Self-assessment is vital for online learning since it is one of the most essential skills of distance learners. In this respect, the purpose of this study was to understand learners’ self-assessment quiz taking behaviours in an undergraduate level online course. We tried to figure out whether there is a relation between self-assessment quiz taking behaviours and final exam scores or not. In addition, we investigated how self-assessment quiz taking behaviour differs with respect to learner profile. In line with this purpose, 677 students’ 6092 test events across Project Culture course on Sakai CLE LMS were analyzed. For the analysis of the quantitative data, one-way ANOVA, Chi-Square test of independence, independent-samples t-test and descriptive statistics were utilized. The results revealed that learners who attended self-assessment quizzes regularly had higher final exam scores than others who did not attend those quizzes. Also, they were more satisfied with the course than others study field. In addition, learners who attended selfassessment quizzes regularly had a higher degree of perceived learning. However, number of attempts to those quizzes does not have an effect on final exam scores. On the other hand, a statistically significant relationship was found between attempt number and gender in favour of female learners.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Adams, T. L. (1998) Alternative assessment in elementary school mathematics. Childhood Education, 74(4), 220-224.
2. Andrade, H., & Boulay, B. (2003) Gender and the role of rubric-referenced self-assessment in learning to write. Journal of Educational Research, 97(1), 21-34.
3. Bälter, O., Enström, E., & Klingenberg, B. (2013). The effect of short formative diagnostic web quizzes with minimal feedback. Computers & Education, 60(1), 234-242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.08.014.
4. Belski, I. (2010). The Impact of Self-Assessment and Reflection on Student Learning Outcomes. Proceedings of the 2010 AaeE Conference, Sydney, 216-221. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228460756_The_Impact_of_Self-Assessment_and_Reflection_on_Student_Learning_Outcomes
5. Boud, D. (2000). Sustainable assessment: rethinking assessment for the learning society. Studies in Continuing Education, 22(2), 151-167. doi:
7. Boud, D., & Falchikov, N. (1989). Quantitative studies of student self-assessment in highereducation: A critical analysis of findings. Higher Education, 18(5), 529-549. doi:10.1007/BF00138746)| false
8. Bourke, R. (2010). The chameleonic learner. Learning and self-assessment in context. Wellington: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.
9. Brown, G. T., & Harris, L. R. (2013). Student self-assessment. In J. McMillan (Ed.), The SAGE handbook of research on classroom assessment (pp. 367-393). CA: SAGE.
10. Carter, J., Ala-Mutka, K., Fuller, U., Dick, M., English, J., Fone, W., et al. (2003). How shall we assess this? SIGCSE Bulletin, 35, 107-123.
11. Claxton, G. (1995). What Kind of Learning does Self-assessment drive? Developing a ‘Nose’ for Quality: Comments on Klenowski. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 2(3), 339-343.
12. Ćukušić, M., Garača, Z., & Jadrićr, M. (2014). Online self-assessment and students’ success in higher education institutions. Computers & Education, 72(2), 100-109.
13. Deutsch, T., Herrmann, K., Frese, T., & Sandholzer, H. (2012). Implementing computerbased assessment - a web-based mock examination changes attitudes. Computers & Education, 58, 1068-1075.
14. Dochy, F., & McDowell, L. (1997) Introduction: assessment as a tool for learning. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 23(4), 279-298.
15. Falchikov, N. & Boud, D. (1989) Student self-assessment in higher education: a metaanalysis. Review of Educational Research, 59(4), 395-430.
16. Frederiksen, J., & Collins, A. (1989) A systems approach to educational testing. Educational Researcher, 18(9), 27-32.
17. Gagne, R. M., Briggs, L. S., & Wager, W. W. (1988). Principle of Instructional Design. Holt: Rinehart and Winston.
18. Gale, J. (1984). Overview: Self-assessment and Self-remediation Strategies. In E. S. Henderson & M. B. Henderson (Eds.), Independent Learning in Higher Education. NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
19. Garcia, J. A., & Floyd, C. E. (1999) Using single system design for student self-assessment: a method for enhancing practice and integrating curriculum. Journal of Social Work Education, 35(3), 451-461.
20. Gikandi, J. W., Morrow, D., & Davis, N. E. (2011). Online formative assessment in higher education: a review of the literature. Computers & Education, 57(4), 2333-2351. doi:
20. Gikandi, J. W., Morrow, D., & Davis, N. E. (2011). Online formative assessment in higher education: a review of the literature. Computers & Education, 57(4), 2333-2351. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2011.06.004)| false
24. Hanrahan, S. J., & Isaacs, G. (2001) Assessing self- and peer-assessment: the students’ views. Higher Educational Research and Development, 20(1), 53-70.
25. Horner, S., & Shwery, C. (2002) Becoming an engaged, self-regulated reader. Theory into Practice, 41(2), 102-109.
26. Ibabe, I., & Jauregizar, J. (2009). Online self-assessment with feedback and metacognitive knowledge. Higher Education, 59, 243-258.
27. Kulik, J. A., Kulik, C.-L., & Bangert, R. L. (1984). Effects of practice on aptitude and achievement test scores. American Educational Research Journal, 21(2), 435-447.
28. Laurillard, D. (1993). Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology. NY: Routledge.
29. McMillan, J. H., & Hearn, J. (2008). Student self-assessment: The key to stronger student motivation and higher achievement. Educational HORIZONS, 87(1), 40-49.
30. Nikou, S. A., & Economides, A. A. (2016). The impact of paper-based, computer-based and mobile-based self-assessment on students’ science motivation and achievement. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 1241-1248. doi:
30. Nikou, S. A., & Economides, A. A. (2016). The impact of paper-based, computer-based and mobile-based self-assessment on students’ science motivation and achievement. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 1241-1248. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.09.025)| false
33. Panadero, E. (2011). Instructional help for self-assessment and self-regulation: Evaluation of the efficacy of self-assessment scripts vs. rubrics. Ph.D. dissertation. Spain: Department of Educational and Developmental psychology, Universidad Autönoma de Madrid.
34. Panadero, E., & Alonso-Tapia, J. (2013). Self-assessment: Theoretical and Practical Connotations. When it Happens, How is it Acquired and what to do to Develop it. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 11(2), 551-576. doi:
34. Panadero, E., & Alonso-Tapia, J. (2013). Self-assessment: Theoretical and Practical Connotations. When it Happens, How is it Acquired and what to do to Develop it. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 11(2), 551-576. doi:10.14204/ejrep.30.12200)| false
35. Paris, S. G., & Paris, A. H. (2001) Classroom applications of research on self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 36(2), 89-101.
36. Pintrich, P. R., & Schunk, D. H. (2002). Motivation in Education: Theory, Research, and Applications (2nd ed.). N.J.: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
37. Rolheiser, C., & Ross, J. A. (2013). Student Self-Evaluation: What Research Says and What Practice Shows. Retrieved from http://moodle.manistee.org/pluginfile.php/59439/course/section/16807/ STUDENT SELF-EVALUATION WHAT RESEARCH SAYS AND WHAT PRACTICE SHOWS.pdf
38. Rowntree, D. (1991). Teaching Through Self-instruction: How to Develop Open Learning Materials. NY: Nichols Publishing.
39. Schunk, D. H. (2004). Learning Theories: An Educational Perspective. N.J.: Merrill Prentice/Hall.
40. Saujani, R. (2016, February). Teach girls bravery, not perfection. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/reshma_saujani_teach_girls_bravery_not_perfection#t-6027
41. Snooks, M. K. (2004). Using practice tests on a regular basis to improve student learning. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 100, 109-113.
42. Stiggins, R. J. (2001). Student-involved classroom assessment (3rd ed.). NJ: Merrill/Prentice-Hall.
43. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using Multivariate Statistics (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson.
44. Taylor, J. A. (1998). Self Test: a flexible self assessment package for distance and other learners. Computers & Education, 31(3), 319-328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0360-1315(98)00044-X
45. Taras, M. (2005). Assessment - summative and formative - some theoretical reflections. British Journal of Educational Studies, 53, 466-478.
46. Wiggins, G. (1998). Educative assessment: designing assessments to inform and improve student performance. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
47. Wilson, K., Boyd, C., Chen, L., & Jamal, S. (2011). Improving student performance in a first year geography course: examining the importance of computer-assisted formative assessment. Computers & Education, 57(2), 1493-1500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.02.011.
48. Zhang, D., Zhao, J. L., Zhou, L., & Nunamaker Jr. J. F. (2004). Can e-learning replace classroom learning? Communications of the ACM, 47, 75-79.
49. Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory into Practice, 41(2). Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237065878_Becoming_a_Self-Regulated_Learner_An_Overview