This paper proposed a method for developing capacity for lifelong learning in open spaces, defined here as places without predefined learning structures or objectives, through the cultivation of aesthetic literacy. This discussion will be situated within fieldwork performed by the authors in Helsinki, Finland, and Tallinn, Estonia, in 2013. Based on the researchers’ experience in the field of teacher education and workshops they have conducted on mobile learning, the empirical context for this discussion focuses on data generated from the research methods of participatory observation (ethnography), autoethnography, reflective concept analysis and artistic subjectivity. These methods and the data generated as a result collect to produce insight into how aesthetic literacy sits within the cross-section of open space, mobile learning, and lifelong learning,
Aesthetic literacy, appropriated and broadened from its original focus as capacity for “reading” or making meaning from artistic material (discussed in Gale, 2005 as the “living of lyrical moments”), is positioned in this paper as a means of making meaning in open spaces through alignment and attunement. This paper presents pragmatic methods for pedagogically cultivating learning in open spaces through a focus on aesthetic literacy. The pedagogical advantages of such an approach and its applicability to lifelong learning, particularly lifelong learning activated through mobile technology (or mobile lifelong learning-mLLL), follows along with recommendations for further research. The applicability of such research is for teachers, learners, or researchers who are looking for methods for making use of open spaces for learning, or to cultivate learners who actively seek learning in the “rhythms of the everyday” (Lankshear & Knobel, 2011).
The aim of the article is to produce fresh insights into the academic discussion about the nature of open space, mobile learning and lifelong learning as seem from the point of view of aesthetic literacy, insights we believe have distinct pedagogical advantages for mLLL.
Focal Area: Informal arenas of learning – learning opportunities in daily life and the workplace; Learning process design, teaching methodologies
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Alheit P. and Dausien B. (2002). The ‘double face’ of lifelong learning: Two analytical perspectives on a’ silent revolution’. In Studies in the Education of Adults 34(1) (pp. 3-22).
2. Atkinson P. and Hammersley M. (1994). Ethnography and participant observation. Handbook of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage.
3. Bandura A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
4. Bayne S.; Gallagher M.S. and Lamb J. (2014). Being ‘at’ university: the social topologies of distance students. In Higher Education 67(5) (pp. 569-583).
5. Beetham H. and Sharpe R. (eds.) (2013). Rethinking pedagogy for a digital age: Designing for 21st century learning. London: Routledge.
6. Braet A.C. (1992). Ethos pathos and logos in Aristotle’s Rhetoric: A re-examination. In Argumentation 6(3) (pp. 307-320).
7. Bruner J. (1991). The narrative construction of reality. In Critical inquiry 18(1) (pp. 1-21).
8. Byrne D. and Jones G.J. (2009). Creating stories for reflection from multimodal lifelog content: an initial investigation. Designing for Reflection on Experience Workshop at CHI 2009 Boston MA U.S.A. 2009.
9. Chang C.H. and Ooi G.L. (2008). Role of fieldwork in humanities and social studies education. What the West can learn from the East. Asian Perspectives on the Psychology of Learning and Motivation. In Research in Multicultural Education and International Perspectives Series 7 (pp. 295-312).
10. Dewey J. (1938). Experience and Education. New York: Collier Books.
11. Dörk M.; Carpendale S. and Williamson C. (2011). The information flaneur: A fresh look at information seeking. In the Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 1215-1224). ACM 2011 May.
12. Elektronisches Lernen Muzik (2014). Website. Retrieved August 30 2014 from http://www.elernenmuzik.net
13. Ellis C. and Bochner A.P. (2000). Autoethnography personal narrative reflexivity. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (eds.) Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed.) (pp.733-768). Thousand Oaks CA: Sage.
14. European Commission (2000). Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Retrieved August 10 2014 from http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/other/c11047_en.htm
15. Farman J. (2009). Locative life: Geocaching mobile gaming and embodiment. In the Proceedings of the Digital Arts and Culture Conference – After Media: Embodiment and Context University of California Irvine December 12-15 2009 http://escholarship.org/uc/item/507938rr
16. Farman J. (2012). Mobile interface theory: Embodied space and locative media. London: Routledge.
17. Farman J. (ed.) (2013). The Mobile Story: Narrative Practices with Locative Technologies. London: Routledge.
18. Fejes A. (2014). Lifelong learning and employability. In Challenging the ‘European Area of Lifelong Learning’ (pp. 99-107). Springer Netherlands.
19. Gale R. (2005). Aesthetic literacy and the “living of lyrical moments”. In Journal of Cognitive Affective Learning 2(1) (pp. 1-9).
20. Gallagher M. and Ihanainen P. (2013). Pedagogy supporting the simultaneous learning processes of open education: Pedagogy of Simultaneity (PoS). Open Education 2030: Higher Education European Commission Joint Research Centre: Information Society Unit.
21. Gallagher M. and Ihanainen P. (2014a). Pedagogy of Simultaneity. Retrieved November 2014 from http://www.pedagogyofsimultaneity.org
22. Gallagher M. and Ihanainen P. (2014b). Mobile Learning Field Activity: Pedagogy of Simultaneity to Support Learning. In the Open Networked Learning Conference 2014 Edinburgh.
23. Gallagher M. (2013). Incessant Motion through Space: Mobile Learning Field Activities in the Humanities.
24. Gibbs A. (1997). Focus groups. In Social research update 19(8) (pp. 1-8).
25. Hjorth L. (2009). Mobile media in the Asia Pacific: gender and the art of being mobile. London: Taylor & Francis.
26. Hjorth L. (2013). Locating the Visual: A Case Study of Gendered Location-Based Services and Camera Phone Practices in Seoul South Korea. Television & New Media.
27. Holzinger A.; Nischelwitzer A. and Meisenberger M. (2005). Lifelong-learning support by m-learning: example scenarios. In eLearn 2005(11) (p. 2).
28. Ifenthaler D. (2012). Determining the effectiveness of prompts for self-regulated learning in problem-solving scenarios. In Journal of Educational Technology & Society 15(1) (pp. 38-52).
29. Ihanainen P. (2013). Pedagogy of Simultaneity especially in a context of mobile learning. Pedagogy of Simultaneity workshop in Tallinn Estonia. Retrieved December 10 2014 from http://www.slideshare.net/pekkai/pedagogy-of-simultaneitytallinn2013
30. Ihanainen P. and Gallagher M. (2014). Learning in the Open. Futura Finnish Society for Future Studies.
31. Järvilehto T. (2000). Feeling as knowing: 1. Emotions a reorganization of the organism environment system. In Consciousness and Emotion 1(2) (pp. 53-65).
32. Järvilehto T.; Nurkkala V.-M.; Koskela K. and Kalermo J. (2013). Anticipation as a Main Principle of Neural Function and Mastering of Driving. In Dorn & Sullman (eds.) Driver Behaviour and Training Vol VI. Retrieved August 27 2014 from http://cse.fi/en/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Anticipation-and-driving-skill-final.pdf
33. Jewitt C. (ed.) (2009). The Routledge Handbook of Multimodal Analysis. London: Routledge.
34. Kalz M. (2014). Lifelong Learning and its support with new technologies. In N.J. Smelser & P.B. Baltes (eds.) International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Oxford United Kingdom: Pergamon. Retrieved August 25 2014 from http://dspace.learningnetworks.org/handle/1820/5321
35. Koper R. and Tattersall C. (2004). New directions for lifelong learning using network technologies. In British Journal of Educational Technology 35(6) (pp. 689–700). DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2004.00427.x
36. Kress G. (2009). Multimodality: A social semiotic approach to contemporary communication. London: Routledge.
37. Kress G. and Pachler N. (eds.) (2007). Mobile Learning: Towards a Research Agenda. WLE Centre Occasional Papers in Work-based Learning 1.
38. Kurbanoglu S. (2003). Self-efficacy: a concept closely linked to information literacy and lifelong learning. In Journal of Documentation 59(6) (pp. 635-646).
39. Lankshear C. and Knobel M. (2011). New Literacies: Everyday Practices And Social Learning: Everyday Practices and Social Learning. New York: McGraw-Hill International.
40. London Sound Survey (2014). Website. Retrieved August 30 2014 from http://www.soundsurvey.org.uk
41. Nordin N.; Embi M.A. and Yunus M.M. (2010). Mobile learning framework for lifelong learning. In Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 7 (pp. 130-138).
42. Park Y. (2011). A pedagogical framework for mobile learning: Categorizing educational applications of mobile technologies into four types. In The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning 12(2) (pp. 78-102).
43. Saljo R. (1999). Chapter: Learning as the use of tools. In K. Littleton & P. Light (eds.) Learning with computers: Analysing productive interaction. London: Psychology Press.
44. Seta L.; Kukulska-Hulme A. and Arrigo M. (2014). What have we learnt about mobile LifeLong Learning (mLLL)? In International Journal of Lifelong Education 33(2) (pp.161-182).
45. Sengers P.; Boehner K.; David S. and Kaye J.J. (2005). Reflective design. In the Proceedings of the 4th decennial conference on Critical computing: between sense and sensibility (pp. 49-58). ACM 2005 August.
46. Sharples M. (2000). The design of personal mobile technologies for lifelong learning. In Computers and Education 34 (pp. 177-193).
47. Sharples M.; Taylor J. and Vavoula G. (2007). A theory of learning for the mobile age. In R. Andrews & C. Haythornthwaite (eds.) The Sage handbook of elearning research (pp.221-47). London: Sage.
48. Shields R. (1994). Fancy footwork: Walter Benjamin’s notes on flânerie. Retrieved November 1 2014 from https://www.zotero.org/jkalin/items/itemKey/2NEE5QU2
49. Tsakiris D. (2014). Human Capital and Human Action in Lifelong Learning: Questions Concerning the Revival of a Seemingly Obvious Theory. In Challenging the ‘European Area of Lifelong Learning’ (pp. 109-119). Springer Netherlands.
50. Tuschling A. and Engemann C. (2006). From education to lifelong learning: The emerging regime of learning in the European Union. In Educational philosophy and theory 38(4) (pp. 451-469).
51. Verpoorten D.; Westera W. and Specht M. (2012). Using reflection triggers while learning in an online course. In British Journal of Educational Technology 43(6) (pp. 1030-1040).
52. Webster L. and Mertova P. (2007). Using narrative inquiry as a research method: An introduction to using critical event narrative analysis in research on learning and teaching. London: Routledge.
53. Wenger E. (1998). Communities of Practice: Learning Meaning and Identity. Boston: Cambridge University Press.
54. Yoon K. (2003). Retraditionalizing the Mobile Young People’s Sociality and Mobile Phone Use in Seoul South Korea. In European Journal of Cultural Studies 6(3) (pp. 327-343).
55. Yoon K. (2006a). Local Sociality in Young People’s Mobile Communications: A Korean case study. In Childhood 13(2) (pp. 155-174).
56. Yoon K. (2006b). The making of neo-Confucian cyberkids: representations of young mobile phone users in South Korea. In New Media & Society 8(5) (pp. 753-771).
57. Zimmermann B.J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. In Theory into practice 41(2) (pp. 64-70).