The article presents the reasons and goals of the new Water Act development, which was supposed to replace amended many times the 2001 Water Act. A new Water Act has been approved 1 July 2017. The main aim of new Water Act is an achievements the objectives of the EU Water Framework Directive and other EU directives related to water management. The most important change of new Water Act is the establishment of a new water management organization in Poland, for which since January 1, 2018 is responsible the State Water Enterprise Polish Waters. The second new fundamental change is the introduction of nine water management financial instruments. Water services fees are one of them. The mechanism for determining the amount of these fees was one of the most debatable problems when adopting this legislative document. The article also presents the voices criticizing the detailed introduced solutions, including changes in investment of water infrastructure and their maintenance in agriculture.