Incidence of butt rot in Norway spruce seed stands in Poland’s mountain regions assessed with sonic tomography

Open access

Abstract

The incidence and severity of butt rot were assessed in 12 selected Norway spruce seed stands in the Beskidy Mountains, Poland. A semi-invasive technique of sonic tomography was used for the assessment of rot damage. Stands of different age classes (100-120, 130-150, 160-170 years old) and distinct regions of provenance (Istebna and Orawa) were investigated. Hierarchical analysis of variance was used to determine effects of stand age and stand provenance on butt rot occurrence at a stand level. High incidence of butt rot was noted in all of the studied seed stands (47% to 87% of diagnosed tree samples). Stand age had a significant effect on percentage share of ‘damaged wood’ on the tomogram. The extent of rot damage was rising with stand age, and the largest was observed in the age category 160-170 years. Spruce stands of Istebna provenance were generally more damaged by butt rot than those of Orawa provenance, however, the latter have been growing in forest sites more suitable for spruce in terms of fertility and altitude. Hierarchical analysis of variance did not show a statistically significant relationship between the region of provenance and average share of ‘damaged wood’ on the tomogram. Presented results indicate that for stands growing in similar conditions vulnerability to butt rot is determined by stand age. Further research is needed to separate impact of stand provenance identified with specific genetic constitution of a population from the effect of environmental conditions typical of a given region of provenance.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Asiegbu F.O. Adomas A. Stenlid J. 2005. Conifer root and butt rot caused by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. s.l. Molecular Plant Pathology 6 (4) 395-409.

  • Barszcz A. 2004. The dependency of the quality and size structure and of the value of timber on the origin and age of stands. EJPAU 7 (2) 8 [online journal]. http://www.ejpau.media.pl/volume7/issue2/forestry/art-08. Accessed 19 June 2013.

  • Bernadzki E. 2003. Struktura wieku i zagrożenie zgnilizną drewna starych drzewostanów sosnowych. Sylwan 5 3-12.

  • Gilbert E.A. Smiley E. 2004. Picus sonic tomography for the quantification of decay in white oak (Quercusalba) and hickory (Carya spp.). Journal of Arboriculture 30 (5) 277-280.

  • Habermehl A. Ridder H.W. 1979. Zerstörungsfreies Verfahren und Gerät zum Nachweis von Stammfäulen am Stehenden Stamm. Allgemeine ForstZeitschrift 34 (28) 754-759.

  • Kaliszewski A. Lech P. Oszako T. 2007. The occurrence of and economic losses caused by Armillaria in the Western Carpathian Mts. Acta Mycologica 42 (2) 219-233.

  • Krzan Z. 1985. Występowanie zgnilizny odziomkowej świerków w drzewostanach regla dolnego Tatrzańskiego Parku Narodowego. Parki Narodowe i RezerwatyPrzyrody 6 (2) 5-16.

  • Lech P. Żółciak A. 2006. Uwarunkowania występowania opieńkowej zgnilizny korzeni w lasach Beskidu Żywieckiego. Leśne Prace Badawcze 2 33-49.

  • Lindén M. Vollbrecht G. 2002. Sensitivity of Picea abies to butt rot in pure stands and in mixed stand with Pinus sylvestris in s outhern S weden. SilvaFennica 36 (4) 767-778.

  • Łakomy P. Cieślak R. Rodak W. Kostrzewski T. 2001. Wpływ porażenia przez Heterobasidion annosum wybranych drzewostanów sosnowych i świerkowych na powstanie wiatrołomów i wiatrowałów w 1999 i 2000 roku. Sylwan 7 43-54.

  • Mareš R. 2010. The extent of root rot damage in Norway spruce stands established on fertile sites of former agricultural land. Journal of Forest Science 56 (1) 1-6.

  • Matras J. Fonder W. 2006. Wytyczne w sprawie ochrony leśnych zasobów genowych na potrzeby nasiennictwa i hodowli drzew leśnych. Załącznik nr 1 do Zarządzenia nr 7A z 7 kwietnia 2006 r. dyrektora generalnego LP. Warszawa.

  • Mattila U. Nuutinen T. 2007. Assessing the incidence of butt rot in Norway spruce in southern Finland. Silva Fennica 41 (1) 29-43.

  • Niemtur S. Chomicz E. 2008. Tomografia komputerowa świerków w zagrożonych drzewostanach o różnym statusie ochronnym. Problemy ZagospodarowaniaZiem Górskich 55 99-112.

  • Norokorpi Y. 1980. Old Norway spruce stands amount of decay and decay causing microbes in northern Finland. Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae 97 (6) 1-77.

  • Rabe C. Ferner D. Fink S. Schwarze F.W.M.R. 2004. Detection of decay in trees with stress waves and interpretation of acoustic tomograms. ArboriculturalJournal 28 3-19.

  • Rönnberg J. Berglund M. Johansson U. 2007. Incidence of butt rot at final felling and at first thinning of the subsequent rotation of Norway spruce stands in south-western Sweden. Silva Fennica 41 (4) 639-647.

  • Rust S. Göcke L. 2000. A new tomographic device for the non-destructive testing of standing trees. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Nondestructive Testing of Wood. 13-15 September 2000 Sopron Hungary 233-238.

  • Twarowski Z. Twarowska I. 1959. Studia i obserwacje nad opieńką miodową Armillaria mellea (Vahl.) Quel. jako przyczyną masowego zamierania drzewostanów. Prace IBL 192 1-62.

  • Vollbrecht G. Agestam E. 1995. Identifying butt rotted Norway spruce trees from external signs. Forestand Landscape Research 1 241-254.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2018: 0.67

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.312
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.569

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 142 56 3
PDF Downloads 51 29 1