of processed products from Zeneca’s genetically modified (GM) tomatoes derived from line TGT7F. http://cera-gmc.org/docs/decdocs/tgt7f_acnfp.pdf. Accessed 7 April 2018.
CFIA 2015. Decision document DD2015-110: Determination of the Safety of Okanagan Specialty Fruits Inc.'s apple (Malus domestica Borkh) events GD743 and GS784. CFIA. http://inspection.gc.ca/plants/plants-with-novel-traits/approved-under-review/decision-documents/dd2015-110/eng/1498237204300/1498237333410. Accessed 24 September 2017.
Chen Z. Yang R. 1996. Method for cultivating tomato with function of anti virus of mosaic of cucumber by gene engineering. China patent CN 1054160 application by Beijing University filled 4.07.1995 published 7.02.1996. https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=CN82309046&redirectedID=true. Accessed 19 June 2018.
Choudhary B. Gaur K. 2009. The development and regulation of Bt brinjal in India (Eggplant/Aubergine). ISAAA Brief No.38. ISAAA: Ithaca NY.
COFEPRIS 2018. Lista de evaluacion de inocuidad caso por caso de los organismos geneticamente modificados (OGMs). http://www.cofepris.gob.mx/AZ/Paginas/OGMS/Lista.aspx. Accessed 12 March 2018.
COGEM 2007. Advices import of genetically modified carnation ‘Moonaqua’. CGM/070206-02. https://www.cogem.net/showdownload.cfm?objectId=FFFE71E7-1517-64D9-CC1798C061035456&objectType=mark.apps.cogem.contentobjects.publication.download.pdf. Accessed 18 January 2018.
COGEM 2017. Unauthorised GM garden petunia varieties with orange flowers. COGEM advice CGM/170522-04. https://www.cogem.net/showdownload.cfm?objectId=3E808913-D0A9-773D-9CBDA6C4C03308B4&objectType=mark.hive.contentobjects.download.pdf. Accessed 20 April 2018.
CTNBio 2011. Commercial release of genetically modif ied beans. 3024/2011. http://ctnbio.mcti.gov.br/documents/566529/686051/Technical+Opinion+No.+3024-2011+-+Commercial+Release+of+genetically+modified+bean+resistant+to+Bean+Golden+Mosaic+Virus+-Bean+golden+mosaic+virus+-+BGMV-+event+Embrapa+5.1+-+Case+No.+01200.005161-2010-86/30b55a23-ed57-4e13-8232-bd59571252cc;jsessionid=17C34F55F92DF00F2D7CABD3A9D9E7BF.rima?version=1.0. Accessed 18 March 2018.
Dahmani-Mardas F. Troadec C. Boualem A. Lévêque S. Alsadon A.A. Aldoss A.A. Bendahmane A. 2010. Engineering melon plants with improved fruit shelf life using the TILLING approach. PLoS ONE 5(12) e15776.
Dai S. Zheng P. Marmey P. Zhang S. Tian W. Chen S. et al. 2001. Comparative analysis of transgenic rice plants obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and particle bombardment. Mol. Breed. 7(1) 25-33.
Dale J. James A. Paul J.-Y. Khanna H. Smith M. Peraza-Echeverria S. et al. 2017. Transgenic Cavendish bananas with resistance to Fusarium wilt tropical race 4. Nature Commun. 8(1) 1496.
Dellanay X. LaVallee B.J. Proksch R.K. Fuchs R.L. Sims S.R. Greenplate J.T. et al. 1989. Field performance of transgenic tomato plants expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki insect control protein. Nat. Biotechnol. 7 1265-1269.
EC 1996. 96/424/EC: Commission Decision of 20 May 1996 concerning the placing on the market of genetically modified male sterile chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) with partial tolerance to the herbicide glufosinate ammonium pursuant to Council Directive 90/220/EEC. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A31996D0424. Accessed 8 March 2018.
EC 1999. Opinion on a request for consent to place on the market a tomato fruit genetically modified to down-regulate the production of polygalacturonase (PG) and solely intended for processing. SCF/CS.NF/TOM/6 REV 4 final. https://ec.europa.eu/food/sites/food/files/safety/docs/sci-com_scf_out42_en.pdf. Accessed 23 March 2018.
EC 2007. 2007/364/EC Commission decision of 23 May 2007 concerning the placing on the market in accordance with Directive 2001/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of a carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. line 123.2.38) genetically modified for flower colour. Document C(2007)2120. Official Journal of the European Union L 138 50-52. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2007:138:0050:0052:EN:PDF. Accessed 18 December 2017.
EC 2009. 2009/244/EC Commission decision of 16 March 2009 concerning the placing on the market in accordance with Directive 2001/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of a carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. line 123.8.12) genetically modified for flower colour. Document C(2009)1673. Official Journal of the European Union L 72 18-20. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32009D0244&rid=1. Accessed 18 December 2017.
EC 2015a. 2015/692 Commission implementing decision (EU) 2015/692 of 24 April 2015 concerning the placing on the market in accordance with Directive 2001/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of a carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. line 25958) genetically modified for flower colour. Document C(2015)2765. Official Journal of the European Union L 112:44-47. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32015D0692&from=EN. Accessed 18 December 2017.
EC 2015b. 2015/694 Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2015/694 of 24 April 2015 concerning the placing on the market in accordance with Directive 2001/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of a carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. line 26407) genetically modified for flower colour. Document C(2015)2768. Official Journal of the European Union L 112:52-55. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32015D0694&from=EN. Accessed 18 December 2017.
EC 2016. 2016/2050 Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2016/2050 of 22 November 2016 as regards the placing on the market of a genetically modified carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. line SHD-27531-4). Document C(2016)7443. Official Journal of the European Union L 318:13-16. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32016D2050&from=EN. Accessed 18 December 2017.
Elderidge S. 2003 Food biotechnology: Current issues and perspectives. Nova Science USA 11.
Embrapa 2016. Bean cultivar BRS FC 401 RMD resistant to the Golden mosaic virus official statement. https://www.embrapa.br/en/esclarecimentos-oficiais/-/asset_publisher/TMQZKu1jxu5K/content/tema-cultivar-defeijao-resistente-ao-mosaico-dourado-brs-fc401-rmd. Accessed 15 March 2018.
EPA 2010. Coat protein gene of Plum pox virus. Biopesticides registration action document PC Code: 006354. https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/reg_actions/registration/decision_PC-006354_7-May-10.pdf. Accessed 24 September 2017.
EPA 2014. Notice of pesticide registration C5 HoneySweet Plum No. 11312-8. https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/ppls/011312-00008-20140930.pdf. Accessed 24 September 2017.
EPA 2016. Notice of pesticide registration X17-2 Papaya No. 84427-1. https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/ppls/084427-00001-20160112.pdf. Accessed 30 September 2017.
European Court 2018. Advocate General’s Opinion of 18 January 2018 Request for a preliminary ruling from the Council of State France (C-528/16 ECLI:EU:C:2018:20).
Evans E.A. Ballen F.H. Crane J.H. 2015. An overview of US papaya production trade and consumption. University of Florida IFAS Extension FE914. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fe914. Accessed 30 September 2017.
FDA 1992. Statement of policy – Foods derived from new plant varieties. Federal Register 57. Guidance to industry for food derived from new plant varieties. https://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/Biotechnology/ucm096095.htm. Accessed 3 March 2018.
FDA 1994. Agency Response Letter Re: FMF 526 and Docket No. 91A-0330. CFSAN/Office of Premarket Approval. http://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20180124124721/https://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GEPlants/Submissions/ucm225027.htm. Accessed 3 March 2018.
FDA 1995a. Biotechnology Consultation Agency Response Letter BNF No. 000003. http://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031095124/https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031095124. Accessed 15 March 2018
FDA 1995b. Biotechnology Consultation Agency Response Letter BNF No.000002. http://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031095145/https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031095145. Accessed 5 March 2018.
FDA 1995c. Biotechnology Consultation Agency Response Letter BNF No. 000007. http://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031095507/https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031095507. Accessed 6 March 2018.
FDA 1995d. Biotechnology Consultation Agency Response Letter BNF No. 000006. http://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031095519/https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031095519. Accessed 17 March 2018
FDA 1996. Biotechnology Consultation Agency Response Letter BNF No. 000014. http://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031095102/https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031095102. Accessed 15 March 2018.
FDA 1997a. Biotechnology Consultation Agency Response Letter BNF 000043. http://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031093739/https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031093739. Accessed 17 March 2018.
FDA 1997b. Biotechnology Consultation Agency Response Letter BNF No. 000045. http://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031093828/https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031093828. Accessed 8 March 2018.
FDA 1997c. Biotechnology Consultation Note to the File BNF No. 000042. FDA. http://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031094445/https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031094445. Accessed 26 March. Accessed on 26 Mar 2018.
FDA 1998. Biotechnology Consultation Agency Response Letter BNF No. 000054. http://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031093146/https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031093146. Accessed 7 April 2018.
FDA 1999a. Biotechnology Consultation Note to the File BNF No. 000060. http://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031091240/https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031091240. Accessed 8 March 2018.
FDA 1999b. Biotechnology Consultation Agency Response Letter BNF No. 000060. http://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031091310/https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031091310Accessed 8 March 2018.
FDA 2008. Biotechnology Consultation Note to the File BNF No. 000100. FDA. http://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031090057/https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031090057. Accessed 26 March 2018.
FDA 2009. Biotechnology Consultation Agency Response Letter CFSAN/Office of Food Additive Safety. FDA BNF No. 000101. http://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031090404/https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031090404. Accessed 26 March 2018.
FDA 2015. Biotechnology Consultation Note to the File BNF No. 000132. FDA. http://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031091552/https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171031091552. Accessed 26 March. 2018.
FDA 2016. Biotechnology Consultation Agency Response Letter BNF No. 000149. FDA. https://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GEPlants/Submissions/ucm533372.htm. Accessed 24 September 2017.
Ferreira S.A. Pitz K.Y. Manshardt R. Zee F. Fitch M. Gonsalves D. 2002. Virus coat protein transgenic papaya provides practical control of Papaya ringspot virus in Hawaii. Plant Dis. 86(2) 101-105.
FFP 2017. U.S.: Arctic Apple set for commercial launch following successful trials. FreshFruitPortal.com 22 May 2017. https://www.freshfruitportal.com/news/2017/05/22/u-s-arctic-apple-set-commercial-launch-following-successful-trials. Accessed 24 September 2017.
Fichtner F. Castellanos R. Ulker B. 2014. Precision genetic modifications: a new era in molecular biology and crop improvement. Planta 239(4) 921-939.
Firoozbady E. Young Th.R. 2015. Pineapple plant named ‘rosé’. US plant patent PP25763 P3 application by Del Monte Fresh Produce filled 4.06.2012 published 4.08.2015. https://www.lens.org/lens/patent/197-779-624-196-993. Accessed 19 June 2018.
Fitch M.M.M. Manshardt R.M. Gonsalves D. Slightom J.L. Sanford J.C. 1992. Virus resistant papaya derived from tissues bombarded with the coat protein gene of Papaya ringspot virus. BioTechnol. 10 1466-1472.
GAIN 2011. Japan approved GM papaya. GAIN Rep. No. JA1048. https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Japan%20approved%20GM%20papaya_Tokyo_Japan_12-19-2011.pdf. Accessed 30 September 2017.
GAIN 2014. Agricultural Biotechnology Annual. China. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. GAIN Rep. No. 14032. https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Agricultural%20Biotechnology%20Annual_Beijing_China%20-%20Peoples%20Republic%20of_12-31-2014.pdf. Accessed 5 October 2017.
GAIN 2016a. Agricultural Biotechnology Annual. Bangladesh. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. GAIN Rep. No. BG6010. https://gain.fas.usda.gov/RecentGAINPublications/Agricultural Biotechnology Annual_Dhaka_Bangladesh_11-21-2016.pdf. Accessed 23 March 2018.
GAIN 2016b. Agricultural Biotechnology Annual. Colombia remains open to new technologies. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. GAIN Rep. 11/17/2016. https://gain.fas.usda.gov/RecentGAINPublications/Agricultural Biotechnology Annual_Bogota_Colombia_11-17-2016.pdf. Accessed 23 March 2018.
GAIN 2016c. Agricultural Biotechnology Annual. Costa Rica Ministry of agriculture supported biotech moratorium. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. GAIN Rep. 12/20/2016. https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Agricultural%20Biotechnology%20Annual_San%20Jose_Costa%20Rica_12-20-2016.pdf. Accessed 23 March 2018.
GAIN 2016d. Agricultural biotechnology annual: Japan. GAIN Rep. No. JA6050. https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/AGRICULTURAL%20BIOTECHNOLOGY%20ANNUAL_Tokyo_Japan_11-30-2016.pdf. Accessed 30 September 2017.
Gocal G. 2015. Non-transgenic trait development in crop plants using oligo-directed mutagenesis: Cibus’ Rapid Trait Development System. In: NABC Report 26. New DNA-Editing Approaches: Methods Applications and Policy for Agriculture. North American Agricultural Biotechnology Council Ithaca NY 97-105.
Gonnet J-F Fenet B. 2000. ‘Cyclamen red’ color based on a macrocyclic anthocyanin in carnation flowers. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48(1) 22-25.
Gonsalves D. 2004. Transgenic papaya in Hawaii and beyond. AgBioForum 71 36-40.
Gonsalves D. Gonsalves C. Ferreira S. Pitz K. Fitch M. Manshardt R. Slightom J. 2004. Transgenic virus-resistant papaya: from hope to reality in controlling Papaya ringspot virus in Hawaii. APSnet Features. http://www.apsnet.org/publications/apsnetfeatures/Pages/PapayaRingspot.aspx. Accessed 30 September 2017.
Green J.M. 2009. Evolution of glyphosate-resistant crop technology. Weed Sci. 57(1) 108-117.
Griesbach R.J. 1993. Characterization of the flavonoids from Petunia× hybrida flowers expressing the A1 gene of Zea mays. HortScience 28(6) 659-660.
Griesbach R.J. 2007. Petunia. In: Flower Breeding and Genetics. N.O. Anderson (ed.) Springer Dordrecht 301-336.
HC 1995a. Suppressed polygalacturonase activity Flavr Savr™ tomato. Health Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/genetically-modified-foods-other-novel-foods/approved-products/suppressed-polygalacturonase-activity-flavr-savr-tomato.html. Accessed 2 March 2018.
HC 1995b. Delayed ripening tomato line 1345-4. Health Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/genetically-modified-foods-other-novel-foods/approved-products/delayed-ripening-tomato-line-1345-4.html. Accessed 5 March 2018.
HC 1996. Suppressed polygalacturonase activity tomato hybrids 1401F H282F 11013F 7913F. Health Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/genetically-modified-foods-other-novel-foods/approved-products/suppressed-polygalacturonase-activity-tomato-hybrids-1401fh282f-11013f-7913f.html. Accessed 30 March 2018.
HC 1998a. Virus resistant squash line ZW-20. Health Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/genetically-modified-foods-other-novel-foods/approved-products/virus-resistant-squash-line-20.html. Accessed 17 March 2018.
HC 1998b. Virus resistant squash line CZW-3. Health Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/genetically-modified-foods-other-novel-foods/approved-products/virus-resistant-squash-line-czw-3.html. Accessed 17 March 2018.
HC 2000. Insect (lepidopteran species) resistant tomato 5345. Health Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/genetically-modified-foods-other-novel-foods/approved-products/insect-lepidopteran-species-resistant-tomato-line-5345.html. Accessed 7 April 2018.
HC 2003. Novel food information – Food biotechnology. Human food use of virus resistant papaya line 55-1. Health Canada. http://cera-gmc.org/files/cera/GmCropDatabase/docs/decdocs/03-065-001.pdf. Accessed 30 September 2017.
HC 2013. Determination of the safety of Cibus Canada Inc.'s canola (Brassica napus L.) event 5715. DD 2013-100. Health Canada. http://inspection.gc.ca/plants/plants-with-novel-traits/approved-under-review/decision-documents/dd-2013-100/eng/1427383332253/1427383674669. Accessed 5 April 2018.
HC 2015. Novel food information – Arctic apple events GD743 and GS784. Health Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/genetically-modified-foods-other-novel-foods/approved-products/novel-food-information-arctic-apple-events-gd743-gs784.html. Accessed 24 September 2017.
HC 2018. Novel food information – Arctic apple event NF872. Health Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/genetically-modified-foods-other-novel-foods/approved-products/arctic-fuji-apple/information.html. Accessed 5 April 2018.
Hobson G.E. 1965. The firmness of tomato fruit in relation to polygalacturonase activity. J. Hort. Sci. 40 66-72.
Holton T.A. 1996. Transgenic plants exhibiting altered flower color and methods for producing same. International Patent WO/1996/036716 applied by International Flower Developments Pty. Ltd. filled 16.05.1996 published 21.11.1996. https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO1996036716. Accessed 19 June 2018.
IATP 2001. GM food crops and application of substantial equivalence in the European Union. https://www.iatp.org/files/GM_Food_Crops_and_Application_of_Substantial_E.htm. Accessed 7 April 2018.
ICA 2000. Por la cual se autoriza la introducción de plantas de clavel modificado genéticamente. Resolucion No. 1219 (18 MAY 2000). http://bch.cbd.int/database/attachment/?id=14170. Accessed 18 January 2018.
ICA 2008. Por la cual se autoriza la importación del material reproductivo de claveles modificados por las técnicas de ingeniería genética para producción de flor cortada para exportación. Resolucion No. 3932 (20 NOVEMBER 2008). https://www.ica.gov.co/getattachment/978557f9-da42-4f80-85f6-947b27f67a25/2008R3932.aspx. Accessed 18 January 2018.
ICA 2009. Resolución 3786: Por la cual se autoriza adelantar siembra experimental en invernadero de Rosas Modificadas. Genéticamente para el color de la flor mediante el Vector binario pSPB130 para produccion de flor cortada para exportacion. https://www.ica.gov.co/getattachment/37101b43-3129-4008-b448-2bda8e762027/3857.aspx. Accessed 18 January 2018.
ICA 2012. Resolución 3570: Por la cual se autoriza la importación del material reproductivo de Crisantemo de flor azul modificados con los vectores de Transformación pCGP3618 pCGP3633 y pCGP3641 para producción de flor cortada para exportación. https://www.ica.gov.co/getattachment/37101b43-3129-4008-b448-2bda8e762027/3857.aspx. Accessed 18 January 2018.
ILSI 2011. A review of the environmental safety of the Cry1Ac protein. International Life Sciences Institute Research Foundation. Environ. Biosafety Res. 10 27-49.
ISAAA 2009. Pocket K No. 35: Bt brinjal in India. http://isaaa.org/resources/publications/pocketk/35/default.asp. Accessed 4 March 2018.
ISAAA 2016a. Global status of commercialized biotech/GM crops: 2016. ISAAA Brief 52 ISAAA Ithaca New York USA.
ISAAA 2016b. Pocket K. No. 48: Bt eggplant. http://www.isaaa.org/resources/publications/pocketk/48/default.asp. Accessed 4 March 2018.
ISAAA 2017. ISAAA donor support group. http://www.isaaa.org/inbrief/donors/default.asp. Accessed 4 October 2017.
James C. 2014. Global status of commercialized biotech/GM crops: 2014. ISAAA Brief 49 ISAAA Ithaca New York USA.
JCH 2004a. Purple-violet carnation 123.8.8 (F3'5'H DFR Dianthus caryophyllus L.) (OECD UI: FLO-40685-1). Japan Clearing House. http://www.biodic.go.jp/bch/download/en_lmo/FLO40685enRi.pdf. Accessed 18 December 2017.
JCH 2004b. Purple-violet carnation 123.2.38 (F3'5'H DFR Dianthus caryophyllus L.) (OECD UI: FLO-40644-4) Japan Clearing House. http://www.biodic.go.jp/bch/download/en_lmo/FLO40644enRi.pdf. Accessed 18 December 2017.
JCH 2004c. Purple-violet carnation 11363 (F3'5'H DFR Dianthus caryophyllus L.) (OECD UI: FLO-11363-1). Japan Clearing House. http://www.biodic.go.jp/bch/download/en_lmo/FLO11363enRi.pdf. Accessed 18 December 2017.
JCH 2004d. Purple-violet carnation 11 (F3'5'H DFR Dianthus caryophyllus L.) (OECD UI: FLO-07442-4). Japan Clearing House. http://www.biodic.go.jp/bch/download/en_lmo/FLO07442enRi.pdf. Accessed 18 December 2017.
JCH 2008a. Rose Variety with modified flavonoid biosynthesis pathway (F3'5'H 5AT Rosa hybrida) (WKS82/130-4-1 ECD UI: IFD-52401-4). Japan Clearing House. http://www.biodic.go.jp/bch/download/en_lmo/130_4_1_2008enRi.pdf. Accessed 18 December 2017.
JCH 2008b. Rose Variety with modified flavonoid biosynthesis pathway (F3'5'H 5AT Rosa hybrida) (WKS82/130-9-1 OECD UI: IFD-52901-9). Japan Clearing House. http://www.biodic.go.jp/bch/download/en_lmo/130_9_1_2008enRi.pdf. Accessed 18 December 2017.
JCH 2009. Purple-violet carnation (F3′5′H DFR sur B Dianthus caryophyllus L.) (123.8.12 OECD UI: FLO-40689-6). Japan Clearing House. http://www.biodic.go.jp/bch/download/en_lmo/FLO40689enRi.pdf. Accessed 18 December 2017.
JRC EU 2007. Report on the testing of a PCR-based detection method for identification of Florigene™ Moonlite GM carnation. Protocol Version 2. http://gmoinfo.jrc.ec.europa.eu/docs/C-NL-04-02%20CRL%20method.pdf. Accessed on 24 April 2018.
Kato K. Yoshida R. Kikuzaki A. Hirai T. Kuroda H. Hiwasa-Tanase K. et al. 2010. Molecular breeding of tomato lines for mass production of miraculin in a plant factory. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58 9505-9510.
Katsumoto Y. Fukuchi-Mizutani M. Fukui Y. Brugliera F. Holton T.A. Karan M. et al. 2007. Engineering of the rose flavonoid biosynthetic pathway successfully generated blue-hued flowers accumulating delphinidin. Plant Cell Physiol. 48(11) 1589-1600.
Keeler S.J. Sanders P. Smith J.K. Mazur B.J. 1993. Regulation of tobacco acetolactate synthase gene expression. Plant Physiol. 102(3) 1009-1018.
Kitagawa M. Nakamura K. Kondo K. Ubukata S. Akiyama H. 2014. Examination of processed vegetable foods for the presence of common DNA sequences of genetically modified tomatoes. J. Food Hyg. Saf. Sci. 55(5) 247-253.
Kyodo 2011. Suntory to sell blue roses overseas. The Japan Times 16 September 2011. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2011/09/16/news/suntory-to-sell-blue-roses-overseas. Accessed 22 April 2018.
Lisa V. Lecoq H. 1984. Zucchini yellow mosaic virus. CMI/AAB Descriptions of plant viruses no. 282.
Lu C. Chandler S.F. Mason J.G. Brugliera F. 2003. Florigene flowers: from laboratory to market. In: Plant Biotechnology 2002 and Beyond. I.K. Vasil (ed.) Springer Dordrecht 333-336.
Luis-Arteaga M. Alvarez J.M. Alonso-Prados J.L. Bernal J.J. García-Arenal F. Lavina A. et al. 1998. Occurrence distribution and relative incidence of mosaic viruses infecting field-grown melon in Spain. Plant Dis. 82 979-982.
Mallah N. Obeid M. Sleymane G.A. 2017. Comprehensive matrices for regulatory approvals and genetic characterization of genetically modified organisms. Food Control 80 52-58.
Meyer P. Heidmann I. 1994. Epigenetic variants of a transgenic petunia line show hypermethylation in transgene DNA: an indication for specific recognition of foreign DNA in transgenic plants. Mol. Gen. Genet. 243(4) 390-399.
Meyer P. Heidmann I. Forkmann G. Saedler H. 1987. A new petunia flower colour generated by transformation of a mutant with a maize gene. Nature 330(6149) 677-678.
Meyer P. Heidmann I. Saedler H. Forkmann G. 1995. Plants with modified flower color and methods for their production by genetic engineering. US patent 5410096 application by the inventors filled 28.08.1990 published 25.04.1995. https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=US38462462. Accessed 19 June 2018.
MOEF 2010. Decision on commercialisation of Btbrinjal. http://www.moef.nic.in/downloads/public-information/minister_REPORT.pdf. Accessed 28 March 2018.
Nakamura N. 2010. Dream comes true: development of a blue rose‘Applause’ and its fragrance. J. Jpn. Assoc. Odor. Environ. 41(3) 150-156.
Nakamura N. Fukuchi-Mizutani M. Katsumoto Y. Togami J. Senior M. Matsuda Y. et al. 2011. Environmental risk assessment and field performance of rose (Rosa×hybrida) genetically modified for delphinidin production. Plant Biotechnol. 28(2) 251-261.
Nakayama T. Suzuki H. Nishino T. 2003. Anthocyanin acyltransferases: specificities mechanism phylogenetics and applications. J. Mol. Catalysis B: Enzymatic 23(2-6) 117-132.
Nap J.P. Metz P.L. Escaler M. Conner A.J. 2003. The release of genetically modified crops into the environment. Part I. Overview of current status and regulations. Plant J. 33(1) 1-18.
NBB 2012. Application for approval for commercial import of cut flowers of novel flower colour varieties of genetically modified carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The National Biosafety Board REF. NO: JBK(S) 602-1/1/8. http://www.biosafety.nre.gov.my/country_decision/product_lmo/jbk(s)%20602-1-1-8/Decision%20Statement%20of%20GM%20Carnation.pdf. Accessed 18 January 2018.
Noda N. Aida R. Kishimoto S. Ishiguro K. Fukuchi-Mizutani M. Tanaka Y. Ohmiya A. 2013. Genetic engineering of novel bluer-colored chrysanthemums produced by accumulation of delphinidin-based anthocyanins. Plant Cell Physiol. 54(10) 1684-1695.
Noda N. Tanaka Y. 2013. Violet-blue chrysanthemums. Oxford University Press’s Blog 21 November 2013. https://blog.oup.com/2013/11/violet-blue-chrysanthemum-genetic-modification. Accessed 21 January 2018.
Noda N. Yoshioka S. Kishimoto S. Nakayama M. Douzono M. Tanaka Y. Aida R. 2017. Generation of blue chrysanthemums by anthocyanin B-ring hydroxylation and glucosylation and its coloration mechanism. Sci. Adv. 3(7) e1602785.
OECD 2002.Guidance for the designation of a unique identifier for transgenic plants. OECD. http://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/displaydocument/?doclanguage=en&cote=env/jm/mono(2002)7. Accessed 3 October 2017.
OGTR 2003a. Commercial release of colour modified carnation – replacement of deemed licence GR- 2. Licence No.: DIR 030/2002. http://ogtr.gov.au/internet/ogtr/publishing.nsf/Content/dir030-3/$FILE/dir030lic.pdf Accessed on 18 January 2018.
OGTR 2003b. Risk assessment and risk management plan. Commercial release of colour modified carnation – replacement of deemed licence GR-2. DIR 030/2002. http://content.webarchive.nla.gov.au/gov/wayback/20130904044522/http://www.ogtr.gov.au/internet/ogtr/publishing.nsf/Content/dir030-3/$FILE/dir030finalrarmp.pdf. Accessed 22 April 2018.
OGTR 2007. Notification that dealings with genetically modified carnation lines have been included on the GMO register. http://www.ogtr.gov.au/internet/ogtr/publishing.nsf/Content/reg001det1-htm. Accessed 22 April 2018.
OGTR 2009. Licence for dealings involving an intentional release of a GMO into the environment: Commercial release of rose genetically modified for altered flower colour. Licence No. DIR 090. http://ogtr.gov.au/internet/ogtr/publishing.nsf/Content/dir090-3/$FILE/dir090lic.pdf. Accessed 18 January 2018.
OGTR 2015a. Commercial import and distribution of GM carnation cut-flowers with altered flower colour. Licence No.: DIR 134. http://www.ogtr.gov.au/internet/ogtr/publishing.nsf/Content/dir134/$FILE/Licence%20conditions.pdf. Accessed 18 January 2018.
OGTR 2015b. Risk assessment and risk management plan for DIR 134. Commercial import and distribution of GM carnation cut-flowers with altered flower colour. http://www.ogtr.gov.au/internet/ogtr/publishing.nsf/Content/dir134/$FILE/Full%20Risk%20Assessment%20and%20Risk%20Management%20Plan.pdf. Accessed 18 January 2018.
OGTR 2017. Licence for dealings involving an intentional release of a GMO into the environment. Licence No.: DIR 109. http://www.ogtr.gov.au/internet/ogtr/publishing.nsf/Content/76F9A6576471A5D0CA257CD1000D2AB3/$File/Licence%20Conditions.pdf. Accessed 9 April 2018.
PFSEH 2017. Labelling system for genetically modified food and proposed introduction of pre-market safety assessment scheme. Hong Kong Legislative Council paper No. CB(2)1809/16-17(01). https://www.legco.gov.hk/yr16-17/english/panels/fseh/papers/fseh20170711cb2-1809-1-e.pdf. Accessed 23 March 2018.
Polak J. Kundu J.K. Krska B. Beoni E. Kominek P. Pivalova J. Jarosova J. 2017. Transgenic plum Prunus domestica L. clone C5 (cv. HoneySweet) for protection against sharka disease. J. Integr. Agric. 16(3) 516-522.
Puette L. 2016. The splice must grow: The bright and shady sides of GM agriculture in China. Market Reports 6. http://www.chinaag.org/markets/gm-agriculture-in-china. Accessed 30 September 2017.
Raghavan V. Malik P.S. Choudhury N.R. Mukherjee S.K. 2004. The DNA-A Component of a plant geminivirus (Indian Mung Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus) replicates in budding yeast cells. J. Virology 78(5) 2405-2413.
Rappler 2016. SC reverses earlier roling on Bt talong GMOs. https://www.rappler.com/science-nature/environment/141043-sc-reverses-ruling-bt-talonggmo. Accessed 8 April 2018.
Reed A.J. Magin K.M. Anderson J.S. Austin G.D. Rangwala T. Linde D.C. et al. 1995. Delayed ripening tomato plants expressing the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. 1. Molecular characterization enzyme expression and fruit ripening traits. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43(7) 1954-1962.
Rimbaud L. Dallot S. Gottwald T. Decroocq V. Jacquot E. Soubeyrand S. Thébaud G. 2015. Sharka epidemiology and worldwide management strategies: learning lessons to optimize disease control in perennial plants. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 53(1) 357-378.
Savin K.W. Baudinette S.C. Graham M.W. Michael M.Z. Nugent G.D. Lu C.Y. Cornish E.C. 1995. Antisense ACC oxidase RNA delays carnation petal senescence. HortScience 30(5) 970-972.
Schuttelaar 2015. The regulatory status of New Breeding Techniques in countries outside the European Union. Schuttelaar & Partners. Version: June 2015. http://www.nbtplatform.org/background-documents/rep-regulatory-status-of-nbts-oustide-theeu-june-2015.pdf. Accessed 4 April 2018.
Scorza R. 2006. Application for determination of non-regulatory status for C5 (‘HoneySweet’) plum (Prunus domestica L.) resistant to Plum pox virus. Identifier: ARS-PLMC5-6. http://cera-gmc.org/docs/decdocs/07-313-003.pdf. Accessed 25 March 2018.
Scorza R. Callahan A. Dardick Ch. Ravelonandro M. Polak J. Malinowski T. et al. 2013. Genetic engineering of Plum pox virus resistance: ‘HoneySweet’ plum – from concept to product. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 115(1) 1-12.
Scorza R. Ravelonandro M. Gonsalves D. 2004. Plum tree named ‘honeysweet’. US plant patent PP15154 P2 application by US Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique and Cornell Research Foundation Inc. filled 31.08.2001 published 21.09.2004. https://www.lens.org/lens/patent/076-366-849-381-273. Accessed 19 June 2018.
Scorza R. Ravelonandro M. Callahan A. Zagrai I. Polak J. Malinowski T. et al. 2016. ‘HoneySweet’ (C5) the first genetically engineered Plum pox virus–resistant plum (Prunus domestica L.) cultivar. HortScience 51(5) 601-603.
SEARCA 2017. Bangladesh to release 3 more Bt brinjal varieties. http://bic.searca.org/site/bangladesh-to-release-3-more-bt-brinjal-varieties/. Accessed 8 April 2018.
Servick K. 2017a. How the transgenic petunia carnage of 2017. American Association for the Advancement of Science Science news Engineering Plants & Animals Science and Policy May 24 2017. http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/05/how-transgenicpetunia-carnage-2017-began. Accessed 1 February 2018.
Servick K. 2017b. The strange case of the orange petunias. Science 356(6340) 792.
Siddique A. 2017. Bangladesh to provide incentives for farmers to grow more GMO Bt eggplant. https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2017/10/24/bangladesh-to-provide-incentives-farmers-grow-more-gmo-bt-eggplant/#.WfBXtio81sc.twitter. Accessed 28 March 2018.
Smart R.D. Blum M. Wesseler J. 2017. Trends in approval times for genetically engineered crops in the United States and the European Union. J. Agric. Econ. 68(1) 182-198.
Songstad D. Petolino J. Voytas D. Reichert N. 2017. Genome editing of plants. Critical Rev. Plant Sci. 36(1) 1-23.
Sparks B. 2018. Suntory blue rose‘Applause’ takes center stage on Grammy's Red Carpet. Greenhouse Grower 27 February 2018. http://www.greenhousegrower.com/varieties/suntory-blue-rose-applause-takes-center-stage-on-grammys-red-carpet. Accessed 23 April 2018.
Sprink T. Eriksson D. Schiemann J. Hartung F. 2016. Regulatory hurdles for genome editing: process-vs. product-based approaches in different regulatory contexts. Plant Cell Rep. 35(7) 1493-1506.
Svitashev S. Schwartz C. Lenderts B. Young J. Cigan A. 2016. Genome editing in maize directed by CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes. Nat. Commun. 7 13274.
Tanaka Y. Brugliera F. 2013. Flower colour and cytochromes P450. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 368 20120432.
Tanaka Y. Brugliera F. Chandler S. 2009. Recent progress of flower colour modification by biotechnology. Intl. J. Mol. Sci. 10(12) 5350-5369.
Tanaka Y. Sasaki N. Ohmiya A. 2008. Biosynthesis of plant pigments: anthocyanins betalains and carotenoids. Plant J. 54(4) 733-749.
Tennant P.F. Gonsalves C. Ling K.-S. Fitch M. Manshardt R. Slightorn J.L. Gonsalves D. 1994. Differential protection against Papaya ringspot virus isolates in coat protein gene transgenic papaya and classically cross-protected papaya. Phytopathology 84 1359-1366.
Tricoli D.M. Carney K.J. Russell P.F. Quemada H.D. McMaster R.J. Reynolds J.F. Deng R.Z. 2002. Transgenic plants expressing DNA constructs containing a plurality of genes to impart virus resistance. US patent 6337431 applied by Seminis Vegetable Seeds Inc. filled 6.10.1997 published 8.01.2002. https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=US39710896. Accessed 19 June 2018.
USDA 2015a. Report on genetically engineered plant imports: Current and future. USDA FY2015. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/downloads/audits/fy15_ge_plant_imports_rpt.pdf. Accessed 4 October 2017.
USDA 2015b. Coexistence fact sheets: Specialty farming. USDA Factsheet February 2015. https://www.usda.gov/sites/default/files/documents/coexistence-specialty-farming-factsheet.pdf. Accessed 30 September 2017.
USDA 2016. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28. USDA-ARS. https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list?qlookup=09003. Accessed 24 September 2017.
USDA Press 2018. Secretary Perdue issues USDA statement on plant breeding innovation. USDA Office of Communications. Press Release No. 0070.18 of 28 March 2018.
Vellekoop E. 2015. Genetic modification accepted in floriculture. Floral Daily 28 September 2015. http://www.floraldaily.com/article/2105/Genetic-modification-accepted-in-floriculture. Accessed 20 April 2018.
Vellekoop E. 2017. Blue roses do not come out of the blue. Floral Daily 13 October 2017. http://www.floraldaily.com/article/12179/Blue-roses-do-not-come-out-of-the-blue. Accessed 23 April 2018.
Wawrzyniak A. Marciniak A. Rajewska J. 2005. Lycopene content of selected foods available on the Polish market and estimation of its intake. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 14/55(2) 195-200.
Wolt J. Wang K. Yang B. 2016. The regulatory status of genome-edited crops. Plant Biotechnol. J. 14(2) 510-518.
Wong A.Y.-T. Chan A.W.-K. 2016. Genetically modified foods in China and the United States: A primer of regulation and intellectual property protection. Food Sci. Human Wellness 5 124-140.
WTO 2008. EC approval and marketing of biotech products. Dispute Settlement Reports 2006 Volume IV: Pages 1249 to 1754 Cambridge University Press 1529.
Yeh S.-D. Bau H.-J. Cheng Y.-H. Fan Ch.-Ch. Kung Y.-J. Chen S. et al. 2011. Isolated nucleic acid molecules from transgenic papaya line 16-0-1 resistant to papaya ringspot virus and use thereof. US patent 8258282 B2 application by National Chung Hsing University filled 23.12.2009 published 28.04.2011. https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=US73224496. Accessed 19 June 2018.
Yokotani N. Nakano R. Imanishi S. Nagata M. Inaba A. Kubo Y. 2009. Ripening-associated ethylene biosynthesis in tomato fruit is autocatalytically and developmentally regulated. J. Exp. Bot. 60(12) 3433-3442.
Yoruk R. Marshall M.R. 2003. Physicochemical properties and function of plant polyphenol oxidase: A review. J. Food Biochem. 27 361-422.