There has been a strong discourse in public policy aimed at transforming rural places from venues of primary production into truly diverse socioeconomic landscapes. Yet conceptualisations of the rural as envisioned in the policy and politics of the ‘new economy’ often prove to be elusive on the ground. However, post-productive activity in rural areas has become a major focus for rural studies scholars. This paper investigates the ideas of post-productivism in the existing literature, and argues for a holistic understanding of post-productivism as an idea and political ambition rather than an imperative and irreversible change of rural economic activity. The purpose of the study is to make clear the division between post-productivism and the related concepts of post-production and post-productive activities in order to better understand processes of rural change in relation to different geographical contexts. It is argued that post-productivism as a concept stands apart from de facto post-production and alternative concepts such as multifunctionality and should be regarded as part of broader regional development discourses. The paper outlines several important fields in which post-productivism is a necessary component for rural transformation and development. While it is not always easily captured in indicators or empirical studies in rural locations, postproductivism exists at the level of discourse and planning and thus has real effects on the ground. The paper concludes by offering suggestions on how to apply the concepts of post-productivism, post-production and multifunctionality in future studies.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
 Argent N. (2002). From pillar to post? In search of the post-productivist countryside in Australia. Australian Geographer 33(1) 97-114. DOI: 10.1080/00049180220125033.
 Bergstrom J. C. (2001). Postproductivism and rural land values. Faculty series. Athens GA: University of Georgia.
 Bjørkhaug H. & Richards C. A. (2008). Multifunctional agriculture in policy and practice? A comparative analysis of Norway and Australia. Journal of Rural Studies 24(1) 98-111. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2007.06.003.
 Brouder P. (2012). Creative outposts: Tourism’s place in rural innovation. Tourism Planning & Development 9(4) 383-396. DOI: 10.1080/21568316.2012.726254.
 Brouder P. (2013). Embedding Arctic tourism innovation in ‘creative outposts’. In Lemelin R. H. Maher P. & Liggett D. (eds.) From talk to action: How tourism is changing the Polar regions (pp. 183-198). Thunder Bay ON: Centre for Northern Studies Press.
 Brouder P. & Eriksson R. (2013). Staying power: What influences micro-firm survival in tourism? Tourism Geographies 15(1) 124-143. DOI: 10.1080/14616688.2011.647326.
 Burton R. J. F. & Wilson G. A. (2006). Injecting social psychology theory into conceptualisations of agricultural agency: Towards a post-productivist farmer self-identity? Journal of Rural Studies 22(1) 95-115. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2005.07.004.
 Elands B. H. M. & Praestholm S. (2008). Landowners’ perspectives on the rural future and the role of forests across Europe. Journal of Rural Studies 24(1) 72-85. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2007.02.002.
 Evans N. Morris C. & Winter M. (2002). Conceptualizing agriculture: Acritique of postproductivism as the new orthodoxy. Progress in Human Geography 26(3) 313-332. DOI: 10.1191/0309132502ph372ra.
 Hedlund M. (2014). Mapping the socio-economic landscape of rural Sweden: Towards a typology of rural areas. Regional Studies. DOI: 10.1080/00343404.2014.924618.
 Holmes. J. (2002). Diversity and change in Australia’s rangelands: A postproductivist transition with a difference? Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 27(3) 362-384. DOI: 10.1111/1475-5661.00059.
 Holmes J. (2006). Impulses towards a multifunctional transition in rural Australia: Gaps in the research agenda. Journal of Rural Studies 22(2) 142-160. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2005.08.006.
 Holmes J. (2008). Impulses towards a multifunctional transition in rural Australia: Interpreting regional dynamics in landscapes lifestyles and livelihoods. Landscape Research 33(2) 211-223. DOI: 10.1080/01426390801912089.
 Hoogendoorn G. (2010). Second homes and local economic impacts in the South African post-productivist countryside. (Doctoral dissertation). Faculty of Humanities University of the Free State Bloemfontein South Africa.
 Hoogendoorn G. & Visser G. (2011). Tourism second homes and an emerging South African post-productivist countryside. Tourism Review International 15(1-2) 183-197. DOI: 10.3727/154427211X13139345020651.
 Ilbery B. & Kneafsey M. (1997). Regional images and the promotion of quality products and services in the lagging regions of the European Union. Paper presented to the Third Anglo-French Rural Geography Symposium Université de Nantes 11-14 September.
 Ilbery B. & Bowler I. (1998). From agricultural productivism to post-productivism. In Ilbery B. (ed.). The geography of rural change (pp. 57-84). Harlow UK: Longman.
 Jack L. (2007). Accounting post-productivism and corporate power in UK food and agriculture.
 Critical Perspectives on Accounting 18(8) 905-931. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpa.2006.04.004.
 Jansson U. & Wästfelt A. (2010). Rural landscape changes from a long-term perspective: Farming policy economy and society from 1750 to today. In Ymer 2010 Placing human geography. Sweden through time and space (pp. 113-141). Stockholm: Svenska Sällskapet för Antropologi och Geografi.
 Kapferer J. L. (1990). Rural myths and urban ideologies. Journal of Sociology 26(1) 87-106. DOI: 10.1177/144078339002600105.
 Keskitalo C. E. & Lundmark L. (2010). The controversy over protected areas and forestsector employment in Norrbotten Sweden: Forest stakeholder perceptions and statistics. Society & Natural Resources 23(2) 146-164. DOI: 10.1080/08941920802688543.
 Kristensen L. (2001). Agricultural change in Denmark between 1982 and 1989: The appearance of post-productivist farming? Geografisk Tidsskrift 101(1) 77-86. DOI:10.1080/00167223.2001.10649452.
 Lane B. (2009). Rural tourism: An overview. In Jamal T. & Robinson M. (eds.) Handbook of Tourism Studies (pp. 354-370). London UK: SAGE.
 Lundmark L. (2006). Restructuring and employment change in sparsely populated areas: Examples from northern Sweden and Finland. (Doctoral dissertation). Department of Social and Economic Geography Umeå University Umeå Sweden.
 Lundmark L. (2010). Mobilising the rural: Post-productivism and the new economy. Proposal for Formas grant Research leaders of the future in the area rural development. Umeå University Umeå Sweden.
 Lundmark L. & Stjernström O. (2009). Environmental protection: An instrument for regional development? National ambitions versus local realities in the case of tourism. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism 9(4) 387-405. DOI: 10.1080/15022250903273780.
 Macken-Walsch Á. (2009). Barriers to change: A sociological study of rural development in Ireland. Galway Ireland: Teagasc Rural Economy Research Centre. Accessed from http://www.teagasc.ie/research/reports/ruraldevelopment/5574/eopr-5574.pdf [2014-09-05].
 Markey S. Halseth G. & Manson D. (2008). Challenging the inevitability of rural decline: Advancing the policy of place in northern British Columbia. Journal of Rural Studies 24(4) 409-421. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2008.03.012.
 Martin R. (1994). Economic theory and human geography. In Gregory D. Martin R. & Smith G. (eds.) Human geography. Society space and social science (pp. 21-53). London UK: Macmillan Press.
 Mather A. S. Hill G. & Nijnik M. (2006). Post-productivism and rural land use: Cul de sac or challenge for theorization? Journal of Rural Studies 22(4) 441-455. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2006.01.004.
 McCarthy J. (2005). Rural geography: Multifunctional rural geographies - reactionary or radical? Progress in Human Geography 29(6) 773-782. DOI: 10.1191/0309132505ph584pr.
 Müller D. K. (2011) Second homes in Sweden: Between common heritage and exclusive commodity. In Placing Human Geography in Sweden Through Time and Space (pp. 185-207). Stockholm Sweden: Svenska Sällskapet för Antropologi och Geografi.
 Müller D. K. & Brouder P. (2014). Dynamic development or destined to decline? The case of Arctic tourism businesses and local labour markets in Jokkmokk Sweden. In Viken A. & Granås B. (eds.) Tourism destination development: Turns and tactics (pp. 227-244). Farnham UK: Ashgate.
 Müller D. K. & Ulrich P. (2007). Tourism development and the rural labour market in Sweden 1960-1999. In Müller D. K. & Jansson B. (eds.) Tourism in peripheries. Perspectives from the far north and south (pp. 85-105). Wallingford UK: CABI.
 OECD (2006). The new rural paradigm: Policies and governance. Paris: OECD publications.
 Rodríguez-Pose A. (2010). Economic geographers and the limelight: The reaction to the World Development Report 2009. Economic Geography 86(4) 361-370. DOI: 10.1111/j.1944-8287.2010.01094.x.
 Smith M. D. & Krannich R. S. (2000). “Culture clash” revisited: Newcomer and longer-term residents’ attitudes toward land use development and environmental issues in rural communities in the Rocky Mountain West. Rural Sociology 65(3) 396-421. DOI: 10.1111/j.1549-0831.2000.tb00036.x.
 Svensson E. (2009). Consuming nature-producing heritage: Aspects on conservation economical growth and community participation in a forested sparsely populated area in Sweden. International Journal of Heritage Studies 15(6) 540-559. DOI: 10.1080/13527250903210837.
 van der Ploeg J. D. Renting H. Brunori G. Knickel K. Mannion J. Marsden T. de Roest K. Sevilla-Guzmán E. & Ventura F. (2000). Rural development: From practices and policies towards theory. Sociologia Ruralis 40(4) 391-408. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9523.00156.
 Vepsäläinen M. & Pitkänen K. (2010). Second home countryside. Representations of the rural in Finnish popular discourses. Journal of Rural Studies 26(2) 194-204. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2009.07.002.
 Wilson G. A. (2001). From productivism to post-productivism ... and back again? Exploring the (un)changed natural and mental landscapes of European agriculture. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 26(1) 77-102. DOI: 10.1111/1475-5661.00007.
 Wilson G. A. (2007). Multifunctional agriculture: A transition theory perspective. Wallingford UK: CABI International.
 Wilson G. A. & Rigg J. (2003). ‘Post-productivist’ agricultural regimes and the South: Discordant concepts? Progress in Human Geography 27(6) 681-707. DOI: 10.1191/0309132503ph450oa.
 Woods M. (2011). Rural. London UK: Routledge.