An Overview of South Africa's Metropolitan Areas - Dualistic, Dynamic and under Threat…
The article explores the threats posed to metropolitan viability and resilience in South Africa which is faced by continued spatial and economic concentration and duality - a trend also evident in a number of Central European countries. Examples are provided of trends and challenges impacting the resilience of South Africa's metropolitan regions, as identified in recent empirical studies conducted by the authors.1 The paper argues that the agglomeration challenges facing South Africa's metropolitan regions and complications brought about by intra-metropolitan inequality are key aspects underlying the resilience of these regions. The article also suggests that there might be value in greater collaboration in research and knowledge-production and sharing in metropolitan planning, development and governance, between South African metropolitan regions and those in Central European countries.
ALBERTI, M., MARZLUFF, J. M., SHULENBERGER, E., BRADLEY, G., RYAN, C. and ZUMBRUNNEN, C. (2003), ‘Integrating Humans into Ecology: Opportunities and Challenges for Studying Urban Ecosystems’, BioScience, 53 (12), pp. 1169-1179.
ALTROCK, U., GIINTNER, S., HUNING, S. and PETERS, D. (eds), (2006), Spatial Planning and Urban Development in the New EU Member States: From Adjustment to Reinvention, Aldershot: Ashgate.
AMIN, A. and THRIFT, N. J. (1994), Globalization, Institutions, and Regional Development in Europe, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
AMIN, A. and THRIFT, N. (2002), Cities: Re-imagining the Urban, Cambridge: Polity.
BEALL, J. (2002), ‘Globalization and Social Exclusion in Cities: Framing the Debate with Lessons from Africa and Asia’, Environment and Urbanization, 14 (1), pp. 41-51.
FALUDI, A. (2007), ‘Now More Than Ever; The Open Method of Coordination in EU Territorial Cohesion Policy’, European Spatial Research and Policy, 24 (1), pp. 11-23.
GDED (Gauteng Department of Economic Development), (2007), Gauteng Spatial Development Perspective, Johannesburg: Gauteng Provincial Government.
HARRISON, P. (2003), ‘Fragmentation and Globalisation as the New Meta-Narrative’, [in:] HARRISON, P., HUCHZERMEYER, M. and MAYEKISO, M. (eds.). Confronting Fragmentation: Housing and Urban Development in a Democratising Society, Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press.
HUYSSTEEN, E. van, BIERMANN, S., NAUDE, A. and LE ROUX, A. (2009a), ‘Advances in Spatial Analysis to Support a more Nuanced Reading of the South African Space Economy’, Urban Forum, 20, pp. 195-214.
HUYSSTEEN, E. van, ORANJE, M. C., ROBINSON, S. and MAKONI, E. (2009b), ‘South Africa's City Regions: A Call for Contemplation… and Action’, Urban Forum, 20, pp. 175-195.
MARSZAŁ, T. (2008), ‘Metropolitan Processes in Central and Eastern Europe’, European Spatial Research and Policy, 15 (2), pp. 27-37.
MEIKLEJOHN, C. and COETZEE, M. J. (2003), ‘Integrated Development Planning’, [in:] Hologram: The Best of Hologram 2001-2003. Issues and Practice in South African Local Government, Cape Town: Nolwazi.
MERRIFIELD, A., ORANJE, M. and FOURIE, C. (2008), Dialogue or Control? The Future of Planning in South Africa, prepared for the Presidency and GTZ as part of Government's Fifteen Year (of Democracy) Review.
MULLER, E. N. (1988), ‘Democracy, Economic Development, and Income Inequality’, American Sociological Review, 53 (1), pp. 50-68.
OECD (2006), Territorial Reviews: Competitive Cities in the Global Economy, Paris.
OECD (2008a), Regional Development in Poland. Policy Brief, November.
OECD (2008b), Economic Surveys, Paris.
OECD (2009), Regions at a Glance 2009 Paris.
ORANJE, M. C. (2005), Not Just Another Day in Africa: From Problem-solving to Surf[ac]ing the Solution, unpublished paper, prepared for the CSIR, Pretoria.
ORANJE, M. C. (2007), A Critical Exploration of the Anticipated Impact of Spatial Directives and Principles in Public Policy on Social and Economic Infrastructure Provision and (the Promotion of) Economic Growth and Sustainable Development, prepared for the Development Bank of Southern Africa.
ORANJE, M. C. (2008), Lounging in ‘Development Hell’: Planning Ideas Waiting for the (Lime)Light, Africa Conference 14-16 April 2008, Johannesburg, Sandton Convention Centre.
ORANJE, M. C. and HUYSSTEEN, E. van (2007), ‘A Brief History of Intergovernmental Development Planning in Post-apartheid South Africa’, Town and Regional Planning, 51, pp. 1-15.
PARNELL, S. (2008), South Africa's Spatial Economy: Unpacking the Call for Further Urban Policy Reform, paper presented at the South Africa, Urban Development Workshop, Innovation Hub, Pretoria, 9-10 April.
PCAS (2009), Provincial Growth and Development Strategies: A Tool for Strategic Regional Planning Embraced by All?, unpublished research report and annexures prepared by CSIR for PCAS, August.
PIETERSE, E. (2008), City Futures: Confronting the Crisis of Urban Development, London, New York: Zed Books.
POWELL, D. (2009), ‘What is Wrong with Local Government?’ Delivery, 20, November.
REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA (1996), Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, No. 108.
REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA (1950), Group Areas Act, No. 41.
RESILIENCE ALLIANCE (2007), Urban Resilience: Research Prospectus a Resilience Alliance Initiative for Transmitting Urban Systems towards Sustainable Futures, unpublished report, February.
RUST, F. C., BOTHA, C., WYK, L. van, STEYN, W., PLESSIS, C. du, LANDMAN, K. and COETZEE, M. (2008), South African Construction Industry Technology Foresight Study: Summary Report of Desk Top Study, CSIR Technical Report: October, Pretoria: CSIR.
SLAVIK, V., KOŽUCH, M. and BAČIK, V. (2005), ‘Big Cities in Slovakia: Development, Planning, Contemporary Transformation’, European Spatial Research and Policy, 12 (2), pp. 47-70.
SOJA, E. (2000), Postmetropolis: Critical Studies of Cities and Regions, Oxford: Blackwell.
SACN (South African Cities Network), DPLG (Department of Provincial and Local Government) and PRESIDENCY (2009), National Spatial Trends Overview 2008, unpublished report and annexures.
THE PRESIDENCY (2007), National Spatial Development Perspective 2006, Pretoria: Nolwazi.
THE PRESIDENCY (2009), Together Doing More and Better: Medium Term Strategic Framework - A Framework to Guide Government's Programme in the Electoral Mandate Period (2009-2014), issued by Minister in the Presidency: Planning, July.
TUROK, I. and PARNELL, S. (2009), ‘Reshaping Cities, Rebuilding Nations: The Role of National Urban Policies’, Urban Forum, 20, pp. 157-174.
UN HABITAT (2006), State of the Worlds Cities 2006/7. The Millennium Development Goals and Urban Sustainability: 30 Years of Shaping the Habitat Agenda, London: Earthscan.
UN HABITAT (2009), Global Report on Human Settlements 2009. Planning Sustainable Cities: Policy Directions, United National Human Settlement Programme, London: Earthscan.
WEBSTER, D. (2002), Formulating City Development Strategies in China: Methodological steps, Stanford University, July.
WEBSTER, D. (2005), City Development Strategies, School of Global Studies International Institute for Sustainable Development, Arizona State University, September.
WORLD BANK (2009), World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography, Washington DC: World Bank.