From Analysis to Formulation of Strategies for Farm Advisory Services (Case Study: Valencia – Spain). an Application through Swot and Qspm Matrix

Open access

Abstract

European agriculture should meet new increasing internal and contextual challenges. For example, the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003 introduced the cross-compliance, among other novelties, as compulsory for farmers. To better meet this and other requirements, Member States had to set up the so-called Farm Advisory System, operational across the European Union in 2007. From a sample of actors involved in the provision of farm advisory services in the region of Valencia (Spain), the present study aimed to identify the most appropriate strategies to implement such services. SWOT method has been applied to examine the internal and external environment. Based on this diagnosis, dominance of strengths and opportunities resulted in a set of four prioritised main ‘aggressive’ strategies (using SPACE and QSPM methods), which in turn may help public decision makers and advisers in a more effective implementation of advisory services.

[1] Addom, B. (2015). Managing Knowledge During Partnerships: A Case of Intermediaries in Agricultural Innovation System. The Journal of Community Informatics, 11(1).

[2] Agbamu, J. U. & van den Ban, A. W. (2000). Agricultural Research Extension Linkages Systems: An International Perspective. London: Overseas Development Institute.

[3] Anderson, J. R. (2008). Agricultural advisory services [research report]. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

[4] Anderson, J. R. & Feder, G. (2004). Agricultural Extension: Good Intentions and Hard Realities. World Bank Research Observer, 19(1), 41–60.

[5] Angileri, V. (2009). FAS implementation in the European Union. Setting-up, farm advisory bodies and rural development support. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

[6] Angileri, V. (2010). Farm Advisory System implementation in the European Union: experiences and prospects. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

[7] Angileri, V. (2011). Farm Advisory System in the European Union: proposals for improvement. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

[8] Arnalte, E., Ortiz, D. & Moreno, O. (2008). Cambio estructural en la agricultura española: Un nuevo modelo de ajuste en el inicio del siglo XXI. In Economía agroalimentaria. Nuevas enfoques y perspectivas. Una síntesis (pp. 59–73). Madrid: Fundación de las Casas de Ahorros.

[9] Arnalte, E. & Ortiz, D. (2013). The ‘Southern Model’ of European Agriculture Revisited: Continuities and Dynamics. In Ortiz-Miranda, D., Moragues-Faus, A. and Arnalte-Alegre, E. (ed.) Agriculture in Mediterranean Europe: Between Old and New Paradigms (pp. 37–74). Bradford: Emerald.

[10] Baptista, F. & Arnalte, E. (2008). Producción agraria, gestión ambiental y transición rural. Tres dimensiones de la “cuestión rural” en la Península Ibérica. In Economía agroalimentaria. Nuevas enfoques y perspectivas. Una síntesis (pp. 180–190). Madrid: Fundación de las Casas de Ahorros.

[11] Becheikh, N., Ziam, S., Idrissi, O., Castongua y, Y. & Landry, R. (2009). How to Improve Knowledge Transfer Strategies and Practices in Education? In Answers from a Systematic Literature Review, Research in Higher Education Journal 7, 1–21.

[12] Beech, N., MacIntosh, R. & MacLean, D. (2010). Dialogues between academics and practitioners: the role of generative dialogic encounters. Organization Studies, 31: 1341–1367. DOI: 10.1177/0170840610374396.

[13] Birner, R., Davis, K., Pender, J. et al. (2009). From Best Practice to Best Fit: A Framework for Designing and Analyzing Pluralistic Agricultural Advisory Services Worldwide. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. 15(4), 341–355. DOI: 10.1080/13892240903309595.

[14] Blum, M. & Chipeta, S. (2016). Innovative Financing Mechanisms for Demand – Driven Agricultural Advisory Services. Lausanne: Global Forum for Rural Advisory Services.

[15] Bran, F., Iovitu, M. & Ioan, I. (2016). Climate change impact on agriculture: insights from the main Romanian croplands. Quality – Access to Success 17(S1), 510–516.

[16] Brechmann, S., Knierim, A. & Wellbrock, W. (2015). The capability of extension and advisory services to bridge the research and knowledge needs of farmers. [Research report]. Stuttgart: Universität Hohenheim.

[17] Caggiano, M. & Labarthe, P. (2014). From the ‘best fit’ to the ‘big fuss’: the lost opportunities of the Italian advisory services. In Aenis, T., Knierim, A., Riecher, M.-C., Ridder, R., Schobert, H. & Fischer, H., eds., Farming Systems Facing Global Challenges: Capacities and Strategies (pp. 205–214). Berlin: Humboldt University.

[18] Cejudo, E. & Maroto, J. C. (2010). La reforma de la PAC 2003: Desacoplamiento, condicionalidad, modulación, desarrollo rural. Scripta Nova 14, 318.

[19] Chipeta, S. (2006). Demand Driven Agricultural Advisory Services. Lindau. Neuchâtel Group.

[20] Chipeta, S., Christoplos, I. & Katz, E. (2008). Common Framework on Market-Oriented Agricultural Advisory Services. Lindau. Neuchâtel Group.

[21] Christoplos, I. (2008). Agricultural advisory services and the market. Washington, DC: Overseas Development Institute.

[22] Christoplos, I. (2010). Mobilizing the potential of rural and agricultural extension. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

[23] Collet, K. & Gale, C. (2009). Training for rural development: Agricultural and Enterprise skills for women smallholders. London: City & Guilds Centre for Skills Development.

[24] Cristóvao, A., Koutsouris, A., Kugler, M. (2012). Extension Systems and Change Facilitation for Agricultural and Rural Development. In Darnhofer, I., Gibbon, D. & Dedieu, B., eds., The Farming Systems Approaches into the 21st Century: The New Dynamic (pp. 201–227). Dordrecht: Springer.

[25] David, F. R. (1986). The Strategic planning matrix – Quantitative approach. Long Range Planning, 19(5), 102–107. DOI: 10.1016/0024-6301(86)90015-4.

[26] Davis, K. & Sulaiman, R. (2016). Overview of Extension Philosophies and Methods. Lausanne: Global Forum for Rural Advisory Services.

[27] Esparcia, J., Mena, M. & Escribano, J. (2014). AKIS and advisory services in Spain [research report]. University of Valencia.

[28] Faure, G., Desjeux, Y. & Gasselin, P. (2012). New Challenges in Agricultural Advisory Services from a Research Perspective: A Literature Review, Synthesis and Research Agenda. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 18 (5), 461–492. DOI: 10.1080/1389224X.2012.707063.

[29] García Álvarez-Coque, J. M., Pérez-Ledo, P., Santarremigia, E. (2013). Perfiles innovadores en la agricultura valenciana. Cuadernos de Estudios Agroalimentarios, 6: 153–169.

[30] Garforth, C., Angell, B., Archer, J. & Green, K. (2003). Fragmentation or Creative Diversity? Options in the Provision of Land Management Advisory Services. Land Use Policy 20 (4), 323–333. DOI: 10.1016/S0264-8377(03)00035-8.

[31] Gürbüz, T. (2013). A Modified Strategic Position and Action Evaluation (SPACE) Matrix Method. In International MultiConference of Engineers & Computer Scientists 2, not paged. Hong-Kong: Newswood Academic Publishing.

[32] Heemskerk, W. & Davis, K. (2012). Pluralistic extension systems. Agricultural innovation systems: An investment sourcebook (pp. 194–203). Washington, DC: World Bank.

[33] Hemsley-Brown, J. Z. & Oplatka, I. (2005). Bridging the research-practice gap: barriers and facilitators to research use among school principals from England and Israel. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 18(4/5), 424–446. DOI: 10.1108/09513550510608886.

[34] Herrera, M. E. B. (2015). Innovation for impact: Business innovation for inclusive growth. Journal of Business Research, 69(5), 1725–1730. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.10.045.

[35] Jaworski, B. J. & Kohli, A. K. (1993). Market orientation: Antecedents and Consequences. Journal of Marketing 57, 53–70. DOI: 10.2307/1251854.

[36] Jovanic, T. & Delic, A. T. (2013). The European Regulatory Framework for Farm Advisory Services. Economics of Agriculture. 60(4), 801–816.

[37] Kadleciková, M., Kapsdorferova, Z., Kania, J. et al. (2012). Agricultural Extension in EU countries. Nitra: Slovak University of Agriculture.

[38] Klerkx, L., De Grip, K. & Leeuwis, C. (2006). Hands off but Strings Attached: The Contradictions of Policy-induced Demand-driven Agricultural Extension. Agriculture and Human Values, 23(2), 189–204. DOI: 10.1007/s10460-005-6106-5.

[39] Klerkx, L., Aarts, N. & Leeuwis, C. (2010). Adaptive management in agricultural innovation systems: the interactions between innovation networks and their environment. Agricultural Systems, 103(6): 390–400. DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2010.03.012.

[40] Klerkx, L. & Leeuwis, C. (2009). Operationalizing Demand – Driven Agricultural Research: Institutional Influences in a Public and Private System of Research Planning in the Netherlands. Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 15(2), 161–175. DOI: 10.1080/13892240902909080.

[41] Klerkx, L. & Leeuwis, C. (2008). Matching Demand and Supply in the Agricultural Knowledge Infrastructure: Experiences with Innovation Intermediaries. Food Policy 33(3), 260–276. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2007.10.001.

[42] Klerkx, L. & Jansen, J. (2010). Building Knowledge Systems for Sustainable Agriculture: Supporting Private Advisors to Adequately Address Sustainable Farm Management in Regular Service Contacts. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 8(3), 148–163. DOI: 10.3763/ijas.2009.0457.

[43] Klerkx, L. & Proctor, A. (2013). Beyond Fragmentation and Disconnect: Networks for Knowledge Exchange in the English Land Management Advisory System. Land Use Policy 30(1), 13–24. DOI: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2012.02.003.

[44] Koutsouris, A. (2012). Facilitating Agricultural Innovation Systems: a Critical Realist Approach. Studies in Agricultural Economics 114, 64–70. DOI: 10.7896/j.1210.

[45] Koutsouris, A. (2014). Exploring the emerging ‘intermediation’ (facilitation and brokerage) roles in agricultural extension education. International Journal of Agricultural Extension 21–37.

[46] Krejcie, R. & Morgan, D. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement 30, 607–610. DOI: 10.1177/001316447003000308.

[47] Labarthe, P. (2009). Extension services and multifunctional agriculture: Lesson learnt from the French and Dutch contexts and approaches. Journal of Environmental management, 90 (Supplement 2), 193–202. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.11.021.

[48] Labarthe, P., Caggiano, M., Laurent, C., Faure, G. & Cerf, M. (2013). Concepts and theories available to describe the functioning and dynamics of agricultural advisory services [research report]. Paris: CIRAD.

[49] Labarthe, P., Laurent, C., Andrieu, T., Mora, A. & Caggiano, M. (2014). Systematic review of academic literature for evaluating the effectiveness of farm advisory services [research report]. Paris: CIRAD.

[50] Labarthe, P. & Laurent, C. (2013). Privatization of Agricultural Extension Services in the EU: Towards a Lack of Adequate Knowledge for Small-scale Farms? Food Policy 38, 240–252. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2012.10.005.

[51] Leeuwis, C. & Aarts, N. (2011). Rethinking Communication in Innovation Processes: Creating Space for Change in Complex Systems. Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 17(1), 21–36. DOI: 10.1080/1389224X.2011.536344.

[52] Leeuwis, C. & Van den Ban, A. (2004). Communication for Rural Innovation: rethinking agricultural extension, 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

[53] López, J. (2007). Asesoramiento de explotaciones agrarias: formación para el campo del S. XXI. Agricultura: Revista agropecuaria. 894, 204–206.

[54] Madureira, L., Koehnen, T., Pires, M., Ferreira, D., Cristovõ, A. & Baptista, A. (2015). The Capability of Extension and Advisory Services to Bridge Research and Knowledge Needs of Farmers [research report]. Villa Real: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro.

[55] Mantino, F. (2013). What is going to change in EU rural development policies after 2013? Main implications in different national contexts. Bio-based and Applied Economic 2(2), 191–206. DOI: 10.13128/BAE-12989.

[56] McDonagh, J., Farrell, M. & Mahon, M. (2013). Farm Families and Future Options – The Role of the Extension Advisory Services in Shaping Irish Agriculture. Quaestiones Geographicae, 32(4), 49–62. DOI: 10.2478/quageo-2013-0033.

[57] Meredith, E. D., Fred, R. D. & Forest, R. D. (2017). The quantitative strategic planning matrix: a new marketing tool. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 25(4), 342–352. DOI: 10.1080/0965254X.2016.1148763.

[58] Moreddu, C. & Poppe, K. J. (2013). Agricultural Research and Innovation Systems in Transition. EuroChoices, 12(1), 15–20. DOI: 10.1111/1746-692X.12014.

[59] Navarro, M. (2008). On the path to sustainable agricultural development: Enhancing agent’s contribution. The International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability, 4(3), 71–78. DOI: 10.18848/1832-2077/CGP/v04i03/54493.

[60] Nettle, R., Klerkx, L., Faure, G. & Koutsouris, A. (2017). Governance dynamics and the quest for coordination in pluralistic agricultural advisory systems, The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension 23(3), 189–195. DOI: 10.1080/1389224X.2017.1320638.

[61] Nettle, R., Crawford, A. & Brightling, P. (2018). How private sector farm advisors change their practices: An Australian case study. Journal of Rural Studies. 58, 20–27. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2017.12.027.

[62] Nitsch, H. & Osterburg, B. (2007). Efficiency of cross compliance controls – public administrative costs and targeting [research paper]. Braunschweig: Th0252nen Institut.

[63] Oreszczyn, S., Lane, A. & Carr, S. (2010). The role of networks of practice and webs of influencers on farmers’ engagement with and learning about agricultural innovations. Journal of Rural Studies 26, 404–417. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2010.03.003.

[64] Ortiz, D., Moragues, A. & Arnalte, E., eds. (2013). Agriculture in Mediterranean Europe: Between Old and New Paradigms. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.

[65] Phillipson, J., Proctor, A., Emery, S. B. & Lowe, P. (2016). Performing Inter-Professional Expertise in Rural Advisory Networks. Land Use Policy 54, 321–330. DOI: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.02.018.

[66] Povellato, A. & Scorzelli, D. (2006). The Farm Advisory System: A Challenge for the Implementation of Cross Compliance [research paper]. Roma: Istituto Nazionale di Economia Agraria.

[67] Prager, K., Labarthe, P., Caggiano, M. & Lorenzo-Arribas, A. (2016). How Does Commercialisation Impact on the Provision of Farm Advisory Services? Evidence from Belgium, Italy, Ireland and the UK. Land Use Policy 52, 329–344. DOI: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.12.024.

[68] Pulkrábek, J., Pazderů, K. (2016). AKIS and advisory services in the Czech Republic [research report]. Praha: Czech University of Life Sciences.

[69] Radder, L. & Louw, L. (1998). The SPACE Matrix: A tool for calibrating competition. Long Range Planning, 31(4), 549–559. DOI: 10.1016/S0024-6301(98)80048-4.

[70] Rajalahti, R. (2012). Agricultural Innovation Systems. An Investment Source Book. Washington, DC: World Bank.

[71] Ramos, R. (2009). Condicionalidad y asesoramiento a las explotaciones. Vida Rural. 221, 38–42.

[72] Riston, N. (2011). Strategic Management. New York: Neil Riston and Ventus Publishing ApS.

[73] Rivera, W. & Alex, G. (2004). Demand – Driven Approaches to Agriculture Extension. Case Studies of International Initiatives vol. 3. Washington, DC: World Bank.

[74] Sánchez, J. (2008). Condicionalidad y asesoramiento a las explotaciones agrarias en el territorio español. Agrónomos. 36, 53–63.

[75] Schrijver, R., Poppe, K. & Daheim, C. (2016). Precisions agriculture and the future of farming in the Europe. Science and Technology options assessment [Scientific study]. Brussels: Scientific Foresight Unit. DOI: 10.2861/020809.

[76] Shepherd, A. W. (2000). Understanding and using market information. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

[77] Sherafat, A., Yavari, K., Mohammad, S., Davoodi, S. & Bozorgzadeh, N. (2013). The Application of Strategic Position & Action Evaluation (SPACE) Matrix in the Organizational Goals and Strategies Development. Journal of Applied Sciences Research 9(4), 2666–2673.

[78] Swanson, B. (2006). The changing role of agricultural extension in a global economy, Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education 11(3), 5–17. DOI: 10.5191/jiaee.2006.13301.

[79] ADE (2009). Evaluation of the Implementation of the Farm Advisory System. Report for the European Commission, 2010. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/evaluation/market-and-income-reports/2009-fas_en (Accesed: 12–06–2017).

[80] AGROSYNERGIE (Groupement Européen d’Intérêt Economique) (2013). Evaluation of the structural effects of direct support. European Commission. Agriculture and Rural Development EC, 2014. Innovation union. Why do we need an Innovation Union? Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/research/innovation-union/index_en.cfm?pg=home. Full text available in: https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/sites/agriculture/files/evaluation/market-andincome-reports/2013/structural-effects-direct-support/fulltext_en.pdf (Accessed: 07–4–2017).

[81] Aragón, A. (2016). Medida =2 – Servicios de Asesoramiento, Gestión y Sustitución de Explotaciones Agrarias en los PDRs 20142020. Dirección General de Desarrollo Rural y Política Forestal, Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente, 44 p. Retrieved from http://www.redruralnacional.es/documents/10182/327903/10_M_2_ASESORAMIENTO_CURSO_CENCA_OCT_2016.pdf/91d50b8b-f26d-4f0d-a71e-b466e784b00c (Accessed: 15–09–2017).

[82] Bohn, A. (2016). Modernizing Extension and Advisory Services. Glossary. MEAS-USAID. Retrieved from http://www.meas-extension.org/home/glossary (Accessed 27–10–2017).

[83] BMZ (Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development) (2007). Value Chains for Broad – based Development, International Conference, 30 May – 1 June 2007, Berlin. Retrieved from http://www.value-chains.org/dyn/bds/docs/615/GTZValueLinksBerlinReport.pdf (Accessed: 08–04–2017).

[84] Cores, E. (2010). Farm Advisory System Implementation in the UE: experiences and prospects. Dirección General de Desarrollo Sostenible del Medio Rural. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino. FAS Workshop, Barcelona, 10–11 June. Retrieved from http://ies-webarchive-ext.jrc.it/mars/mars/News-Events/FAS-workshop/Workshop-agendaand-presentations.html.

[85] Council Regulation (EC) No 1782/2003 Establishing common rules for direct support schemes under the common agricultural policy and establishing certain support schemes for farmers. Official Journal of the European Union, L270, 21–10–2003.

[86] Council Regulation (EC) No 1698/2005 on support for rural development by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD). Official Journal of the European Union, L277, 21–10–2005.

[87] Council Regulation (EC) No 73/2009 Establishing common rules for direct support schemes for farmers under the common agricultural policy and establishing certain support schemes for farmers. Official Journal of the European Union, L30, 31–1–2009.

[88] Council Regulation (EU) No 1305/2013 of the European Parliament and the Council on support for rural development by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) and repealing Council Regulation (EC) No 1698/2005. Official Journal of the European Union, L347, 20–12–2013.

[89] Council Regulation (EU) No 1306/2013 of the European Parliament and the Council on the financing, management and monitoring of the common agricultural policy. Official Journal of the European Union, L347, 20–12–2013.

[90] Cristiano, S., Proietti, P. & Striano, M. (2015). Farm Advisory Services in knowledge transfer and innovation: which role in Rural Development Programmes (RDPs) 20142020 [unpublished conference paper].

[91] European Commission (2010a). Main issues and evaluation of the implementation of the Farm Advisory System (FAS) in Member States. DG Agriculture and Rural Development, Unit D3, FAS Workshop, Barcelona, 10 of June. Retrieved from http://ies-webarchiveext.jrc.it/mars/mars/News-Events/FAS-workshop/Workshop-agenda-and-presentations.html (Accessed: 03–04–2017).

[92] European Commission (2010b). Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the application of the Farm Advisory System as defined in Article 12 and 13 of Council Regulation (EС) No 73/2009, COM (2010) 665 final, 15.11.2010. Retrieved from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2010:0665:FIN:en:PDF (Accessed: 03–04–2017).

[93] European Commission (2013). CAP Reform – An explanation of the main elements, MEMO/13/937, 25.10.2013. Retrieve from http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO13-937_en.htm (Accessed: 03–04–2017).

[94] European Commission (2014). Rural development 20142020. Agriculture and Rural Development. Retrieve from https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/rural-development-2014-2020_en (Accessed: 03–04–2017).

[95] European Commission (2018). Farm Advisory System (FAS). Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/direct-support/cross-compliance/farm-advisory-system_en (Accessed: 15–01–2018).

[96] EEA – European Environment Agency (2018). Agriculture. Retrieved from https://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/agriculture/intro (Accessed: 01–08–2018).

[97] FAO (2006). World Agriculture: Toward 2030/2050. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Rome. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/es/ESD/AT2050web.pdf (Accessed: 26–04–2017).

[98] FAO (2008). Global review of good agricultural extension and advisory service practices. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Rome. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/nr/gen/gen_081001_en.htm (Accessed: 26–04–2017).

[99] GENERALITAT VALENCIANA (2016). Ex-post evaluation of the PDR of the Comunitat Valenciana. 2007–2013 (In Spanish). December 2016. Retrieved from https://www.mapa.gob.es/es/desarrollo-rural/temas/programasue/2016_12_2_evaluacionaposteriori_pdr_cv_tcm30-380398.pdf (Accessed: 25–11–2018).

[100] GENERALITAT VALENCIANA (2017). Regional Rural Development Programme. Valencia (Spain). Generalitat Valenciana (regional government of Valencia) (In Spanish). Retrieved from http://www.avfga.gva.es/documents/162830041/0/PDR-CV+2014-2020+3ª%20versión.pdf/e361789a-5449-411b-9a9a-0002fedd338f (12–01–2018).

[101] Juhász, A. (2017). Future of Advisory Services and Education Systems in an evolving AKIS. Skills Development: Education & Training, advice, peer to peer exchange and networking. Agri Innovation Summit (AIS), 12 October, 2017, Portugal. Retrieved from https://scareurope.org/images/SCAR_EVENTS/Conference_Estonia_5-12-2017/Presentations/S2_4_Aniko.Juhasz_PolicyBriefs.pdf (Accessed: 22–05–2018).

[102] MAPA – Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación (2018a). Evaluaciones finales del periodo de programación 2007–2013. Retrieved from https://www.mapa.gob.es/es/desarrollo-rural/temas/programas-ue/periodo-deprogramacion-2007-2013/seguimiento-y-evaluacion/Ex-post.aspx (Accessed: 22–07–2018).

[103] MAPA – Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación (2018b). Marco Nacional. Retrieved from https://www.mapama.gob.es/es/desarrollo-rural/temas/programasue/periodo-2014-2020/marco-nacional/; http://links.uv.es/XBfN27h (Accessed: 22–07–2018).

[104] MAPA – Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación (2018c). Programas de Desarrollo Rural 20142020. Retrieved from https://www.mapama.gob.es/es/desarrollorural/temas/programas-ue/periodo-2014-2020/programas-de-desarrollo-rural/; http://links.uv.es/aEsP5ks (Accessed: 22–07–2018).

[105] PROAKIS Project (2014). Prospects for Farmers’ Support: Advisory Services in European AKIS. Background of AKIS diagrams. AKIS in the EUPROAKIS Project-. Retrieved from http://proakis.webarchive.hutton.ac.uk/content/background-akis-diagrams (Accessed 16–09–2017).

[106] PROAKIS Project (2015). Prospects for Farmers’ Support: Advisory Services in European AKIS. Selected Findings. AKIS in the EUPROAKIS Project-. Retrieved from http://proakis.webarchive.hutton.ac.uk/sites/www.proakis.eu/files/PROAKIS_findings%20brochure_online-low%20res(1).pdf (Accessed: 16–09–2017).

[107] SCAR – Standing Committee on Agricultural Research (2017). Policy Brief on the Future of Advisory Services. Strategic Working Group SCAR-AKIS. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/eip/agriculture/sites/agrieip/files/policy_brief_on_the_future_of_advisory_services_scar_akis_06102017.pdf (14–09–2017).

[108] Schmidt, P. & Fischler, M. (2012). Pluralistic rural advisory services: An introduction with special reference to SDC experiences. [unpublished input Paper] Joint event of ARD and E+I networks of SDC, 3 May. Zurich: Swiss Intercooperation. Retrieved from http://www.blog4dev.ch/ard-f2f2012/module-joint-session-with-ei (Accessed: 22–06–2017).

European Countryside

The Journal of Mendel University in Brno

Journal Information


CiteScore 2017: 0.78

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.265
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.607

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 87 87 57
PDF Downloads 88 88 52