Local food and reneweable energy as emerging new alternatives of rural sustainability in Finland
The rurality of small Northern countries such as Finland has traditionally been based on family farm practices. However, rural sustainability is polarizing between the large-scale industrial agriculture and the more regional and multifunctional small-scale specialisations. This paper addresses small-scale entrepreneurship which aims at enhancing sustainable livelihood and sustainable development on farms. We identify two main lines of pioneering rural entrepreneurship in Finland, local food and renewable energy. Firstly, it is asked what kind of barriers and development targets these new productions are expected to have. Secondly, to what extent do they reflect real transformation as described particularly by the multifunctionality and ecological modernisation thinking? The two empirical case studies were carried out in Central Finland. We find that individual farms begin to identify the importance of mutual networking while establishing new businesses meeting the sustainability criteria. This certainly indicates social transformation. However, we also conclude that farmers in Central Finland seldom go for radical alternative productions imitating strong ecological modernisation.
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