Cultivating Self-Regulated Learning in Flipped EFL Courses: A Model for Course Design

Ünal Çakıroğlu 1  and Mücahit Öztürk 2
  • 1 Karadeniz Technical University,
  • 2 Aksaray University, , Turkey


Considerable effort has been invested in innovative learning practices in English Foreign Language courses (EFL) in universities. Flipped classroom model transforms passive listeners into active learners in school and home activities pace. Flipped classroom model and the foreign language teaching methods are student-centred learning environments in which students should have a certain level of self-regulated learning skills. The study suggest a model for flipped classroom implementations with regard to self-regulated learning strategies in order to keep students more active in the EFL courses. Students were allowed to apply goal setting and planning, rehearsing, help seeking, monitoring, testing, time management, organising, regulating and note taking strategies within the model in online and face to face sessions. We hope the suggested model can contribute to improve listening, reading, writing and speaking skills of students in EFL courses.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Abbasian, G. R., & Hartoonian, A. (2014). Using Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Enhancing Language Proficiency with a Focus on Reading Comprehension. English Language Teaching, 7(6), 160-167.

  • 2. Abe, Y., Hood, M., & Elwood, J. (2018). Self-regulated Learning and Culture in the Flipped EFL Classroom with ICT. Journal of JSEE, 66(5), 5_62-5_68.

  • 3. Alsowat, H. (2016). An EFL flipped classroom teaching model: effects on English language higher-order thinking skills, student engagement and satisfaction. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(9), 108-121.

  • 4. Al-Zahrani, A. M. (2015). From passive to active: The impact of the flipped classroom through social learning platforms on higher education students’ creative thinking. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(6), 1133-1148.

  • 5. Baepler, P., Walker, J. D., & Driessen, M. (2014). It’s not about seat time: Blending, flipping, and efficiency in active learning classrooms. Computers & Education, 78, 227-236.

  • 6. Barnard-Brak, L., Paton, V. O., & Lan, W. Y. (2010). Profiles in self-regulated learning in the online learning environment. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 11(1), 61-80.

  • 7. Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom. International Society for Technology in Education, 20.

  • 8. Butzler, K. B. (2016). The synergistic effects of self-regulation tools and the flipped classroom. Computers in the Schools, 33(1), 11-23.

  • 9. Chen-Hsieh, J. S., Wu, W. C. V., & Marek, M. W. (2017). Using the flipped classroom to enhance EFL learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(1-2), 1-21.

  • 10. Coyne, R. D., Lee, J., & Denitsa, P. (2017). Re-visiting the flipped classroom in a design context. Journal of Learning Design, 10(2), 1-13.

  • 11. Davies, R. S., Dean, D. L., & Ball, N. (2013). Flipping the classroom and instructional technology integration in a college-level information systems spreadsheet course. Educational Technology Research and Development, 61(4), 563-580.

  • 12. DeLozier, S. J., & Rhodes, M. G. (2017). Flipped classrooms: a review of key ideas and recommendations for practice. Educational Psychology Review, 29(1), 141-151.

  • 13. Djamàa, S. (2020). Lecture in the Living Room, Homework in the Classroom: The Effects of Flipped Instruction on Graduate EFL Students’ Exam Performance. Computers in the Schools, 1-27.

  • 14. Egbert, J., Herman, D., & Lee, H. (2015). Flipped ınstruction in English language teacher education: a design-based study in a complex, open-ended learning environment. Tesl-Ej, 19(2).

  • 15. Elrayies, G. M. (2016). Flipped learning as a paradigm shift in architectural education. International Education Studies, 10(1), 93.

  • 16. Engin, M., & Donanci, S. (2016). Instructional videos as part of a ‘flipped’ approach in academic writing. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Gulf Perspectives, 13(1).

  • 17. Ergen, B., & Kanadli, S. (2017). The Effect of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 69, 55-74.

  • 18. Evseeva, A., & Solozhenko, A. (2015). Use of flipped classroom technology in language learning. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 206, 205-209.

  • 19. Geduld, B. (2016). Exploring differences between self-regulated learning strategies of high and low achievers in open distance learning. Africa Education Review, 13(1), 164-181.

  • 20. Giannakos, M. N., Chorianopoulos, K., & Chrisochoides, N. (2015). Making sense of video analytics: Lessons learned from clickstream interactions, attitudes, and learning outcome in a video-assisted course. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16(1).

  • 21. Gilboy, M. B., Heinerichs, S., & Pazzaglia, G. (2015). Enhancing student engagement using the flipped classroom. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 47(1), 109-114.

  • 22. Greene, J. A., Robertson, J., & Costa, L. J. C. (2011). Assessing self-regulated learning using think-aloud methods. Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance, 313-328.

  • 23. Hamdan, N., McKnight, P., McKnight, K., & Arfstrom, K. M. (2013). The flipped learning model: a white paper based on the literature review titled ‘a review of flipped learning’. Arlington, VA: Flipped Learning Network.

  • 24. Hotle, S. L., & Garrow, L. A. (2015). Effects of the traditional and flipped classrooms on undergraduate student opinions and success. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, 142(1).

  • 25. Huang, Y. N., & Hong, Z. R. (2016). The effects of a flipped English classroom intervention on students’ information and communication technology and English reading comprehension. Educational Technology Research and Development, 64(2), 175-193

  • 26. Hung, H. T. (2015). Flipping the classroom for English language learners to foster active learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 28(1), 81-96.

  • 27. Järvelä, S., & Järvenoja, H. (2011). Socially constructed self-regulated learning and motivation regulation in collaborative learning groups. Teachers College Record, 113(2), 350-374.

  • 28. Kakosimos, K. E. (2015). Example of a micro-adaptive instruction methodology for the improvement of flipped-classrooms and adaptive-learning based on advanced blended-learning tools. Education for Chemical Engineers, 12, 1-11.

  • 29. Karlen, Y. (2016). Differences in students’ metacognitive strategy knowledge, motivation, and strategy use: A typology of self-regulated learners. The Journal of Educational Research, 109(3), 253-265.

  • 30. Kizilcec, R. F., Pérez-Sanagustín, M., & Maldonado, J. J. (2017). Self-regulated learning strategies predict learner behavior and goal attainment in Massive Open Online Courses. Computers & Education, 104, 18-33.

  • 31. Lai, C. L., & Hwang, G. J. (2016).A self-regulated flipped classroom approach to improving students’ learning performance in a mathematics course. Computers & Education, 100, 126-140.

  • 32. Love, B., Hodge, A., Grandgenett, N., & Swift, A. W. (2014). Student learning and perceptions in a flipped linear algebra course. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 45(3), 317-324.

  • 33. Martirossian, A., & Hartoonian, A. (2015). Lowering foreign language anxiety through self-regulated learning strategy use. English Language Teaching, 8(12), 209.

  • 34. McLaughlin, J. E., Roth, M. T., Glatt, D. M., Gharkholonarehe, N., Davidson, C. A., Griffin, L. M., ... & Mumper, R. J. (2014). The flipped classroom: a course redesign to foster learning and engagement in a health professions school. Academic Medicine, 89(2), 236-243.

  • 35. Mehring, J. (2016). Present research on the flipped classroom and potential tools for the EFL classroom. Computers in the Schools, 33(1), 1-10.

  • 36. Moos, D. C., & Bonde, C. (2016). Flipping the Classroom: Embedding Self-Regulated Learning Prompts in Videos. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 21(2), 225-242.

  • 37. Ning, H. K., & Downing, K. (2015). A latent profile analysis of university students’ self-regulated learning strategies. Studies in Higher Education, 40(7), 1328-1346.

  • 38. Ng, E. M. (2018). Integrating self-regulation principles with flipped classroom pedagogy for first year university students. Computers & Education, 126, 65-74.

  • 39. Özdamli, F., & Asiksoy, G. (2016). Flipped Classroom Approach. World Journal on Educational Technology: Current Issues, 8(2), 98-105.

  • 40. Pintrich, P. R. (1999). The role of motivation in promoting and sustaining self-regulated learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 31(6), 459-470.

  • 41. Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 451-502). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

  • 42. Roehl, A., Reddy, S. L., & Shannon, G. J. (2013). The flipped classroom: an opportunity to engage millennial students through active learning strategies. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 105, 44-49.

  • 43. Sebesta, A. J., & Speth, E. B. (2017). How should ı study for the exam? Self-regulated learning strategies and achievement in ıntroductory biology. CBE-Life Sciences Education, 16(2), a30.

  • 44. Şeker, M. (2016). The use of self-regulation strategies by foreign language learners and its role in language achievement. Language Teaching Research, 20(5), 600-618.

  • 45. Shahnaz, S. M. F., & Hussain, R. M. R. (2016). Designing Instruction for Active and Reflective Learners in the Flipped Classroom. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, 13(2), 147-173.

  • 46. Shih, H. C. J., & Huang, S. H. C. (2019). College students’ metacognitive strategy use in an EFL flipped classroom. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1-30.

  • 47. Sletten, S. R. (2017). Investigating flipped learning: Student self-regulated learning, perceptions, and achievement in an introductory biology course. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 26(3), 347-358.

  • 48. Su Ping, R. L., Verezub, E., Adi Badiozaman, I. F. B., & Chen, W. S. (2020). Tracing EFL students’ flipped classroom journey in a writing class: Lessons from Malaysia. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 57(3), 305-316.

  • 49. Turan, Z., & Akdag-Cimen, B. (2020). Flipped classroom in English language teaching: a systematic review. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 33(5-6), 590-606.

  • 50. Wanner, T., & Palmer, E. (2015). Personalising learning: Exploring student and teacher perceptions about flexible learning and assessment in a flipped university course. Computers & Education, 88, 354-369.

  • 51. Wilson, K., & Narayan, A. (2016). Relationships among individual task self-efficacy, self-regulated learning strategy use and academic performance in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment. Educational Psychology, 36(2), 236-253.

  • 52. Wolters, C. A. (2011). Regulation of motivation: Contextual and social aspects. Teachers College Record, 113(2), 265-283.

  • 53. Wu, W. C. V., Hsieh, J. S. C., & Yang, J. C. (2017). Creating an online learning community in a flipped classroom to enhance EFL learners’ oral proficiency. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 20(2), 142-157.

  • 54. Yang, T. C., Chen, M. C., & Chen, S. Y. (2018). The influences of self-regulated learning support and prior knowledge on improving learning performance. Computers & Education, 126, 37-52.

  • 55. Zainuddin, Z., & Halili, S. H. (2016). Flipped classroom research and trends from different fields of study. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(3).

  • 56. Zeidner, M., & Stoeger, H. (2019). Self-Regulated Learning (SRL): A guide for the perplexed. High Ability Studies, 30(1-2), 9-51.

  • 57. Zheng, B., Ward, A., & Stanulis, R. (2020). Self-regulated learning in a competency-based and flipped learning environment: learning strategies across achievement levels and years. Medical Education Online, 25(1), 1686949.

  • 58. Zhonggen, Y., & Guifang, W. (2016). Academic Achievements and Satisfaction of the Clicker-Aided Flipped Business English Writing Class. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 19(2).

  • 59. Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attainment of self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 13-39). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

  • 60. Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45(1), 166-183.

  • 61. Zimmerman, B. J., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1988). Construct validation of a strategy model of student self-regulated learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 284.

  • 62. Zumbrunn, S., Tadlock, J., & Roberts, E. D. (2011). Encouraging self-regulated learning in the classroom: A review of the literature. Metropolitan Educational Research Consortium (MERC).


Journal + Issues