In this paper, emphasis is placed on the complexity of rural-urban relations and their reflection on the important socio-geographical processes, from de-agrarian and migration to the creation of new settlements and strengthening nodality individual centres. A clear polarization in urban and rural areas is more difficult due to the lack of adequate statistical indicators or deployment of institutions with different degree of importance, population density and distance from major city, providing sufficiently clear evidence of the degree of urbanity of local communities. This can be best seen in the Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) which is sparsely populated country with an average of 74 inhabitants/km2. Since there is a clear correlation between this indicator and sustainable development, increasing urbanization rates, which can stimulate economic growth and reduce poverty, is set as the primary social objective. Many developing countries looking for a way better governance of rural-urban relations, as one of the elements of inclusive growth, as a crucial element in the development of any society through innovation (industry) and harmonious territorial relations (urban-rural). Since BiH has a negative historical heritage but also unfavourable indicators of the degree of urbanization (40%), macroeconomic stability (29% of the GDP of the EU average) and the degree of innovation (44% compared to Switzerland) it is clear that should be analyzed and rural-urban relations as one of the signposts along the way of creating a better and healthier society.
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