The Planning of Tourism on Rural Areas: The Stakeholders' Perceptions of the Boticas Municipality (Northeastern Portugal)

Paula Remoaldo 1 , Isabel Freitas 2 , Olga Matos 3 , Hélder Lopes 4 , Sara Silva 5 , Maria Dolores Sánchez Fernández 6 , José Cadima Ribeiro 7  and Vitor Ribeiro 8
  • 1 Laboratory of Landscape, Heritage and Territory, University of Minho, 4704-553, Braga, Portugal
  • 2 Departamento de Territorio, Património e Cultura, Universidade Portucalense, 4200-072, Porto, Portugal
  • 3 School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo, 4900-347, Portugal
  • 4 Laboratory of Landscape, Heritage and Territory, University of Minho, 4704-553, Braga, Portugal
  • 5 Laboratory of Landscape, Heritage and Territory, University of Minho, 4704-553, Braga, Portugal
  • 6 Faculty of Economics and Business, University A Coruña, 15001, A Coruña, Spain
  • 7 Department of Economics, University of Minho, 4710-057, Braga, Portugal
  • 8 Department of Geography, University of Minho, 4800-058, Guimarāes, Portugal


Most of the strategies developed to “save” rural territories in Europe have not been successful. One of their main problems has been the adoption of the top-down paradigm when approaching the development of those territories. Portugal is a good example of the difficulty in adopting a bottom-up paradigm. The main objective of this paper is to present the perceptions of the local (including the residents) and regional stakeholders acting at Boticas, regarding the set of resources available and the development of the tourism industry. Boticas is a northern Portuguese, rural low-density municipality. In capturing those perceptions, the research contributes to the establishment of a more integrated and innovative development strategy and thus, a more capable strategy for profiting from the potential associated with the growth of the tourism industry that has been experienced recently in Portugal. The adoption of a mixed-method was suggested for evaluating these resources and capturing the perceptions of the tourist potential by different stakeholders. Empirical data was collected through a survey of 373 of its residents and 25 interviews conducted with local and regional actors, further supported by an inventory of the cultural resources and their capacity for visits. We conclude here that, residents tend to have a very positive perception of tourism development, and indeed, their perceptions largely met those of other stakeholders.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • [1] Aas, C., Ladkin, A. & Fletcher, J. (2005). Stakeholder collaboration and heritage management. Annals of Tourism Research 32(1), 28–48. DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2004.04.005.

  • [2] Abellán, F. C. (2008). Turismo Rural y desarrollo local: relaciones, desafíos, propuestas. In Abellán, F. C., ed., Turismo rural y desarrollo local (pp. 11–28). Sevilla/Cuenca: Ediciones de la Universidad Castilla-la-Mancha.

  • [3] Agarwal, S., Rahman, S. & Errington, A. (2009). Measuring the determinants of relative economic performance of rural areas. Journal of Rural Studies, 25(3), 309–321. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2009.02.003.

  • [4] Bartlett, M. S. (1951). A further note on tests of significance in factor analysis. British Journal of Psychology, 4(1), 1–2. DOI: 10.1111/j.2044-8317.1951.tb00299.x.

  • [5] Bosworth, G., Annibal, I., Carroll, T., Price, L., Sellick, J. & Shepherd, J. (2015). Empowering Local Action through Neo-Endogenous Development; The Case of LEADER in England. Sociologia Ruralis 56(3), 427–449. DOI: 10.1111/soru.12089.

  • [6] Butler, R. (1999). Sustainable Tourism: A State-of-the-Art Review. Tourism Geographies 1(1), 7–25. DOI: 10.1080/14616689908721291.

  • [7] Campbell, D.T. & Fiske, D.W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin 56(2), 81–105. DOI: 10.1037/h0046016.

  • [8] Cano, M., Garzón, E. & Sánchez-Soto, P. J. (2013). Preservation and Conservation of Rural Buildings as a Subject of Cultural Tourism: A Review Concerning the Application of New Technologies and Methodologies. Journal of Tourism & Hospitality 2(2), 1–13. DOI: 10.4172/2167-0269.1000115.

  • [9] Cánoves, G., Villarino, M., Priestley, G. K. & Blanco, A. (2004). Rural tourism in Spain: an analysis of recent evolution. Geoforum 35(6), 755–769. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2004.03.005.

  • [10] Crosby, A. (2007). Re-inventando el turismo rural: gestión and desarrollo. Barcelona: Laertes.

  • [11] Ehrlich, K. (2010). Proyecciones del turismo rural en Europa. In Jimenez Moreno, F. J. & Melgosa Arcos, F. J., eds. Estudios del turismo rural y cooperación entre Castilla, Léon y Portugal (pp. 11–28). Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca.

  • [12] Fonte, M. (2008). Knowledge, food and place. A way of producing, a way of knowing. Sociologia Ruralis, 48(3), 200–222. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9523.2008.00462.x.

  • [13] Gebremedhin, T. G. & Tweeten, L. G. (1994). Research methods and communication in the social sciences. London: ABC-CLIO.

  • [14] Hall, C. M. (2008). Tourism planning: policies, processes and relationships. 3rd ed. Essex: Pearson Education.

  • [15] Hall, D., Mitchell, M. & Roberts, L. (2016). Tourism and the countryside: dynamic relationships. In Hall, D., Roberts, L. & Mitchell, M., eds. New Directions in Rural Tourism (pp. 3–15). New York: Routledge.

  • [16] Harvey, D. (1969). Explanation in geography. London: Edward Arnold.

  • [17] Haven-Tang, C. & Sedgley, D. (2014). Partnership working in enhancing the destination brand of rural areas: A case study of Made in Monmouthshire, Wales, UK. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management 3(1), 59–67. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdmm.2013.12.001.

  • [18] High, C. & Nemes, G. (2007). Social learning in LEADER: Exogenous, endogenous and hybrid evaluation in rural development. Sociologia Ruralis 47(2), 103–119. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9523.2007.00430.x.

  • [19] Hottola, P., ed. (2009). Tourism strategies and local responses in Southern Africa. Wallingford: CABI. DOI: 10.1079/9781845935085.0000.

  • [20] Hussein, A. (2015). The use of triangulation in social sciences research: Can qualitative and quantitative methods be combined? Journal of Comparative Social Work 4(1), 1–12.

  • [21] Isserman, A. M., Feser, E., & Warren, D. E. (2009). Why some rural places prosper and others do not. International Regional Science Review 32(3), 300–342. DOI: 10.1177/0160017609336090.

  • [22] Jackson, L. A. (2008). Residents’ perceptions of the impacts of special event tourism. Journal of Place Management and Development 1(3), 240–255. DOI: 10.1108/17538330810911244.

  • [23] Kitchen, L. & Marsden, T. (2009). Creating Sustainable Rural Development through Stimulating the Eco-economy: Beyond the Eco-economic Paradox? Sociologia Ruralis, 49(3), 273–294. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9523.2009.00489.x.

  • [24] Kneafsey, M. (2001). Rural cultural economy: Tourism and social relations. Annals of Tourism Research 28(3), 762–783. DOI: 10.1016/S0160-7383(00)00077-3.

  • [25] Landford, C. (2009). Managing for sustainable tourism: a review of six cultural World Heritage Sites. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 17(1), 53–70. DOI: 10.1080/09669580802159719.

  • [26] Leiper, N. (1979). The Framework of Tourism: Towards a Definition of Tourism, Tourist, and the Tourism Industry. Annals of Tourism Research 6(4), 390–407. DOI: 10.1016/0160-7383(79)90003-3.

  • [27] Lessard-Hébert, M., Goyette, G. & Boutin, G. (2012). Investigação qualitativa: Fundamentos e práticas. Lisboa, Instituto Piaget.

  • [28] Lopes, H. (2016). O turismo como alavanca de desenvolvimento de áreas rurais: o estudo de caso do município de Boticas [Master Dissertation]. Braga: University of Minho.

  • [29] Lopes, H., Remoaldo, P. C., Ribeiro, V., Ribeiro, J. C. & Silva, S. (2016). The creation of a new tourist destination in low density areas: the Boticas case. Journal of Spatial and Organizational Dynamics 4(2), 118–131.

  • [30] McEwan, C. (2005). Geography, culture and global change. In Daniels et al., ed., An introduction to Human Geography: issues for the 21st century, 2nd ed. (pp. 265–283). Essex: Pearson Education Limited.

  • [31] Molina-Azorín, J. F. & Font, X. (2016). Mixed methods in sustainable tourism research: an analysis of prevalence, designs and application in JOST (2005–2014). Journal of Sustainable Tourism 24(4), 549–573. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2015.1073739.

  • [32] Murphy, P. (1985). Tourism: A Community Approach. London: Methuen.

  • [33] Negrut, L., & Vlad, S. (2016). Perspectives of Rural Tourism Development in Caras-Severin county. Lucrări Științifice Management Agricol 17(4), 82–89.

  • [34] Nunkoo, R., Smith, S. L. & Ramkissoon, H. (2013). Residents’ attitudes to tourism: A longitudinal study of 140 articles from 1984 to 2010. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 21(1), 5–25. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2012.673621.

  • [35] Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

  • [36] Nylander, M. (2001). National Policy for rural tourism: the case of Finland. In Roberts, L. and Hall, D., ed., Rural Tourism and recreation: principles to practices (pp. 77–85). New York: Cabi publishing.

  • [37] Oppermann, M. (2000). Triangulation – a methodological discussion. International Journal of Tourism Research, 2(2), 141–146. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1522-1970(200003/04)2:2<141::AID-JTR217>3.0.CO;2-U.

  • [38] Pérez López, C. (2005). SPSS advanced statistical methods. Madrid: Thomson.

  • [39] Radac, A. B., Csosz, I., Iulianamerce, I., Matias, C. G., & Dobra, C. I. (2012). The benefits of rural tourism. In sustainable rural development. International scientific symposium, 14(4), 369–372. Neidentifikovatelné a zmatené

  • [40] Ray, C. (1998). Territory, structures and interpretation – Two case studies of the European Union's LEADER I programme. Journal of Rural Studies 14(1), 79–87. DOI: 10.1016/S0743-0167(97)00039-9.

  • [41] Ray, C. (2006). Neo-endogenous rural development in the EU. In Cloke, P., Marsden, T. & Mooney, P., ed., Handbook of rural studies (pp. 278–291). London, Thousand Oaks and New Delhi: Sage Publications.

  • [42] Remoaldo, P. C. & Cadima Ribeiro, J. (2015). Holistic approach, tourism. In Jafari, J. & Xiao, H., eds., Encyclopedia of Tourism (pp. 430–431). Cham: Springer International Publishing, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-01669-6_477-1.

  • [43] Rivero, M. S., Martín, J. M. S. & Gallego, J. I. R. (2016). Methodological approach for assessing the potential of a rural tourism destination: An application in the province of Cáceres (Spain). Current Issues in Tourism 19(11), 1084–1102. DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2014.978745.

  • [44] Sánchez-Fernández, M. D. (2014). La teoría institucional y la responsabilidad social corporativa en el sector hotelero de la eurorregión Galicia-Norte de Portugal [Doctoral dissertation]. Universidade da Coruña.

  • [45] Sekaran, U. (2003). Research methods for business: A skill approach. Hoboken, NJ.: John Willey and Sons, Inc.

  • [46] Sharma, B. & Dyer, P. (2009). An investigation of differences in residents' perceptions on the Sunshine Coast: tourism impacts and demographic variables. Tourism Geographies 11(2), 187–213. DOI: 10.1080/14616680902827159.

  • [47] Shaw, G. & Williams, A. M. (1994). Critical Issues in Tourism. Oxford: Blackwell.

  • [48] Siebert, R., Laschewski, L. & Dosch, A. (2008). Knowledge dynamics in valorising local nature. Sociologia Ruralis 48(3), 223–239. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9523.2008.00464.x.

  • [49] Silva, A. S. & Pinto, J. M., eds., (1987). Metodologia das Ciências Sociais, 2nd ed., Porto: Edições Afrontamento.

  • [50] Stylidis, D. (2016). The Role of Place Image Dimensions in Residents' Support for Tourism Development. International Journal of Tourism Research 18(2), 129–139. DOI: 10.1002/jtr.2039.

  • [51] Vareiro, L., Remoaldo, P. C. & Cadima Ribeiro, J. A. (2013). Residents' perceptions of tourism impacts in Guimarães (Portugal): a cluster analysis. Current Issues in Tourism 16(6), 535–551. DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2012.707175.

  • [52] Verdu Jover, A. J. (2002). Relación entre flexibilidad y desempeño organizativo: una aproximación desde la perspectiva de la gestión de la calidad total. Alicante: Universidad Miguel Hernández.

  • [53] Wang, C. H. (2005). Constructing multivariate process capability indices for short-run production. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 26(11–12), 1306–1311. DOI: 10.1007/s00170-004-2397-8.

  • [54] Williams, A., Hall, C. M. & Lew, A. (2014). Theoretical and methodological challenges for tourism. In Lew, A., Hall, C. M. & Williams, A., eds., Theoretical and methodological challenges for tourism (pp. 625–634). London: Blackwell.

  • [55] Wilson, S., Fesenmaier, D. R., Fesenmaier, J. & van Es, J. C. (2001). Factors for success in rural tourism development. Journal of Travel Research 40(2), 132–138. DOI: 10.1177/004728750104000203.

  • [56] Woods, M. (2007). Engaging the global countryside: globalization, hybridity and the reconstitution of rural place. Progress in Human Geography 31(4), 485–507. DOI: 10.1177/0309132507079503.

  • [57] Woods, M. (2011). Rural (Key ideas in geography). New York: Routledge.

  • [58] Wubneh, M. A. (1987). Multivariate analysis of socio-economic characteristics of urban areas in Ethiopia. African Urban Quaterly 2(4), 425–433.

  • [59] Carta de Burra (1999). Access 25th January, 2017

  • [60] Carta de Veneza (1964). Access 25th January, 2017

  • [61] Icomos, (2007), Icomos Ename Charter for the Interpretation of Cultural Heritage Sites, Icomos, Paris. Acedido em

  • [62] INE, I. P. (2014). Anuário Estatístico da Região Norte – 2013. Lisboa: Instituto Nacional de Estatística.

  • [63] Moreno, L. (2008). A promoção e a oferta de turismo em áreas de baixa densidade. Portugal no contexto europeu [Paper presented at the I Seminário de Turismo e Planeamento do Território]. Lisbon.

  • [64] World Tourism Organization. European Commission (2013). Sustainable Tourism for Development. Guidebook: Madrid.


Journal + Issues