Importance of Animation Actions in the Operation of Hungarian Local Action Groups
The EU LEADER initiative has been running for 20 years and plays an important role in the development of European rural areas, however, in countries joining to the EU after 2004 it is still a relatively new phenomenon. In Hungary, for example, the LEADER+ programme was launched in 2005 with an experimental phase (called a "LEADER type initiative") and has developed to be a fully applied EU programme only in the current programming period. This paper explores the implementation of the LEADER programme in eastern Hungary. The examined Local Action Groups face diverse challenges concerning human, social, physical and financial capital, networks and social learning. The study investigates the opportunities and threats faced by the LAGs, with special regard to institutions, governance and applied initiatives. The roles of the LAGs within the social, economic and cultural context of given areas are examined through Lukesch's (2007) model FOG - forms of governance. The model is a tool to explore the interrelationships local partnership, local needs and local socio-cultural environment. The results of the FOG test show that the prevailing mode of governance in the examined LAGs emphasises animation actions as important elements of operation. Although the importance of animation actions is underlined by the result of the test, their presence between the initiatives is less than it should be. Good examples of animation actions are given: participatory video and a case study of its Hungarian application are introduced. Finally the role of Universities in animation actions is emphasised and closer relation of them with RD networks is called for.
Bodorkós, B. & Pataki Gy. (2009). Local communities empowered to plan? Action Research 7(3), 313-334. Doi: 10.1177/1476750309336720.
Buday-Sántha, A. (2009). A magyar agrár- és vidékfejlesztés ellentmondásai. Magyar Tudomány 2009/8, 937-945.
Fehér, A. (2005): A vidékgazdaság és a mezőgazdaság. Budapest: Agroinform Kiadó.
Ferreira, G. (2006). Participatory video for policy development. University of Guelph.
Freire, P. (1972). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
Harding, T. (2001). The video activist handbook. London: Pluto Press.
High, C. (2010). Social Learning in the Context of Adaptation to Climate Change. Paper presented at the International Workshop on The Social Dimension of Adaptation to Climate Change, Venice.
Huber, B. (1998). Communicative aspects of participatory video projects: An exploratory study. Unpublished master thesis. Uppsala: Swedish Agricultural University.
Katona-Kovács, J. (2010). Alignment of rural and regional programmes and funding. Workshop Slide presented at the RuralJobs FP7 research closing conference http://www.region-limousin.fr/ruraljobs/?cat=16.
Kovách, I. & Kristóf, L. (2009). The Role of Intermediate Actors in Transmitting Rural Goods and Services in Rural Areas Under Urban Pressure. Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 11(1), 45-60. DOI: 10.1080/15239080902775025.
Kovács, G. (2004). Rural policies and LEADER+ in Denmark and Hungary. Working paper. Esbjerg: The Danish Centre for Rural Research and Development.
Loorbach, D. & Rotmans, J. (2006) Managing transitions for sustainable development. In Poppe, K. J. et al., eds. Transitions towards sustainable agriculture and food chains in peri-urban areas. Wageningen Academic Publishers.
Nemes, G., & High, C. (2009). Social learning in the project state. Paper presented at the XXIII European Society For Rural Sociology Congress "Re-inventing the rural: between the social and the natural", Vaasa, Finland.
Nemes, G., High, C., Shafer, N., & Goldsmith, R. (2007). Using participatory video to evaluate community development. Paper presented at the XXII European Congress of Rural Sociology, Wageningen, Netherlands.
Nemes, G., Chris, H. & Huzair, F. (2006): Reflexive agency and multi-level governance: Mediating integrated rural development in South Transdanubia. In Cheshire, L. Higgins & V. Lawrence, G. (eds.), International Perspectives on Rural Governance: New Power Relations in Rural Economies and Societies. London: Routledge.
Odor K., Karcagi-Kováts, A. & Kuti, I. (2009):. Rural areas under the pressure of population decrease. "AGRARIAN PERSPECTIVE XVIII. - Strategies for the Future" Collection of Papers of International Scientific Conference, Prague, Czech University of Life Sciences, September 2009.
Rabbinge, R. & Slingerland, M. (2009). Change in knowledge infrastructure: the third generation university. In Poppe K. J. et al, eds., Transitions towards sustainable agriculture and food chains in peri-urban areas. Wageningen Academic Publishers.
Salverda, I., Slangen, L., Kruit, J., Weijschedé, T. & Mulder, J. (2009). History is alluring: self-organisation and the significance of history in the search for a new local sense of collectivity. In Poppe K. J. et al, eds., Transitions towards sustainable agriculture and food chains in peri-urban areas. Wageningen Academic Publishers.
Shaw, J., & Robertson, C. (1997). Participatory video: A practical guide to using video creatively in group development work. London: Routledge.
Schockemöhle, J., Kalmárné-Hollósi, E. & Cser, J. (2010). Rural Action Learning - promoting competences and strengthening participation. In Fieldsend, A., ed., Linking competitiveness with equity and sustainability: new ideas for the socio-economic development of rural areas (pp 7-23). Warsaw: European Rural Development Network.
Szabó, G. (2010). The Importance and Role of Trust in Agricultural Marketing Co-Operatives. MTA - AKI, Budapest: Studies in Agricultural Economics, No. 112, pp 5-22.