Sheet metal parts are widely used in airframes. Most sheet metal parts used in aircraft assembly are joined using rivets. A number of riveting parameters directly influence fatigue properties of a structure. These include a rivet length, driven head diameter, tolerance of a rivet hole and a rivet shank diameter, and a protective layer among others. Unfavourable selection or change of these parameters can lead to stress concentrations and early crack nucleation. Crack growth can cause failure of a whole structure.
The selection of the riveting process parameters is usually described in a company’s internal instruction (process specifications). Some parameters can be defined in an aircraft's technical specifications. Riveting instructions among other production documentation are part of a company's closely guarded know-how. The author obtained access to two riveting instructions used in Poland and three such documents used in western Europe. The author was permitted to publish the comparison of the parameters from these documents but he is not supposed to reveal any other information. For the reasons stated above, the following cryptonyms were used in the article: Poland-1, Poland-2, West-1, West-2 and West-3.
The quality of a joint also depends on rivets parameters that are defined in rivets standards. For this reason, selected rivets defined in the Polish and Russian industry standards as well as western standards are compared in this paper. Tolerances of a rivet and a hole diameter, clearances between a rivet and a hole, rivet lengths anticipated for driven head formation as well as driven head dimensions are taken into account.
1. Grogoriew W., Goldowski P.: Riveting of Al alloy structures. Ministry of National Defence Publishing, Warsaw, 1957, 1. edition. (in Polish)
2. Military Specification. Rivets, buck type, preparation for and installation of. 1977. http://www.rivetbangers.com/documents/MIL-R-47196A_MI.pdf
3. Müller R. P. G.: An Experimental Investigation on the Fatigue Behavior of Fuselage Riveted Lap Joints; The Significance of the Rivet Squeeze Force, and a Comparison of 2924-T3 and Glare 3. Doctor thesis, Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Structures and Materials Laboratory, Printed in Netherlands by Universitatdrukkerij, Delft, ISBN 90-9008777-X, October 1995.
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5. de Rijk J.J.M: Analysis of Fatigue in Mechanically Fastened Joint. An analytical and experimental investigation. Doctor thesis, Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Structures and Materials Laboratory, Printed in Netherlands by Universitatdrukkerij, Delft University Press Science, Delft, ISBN 90-407-2590-X, June 2005.
6. Polish industry standard BN-70/1120-03: Rivets for aviation-related purposes. Length selection, driven heads dimensions and diameters of rivets holes. (in Polish)
7. Polish industry Standards BN-70/1121-0X. Rivets with head:, flat -01, round -03, 90° countersunk -04, 120° countersunk -05, brazier -06. (in Polish)
8. Russian standard OST 1 34040-79. Brazier rivet with a compensator.
9. 90° countersunk rivet with a compensator ANU 0301.
10. Russian standard OST 1 12020-75. 90° countersunk rivet with a compensator.
11. Process specification Poland-1. (in Polish)
12. Process specification Poland-2. (in Polish)
13. MS 20 426. Rivet, solid, countersunk 100°, precision head, aluminum and titanium, columbium alloy.
14. NAS 1097. Rivet, solid, 100°, flush shear head, aluminum alloy, titanium, columbium alloy.
15. MS 20 470. Rivet, solid, universal head, aluminum alloy, titanium, columbium alloy.
16. West-3. Process specification. Installation of solid Rivets.
17. West-1. Process specification. Installation of solid Rivets.
18. West-2. Process specification. Installation of solid Rivets.
19. West-4. Process specification. Drilling, reaming and countersinking of rivet and screw holes.
20. Polish standard. Aerospace series – Rivet, 100° reduced flush head, close tolerance – Inch series, PN-EN-6069:2010.
21. Kaniowski J. (2012). The Synthetic Description of the Results, Scientific Achievements and Practical Application of the Eureka-IMPERJA Project, E3496!, titled “Improving the Fatigue Performance of Riveted Joints in Airframes. A. Niepokólczycki (Ed.). Fatigue of Aircraft Structures, Monographic Series, ISSUE 2012, pp.38-57. ISSN 2081-7738. Institute of Aviation Scientific Publication, Warsaw, Poland. http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/fas.2012.1.issue-4/v10164-012-0055-4/v10164-012-0055-4.xml?format=INT, DOI: 10.2478/v10164-012-0055-4, April 2013.
22. Wronicz W., Kaniowski J.: The Analysis of the Influence of Riveting Parameters Specified in Selected Riveting Instructions on Residual Stresses. A. Niepokólczycki (Ed.). Fatigue of Aircraft Structures, Monographic Series, ISSUE 2014. Institute of Aviation Scientific Publication, Warsaw, Poland.