In the western and central parts of Iran, there are more than eight million female trees of Pistacia atlantica Desf. with approximately 20,000 tons of fruit oil production ability. In order to evaluate the influence of select ecological characteristics, fruit samples of seven P. atlantica habitats in Kurdistan (Iran) were collected in late October over two years (2013-14). Fruit oil was extracted using soxhlet extraction. The results showed a relatively small variation in oil content in fruit across plants of P. atlantica. The fruit oil content ranged from 25.4% to 28.4%, with a mean of 27.3%. Most habitats belonged to temperate and semi-arid regions, with higher longitude and altitude but less latitude and slope, higher soil electrical conductivity, total neutralizing value, organic carbon and clay, medium yearly rainfall, evaporation and sunny hours and also trees with medium ages such as Borban and Kashtar producing higher fruit oil yield than those that belonged to cool and semi-humid regions. Cluster analysis classified habitats into four distinct groups at 50% similarity; four habitats belonging to forest areas were located in the first, Borban and Kashtar in the second and third and Abdolmomen, with the coldest climate and the oldest trees, was in the fourth group. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that habitats with low fruit oil showed extreme values of PC1 and PC2 but ones with high fruit oil were located mainly in the central zones of the bi plot, which suggest that habitats with medium ecological conditions produce higher fruit oil.
AOCS, 1989. Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemist’s Society. Champaign: American Oil Chemist’s Society, Method Ce-66, USA.
Arefi H., Nasir Yadeh A., Miryaei-Nodushan H., 2003. Variation in base line maternal and paternal P. atlantica tree (Pistacia atlantica). Proceedings of the Second National Conference of P. atlantica tree. Iranian J. For. Poplar Res. 10(2): 405-419.
Arefi H.M., Abdi A., Saydian S.E., Nasir Zadeh A., Mirzaei-Nodoushan H., Rad M.H., 2006. Genetics and breeding of Pistacia atlantica in Iran. Acta Hort. 726: 77-81.
Ben Douissa F., Hayder N., Chekir-Ghedira L., Hammami M., Ghedira, K., Mariotte A.M., et al., 2005. New study of the essential oil from leaves of Pistacia lentiscus L. (Anacardiaceae) from Tunisia. Flavour Fragrance J. 20: 410-414.
Benhassaini H., Bendahmane M., Benchalgo N., 2007. The chemical composition of fruits of Pistacia atlantica DESF. Subsp. atlantica from Algeria. Chem. Nat. Compd. 43(2): 121-129.
Dogan O., Baslar S., Aydin H., Mert H.H., 2003. A study of the soil-plant interactions of Pistacia lentiscus L. distributed in the western Anatolian part of Turkey. Acta Bot. Croat. 62(2): 73-88.
Farhoosh R., Haddad Khodaparast M.H., Sharif A., 2009. Bene hull oil as a highly stable and antioxidative vegetable oil. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 111: 1259-65.
Farhoosh R., Tavassoli-Kafrani M.H., Sharif A., 2011. Antioxidant activity of the fractions separated from the unsaponifiable matter of bene hull oil. Food Chem. 126: 583-9.
Ghalem B.R., Mohamed B., 2010. Antimicrobial activity determination of the gum of Pistacia atlantica Desf. oil. African J. Microbiol. Res. 4: 2457-2460.
Hossein-Khan R., Farhang B., 1996. Pistacia mutica: A new resource for oil production. Seminar on pistachio problems, 20-22 August 1996, Kerman, Iran: 71-76.
Ibrahim I.H., Nahlawi, N., Nahlawi M., 1984. Pistacio rootstocks studies under arid zone conditions. ACSAD. Izraa Research Station, Syria, 44 pp.
Isfendiyaroglu M., Ozekera E., 2009. Inflorescence features of a new exceptional monoecious Pistacia atlantica Desf. (Anacardiaceae) population in the Barbaros Plain of İzmir, Turkey. Int. J. Plant Prod. 3(3): 93-98.
Karimi H.R., Zamani Z., Ebadi A., Fatahi M.R., 2009. Morphological diversity of Pistacia species in Iran. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 56 (4), 561-571.
Khatamsaz M., 1988. Flora of Iran, Anacardiaceae. No: 3. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands (RIFR).IR.Iran, 22 p.
Mezni F., Labidi A., Msallem M., Boussaid M., Khouja M.L., Khaldi A., 2014. Influence of harvest date on fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of Pistacia lentiscus L. edible oils. J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 5(6): 1703-1708.
Pourreza M., Shaw J.D., Zangeneh H., 2008. Sustainability of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) in Zagros forests. Iranian For. Ecol. Manag. 255: 3667-3671.
Razavi S., 2006. Pistachio production, Iran vs. the World. Acta Hort. 726: 689-694.
Rowshan V., Bahmanzadegan A., Tarakemeh A., 2013. Volatile compounds of pistacia atlantica Desf. galls and leaves by Combi-PAL system technique. Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 3(9): 796-798.
Ruelas Garcia S., 1990. Grafting methods in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Proceedings of the Tropical Region. American Society for Horticultural Science, Unda, 23: 50-53.
Soad S.N.J., Abdulkareem M.H., Salimon J., 2014. Physicochemical assessment of the Libyan Pistacia atlantica Desf. fruit oil. Int. J. Chem. Mol. Eng. 1(8), scholar.waset.org/1999.17/13971.
Tanideh N., Masoumi S., Hossainzadeh M., Safarpour A.R., Erjaee H., Koohi-Hossainabadi O., Rahimikazerooni S., 2014. Healing Effect of Pistacia atlantica fruit oil extract in acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Iranian J. Med. Sci. 39(6): 522-528.
Tohidi M., Khayami M., Nejat, V., Meftahizade H., 2011. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and wound healing of P. atlantica and Pistacia khinjuk. J. Med. Plants Res. 5(17): 4310-4314.
Villar A., Sanz M.J., Paya M., 1987. Hypotensive effects of Pistacia lentiscus L. Int. J. Crud Drug Res. 25: 1-3.
Yousefi B., 2002. A comparative study of the ecological and genetically characteristics of P. atlantica tree populations in Kurdistan province. Iranian J. For. Poplar Res. 26 (7): 65-99.
Walkley A., Black I.A., 1934. An examination of degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci. 37: 29-37.
Zangeneh H., 2003. Ecological requirements of Pistacia atlantica in Kermanshah Province. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research. Special issue: The Second National Symposium on Wild Pistachio 333: 122-130.