This paper examines current recreational water use in the rural landscape in Ireland and reviews current EU policies and national regulations aimed at protecting water quality and the wider environment under agri-environmental schemes. Specifically, we review policy instruments that protect water for recreational use, their impacts and the challenges they pose for rural development against current requirements to increase public awareness and participation. In Ireland, there is limited experience in public participation in water quality protection and restoration and we highlight how this can be addressed by focussing on the specific contribution of water quality in rural areas in relation to the provision of recreational ecosystem services. These services provide the infrastructure for much of Ireland’s rural tourism sector. In this context, emerging participatory approaches to policy implementation are also assessed as national and local government prioritise community engagement for the second cycle under the EU Water Framework Directive.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
 Aylward B. Bandyopadhyay J. & Belausteguigotia J. C. eds. (2005). Freshwater Ecosystem Services. In: Ecosystems and Human Well-being; Policy Responses (pp. 213-256). Washington D.C.: Island Press.
 Bandura A. (1963). Social learning and personality development. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston.
 Barnes A. Toma L. Willock J. & Hall C. (2013). Comparing a ‘budge’ to a ‘nudge’: Farmer responses to voluntary and compulsory compliance in a water quality management regime. Journal of Rural Studies 32 448-459. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2012.09.006.
 Bartolini F. Gallerani V. Raggi M. & Viaggi D. (2012). Modelling the Linkages between Cross‐Compliance and Agri‐Environmental Schemes Under Asymmetric Information. Journal of Agricultural Economics 63(2) 310-330. DOI: 10.1111/j.1477-9552.2012.00339.x.
 Boccaccio L. Hegarty J. & Brunner A. (2009). Through the green smokescreen: how is CAP cross compliance delivering for biodiversity? Cambridge: Birdlife International.
 Bradley C. Byrne C. Craig M. Free G. Gallagher T. Kennedy B. Little R. Lucey J. Mannix A. McCreesh P. McDermott G. McGarrigle M. Ní Longphuirt S. O’Boyle S. Plant C. Tierney D. Trodd W. Webster P. Wilkes R. & Wynne C. (2015). Water Quality in Ireland 2010-2012. Wexford: Environmental Protection Agency.
 Crowley E. (2003). The evolution of the Common Agricultural Policy and social differentiation in rural Ireland. Economic and Social Review 34(1) 65-86.
 Curtis J. A. (2002). Estimating the demand for salmon angling in Ireland. Economic and Social Review 33 (3) 319-332.
 Daly K. Mills P. Coulter B. McGarrigle M. 2002. Modeling phosphorus concentrations in Irish rivers using land use soil type and soil phosphorus data. Journal of Environmental Quality 31 590-599.
 Dworak T. (2007). The role and significance of voluntary agri-environmental advisory services in minimising water pollution from the agricultural sector. Agri-environmental extension services around the Baltic Sea Riga Latvia 6-7 Dec 2007.
 Fáilte Ireland. Determination of Waters of National Tourism Significance and Associated Water Quality Status. 2007. National Tourism Development Authority.
 Fenton O. Schulte R. P. O. Jordan P. Lalor S. T. J. & Richards K. G. (2011). Time lag: a methodology for the estimation of vertical and horizontal travel and flushing timescales to nitrate threshold concentrations in Irish aquifers. Environmental Science & Policy. 14(4) 419-431. DOI: 10.1016/j.envsci.2011.03.006.
 Hart K. Farmer M. Baldock D. Brouwer F. Fox G. & Jongeneel R. (2012). The role of cross compliance in greening EU agricultural policy. In Brouwer F. Fox G. & Jongeneel R. eds. The Economics of Regulation in Agriculture: Compliance with Public and Private Standards (pp. 9-28). Wallingford: CABI.
 Heneghan M Caslin B. Ryan M. & O’Donoghue C. (2016). Teagasc Rural Tourism Handbook. Teagasc Rural Economy and Development Programme. Carlow: Teagasc Oak Park.
 Hodge I. Hauck J. & Bonn A. (2015). The alignment of agricultural and nature conservation policies in the European Union. Conservation Biology 29(4) 996-1005. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12531.
 Howley P. Buckley C. Jordan R. O’Donoghue C. Hynes S. & Green S. (2011). Sustainable management strategies: Identifying the non-market benefits of rivers and the major factors affecting river water quality across the Republic of Ireland. Washington D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
 Hynes S. & Hanley N. (2006). Preservation versus development on Irish rivers: Whitewater kayaking and hydro power in Ireland. Land Use Policy Journal 23(2) 170-180. DOI: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2004.08.013.
 Kristensen L. & Primdahl J. (2004). Potential for environmental cross-compliance to advance agri-environment objectives. [Report of Seminar 3 EU Concerted Action Project “Developing Cross-compliance in the EU-Background Lessons and Opportunities]. Copenhagen: The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University.
 Magat W. A. Huber J. Viscusi W. K. & Bell J. (2000). An iterative choice approach to valuing clean lakes rivers and streams. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 21(1) 7-43. DOI: 10.1023/A:1026565225801.
 Marine Institute 2004. A National Survey of Water-Based Leisure Activities in Ireland 2003 http://oar.marine.ie/bitstream/10793/885/1/SurveyofWaterBasedLeisureActivitiesIreland.pdf
 Mellander P.-E. Melland A. R. Jordan P. Wall D. P. Murphy P. N. C. Shortle G. Quantifying nutrient transfer pathways in agricultural catchments using high temporal resolution data. Environmental Science & Policy 24 (2012) 44-57.
 Menghi A. de Roest K. Porcelluzzi A. Deblitz C. von Davier Z. Wildegger B. de Witte T. Strohm K. Garming H. & Dirksmeyer W. (2008). Assessing farmers' cost of compliance with EU legislation in the fields of environment animal welfare and food safety [Final Report]. Brussel: EC Directorate General for Agriculture and Rural Development.
 Mills J. Gaskell P. Reed M. Short C. Ingram J. Boatman N. Jones N. Conyers S. Carey P. Winter M. & Lobley M. (2013). Farmer attitudes and evaluation of outcomes to on-farm environmental management. [Report to Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs]. Gloucester: Countryside and Community research Institute.
 Murphy P. Plunkett M. & Wall D. (2014). Soil Fertility Atlas of Ireland. Carlow: Teagasc.
 Ó Cinnéide M. (2015). Social Learning and the Agricultural Sector - the Water Framework Directive in Ireland Scotland and Scandinavia [unpublished presentation] Catchment Science 2015. Wexford. 28th September 2015.
 O’Flaherty B. (2015). Community engagement in water management - a local authority experience [unpublished presentation]. TIMe Workshop Dundalk Institute of Technology. Nov 2015. Monaghan County Council.
 Pahl-Wostl C. (2007). Transition towards adaptive management of water facing climate and global change. Water Resources Management. 21(1) 49-62. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-5591-1_4.
 Povellato A. & Scorzelli D. (2006). The Farm Advisory System: A Challenge for the Implementation of Cross Compliance. [Deliverable D14 of the CC Network Project. SSPE-CT-2005-022727].
 Roberts W. Doody D. Gonzalez J Jordan P. and Daly K. (2017). Assessing the risk of phosphorus transfer to high ecological status rivers: Integration of nutrient management with soil geochemical and hydrological conditions. Science of the Total Environment. 589 25-35.
 Roberts W. Fealy R. Doody D. Jordan P. and Daly K. (2016). Estimating the effects of land use and environmental characterisitcs on high ecological status in Irish rivers at different scales. 2016. Science of the Total Environment. 618-625.
 Seale C. (2014). Cross-Compliance - Improving Farmer Engagement [unpublished presentation] National Agri Environment Conference. Thursday 13th November 2014 Tullamore Court Hotel Co. Offaly.
 Stoate C. Báldi A. Beja P. Boatman N. Herzon I. Van Doorn A. De Snoo G. Rakosy L. & Ramwell C. (2009). Ecological impacts of early 21st century agricultural change in Europe-a review. Journal of Environmental Management 91(1) 22-46. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.07.005.
 Teagasc (2013). Teagasc submission on the Rural Development Programme for Ireland (RDP) 2014-2020 Public Consultation. Teagasc Athenry Co. Galway Ireland http://www.teagasc.ie/publications/2012/3132/RDP_2012.
 Stithou M. (2012). The Economic Value of Improvements in the Ecology of Irish Rivers due to the Water Framework Directive [PhD Thesis]. University of Stirling.
 Varanka S. & Luoto M. (2012). Environmental determinants of water quality in boreal rivers based on partitioning methods. River Research and Applications 28(7) 1034-1036. DOI: 10.1002/rra.1502.
 Whelan B. J. (1997). A National Survey of Water-Based Leisure Activities Ireland [Research Report]. Dublin: Marine Institute.
 Woli K. P. Hayakawa A. Kuramochi K. & Hatano R. (2008). Assessment of river water quality during snowmelt and base flow periods in two catchment areas with different land use. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 137(1-3) 251-260. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-007-9757-4.
 Young R. A. (2005). Determining the economic value of water: concepts and methods. Resources for the Future. London: Routledge.