Occupational Stress as a Correlate of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour and Psychological Capital Among Graduate Employees in Nigeria

Open access


It is a documented fact that occupational stress is widespread worldwide. Moreover, there are clear signs of many variables, related to occupational stress. The study therefore, was conducted to demonstrate whether the presence of occupational stress in the world of work correlates in any form (positive or negative) with a better level of organisational performance and employee psychological wellbeing.

The study adopted the positivist explanatory cross-sectional (survey) research design to systematically sample opinions of 1,532 male and female graduate employees across the various sectors of the Nigerian economy, using a structured and validated questionnaire, and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).

The results showed that there was a weak positive relationship between occupational stress and organisational citizenship behaviour (r = 0.070, p<0.01); there was a significant positive relationship between occupational stress and psychological capital (r = 0.128, p<0.01); and there was a significant positive relationship between psychological capital and organisational citizenship behaviour (r = 0.588, p<0.01).

The study recommended that human resource managers should develop psychological capital in employees in order to increase their levels of organisational performance and reduce the negative impact of occupational stress.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Adebayo S.O. & Ogunsina S.O. (2011). Influence of supervisory behaviour and job stress on job satisfaction and turnover intention of police personnel in Ekiti State. Journal of Management and Strategy 2(3): 13-20.

  • Adebiyi D.R (2013). Occupational stress among academic staff of Ekiti State University Ado-Ekiti. European Scientific Journal 9(4): 202-208.

  • Adetayo J.O. Ajani J.O. & Olabisi O. (2014). An overview of the effects of job stress on employees’ performance in Nigeria Tertiary Hospitals. Ekonomika 60(4): 139-153.

  • Ahmad A. Hussain A. Saleem M.Q. Qureshi M.A.M. & Mufti N.A. (2015). Workplace stress: A critical insight of causes effects and interventions. Technical Journal University of Engineering and Technology Taxila Pakistan 20 (2): 45-55.

  • Ali-Shah T. & Ali-Shah S.Z. (2016). Combined effects of psychological capital and psychological contract on employees’ job level outcomes. European Journal of Business and Management 8(26): 5-19.

  • Aliyev R. & Tunc E. (2015). Self-efficacy in counceling: The role of organizational psychological capital job satisfaction and burnout. Procedia-Social Beh. Sci. 190: 97-105.

  • American Psychological Association (2013). Stress in America: Missing the health care connection.

  • Amunkete S.L.N. (2015). Psychological capital in Namibian state-owned enterprises: measurement antecedents and outcomes. Ph.D Thesis North-West University South Africa.

  • Argentero P. Cortese C.G. & Ferretti M.S. (2008). Organisational citizenship behaviour: Podsakoff et al.’s scale. TPM 15(2): 61-75.

  • Arogundade O.T. & Lawal O. (2016). The influence of perceived occupational stress on the organizational citizenship behaviour of bankers in Ikeja Lagos State. European Scientific Journal 12(17): 449-458.

  • Baxter P.E. (2010). Providing orientation programs to new graduate nurses: Points to consider. Journal for Nurses in Staff Development 26: E12-E17.

  • Beheshtifar M. & Nazarian R. (2013). Role of occupational stress in organizations. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business 4 (9): 648-657.

  • Bhattacherjee A. (2012). Social science research: Principle methods and practices. Textbook collection. Book 3.

  • Brynien K. & Igoe A. (2016). Occupational stress factsheet. PEF Health and Safety Department: (800) 342-4306 x 254 or (518) 785-1900 x 254.

  • Chandra N. & Parvez R. (2016). A review article: Impact of environmental and occupational stress on health. Paripex - Indian Journal of Research 5(5): 456-457.

  • Ding Y. Yang Y. Yang X. Zhang T. Qiu X. He X. Wang W. Wang L. & Sui H. (2015). The mediating role of coping style in the relationship between psychological capital and burnout among Chinese Nurses. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0122128. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0122128.

  • Farzianpour F. Foroushani A.R. Kamjoo H. & Hosseini S.S. (2011). Organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) among the managers of teaching hospitals. American Journal of Economics and Business Administration 3(3): 534-542.

  • Goh J. Pfe!er J. & Zenios S. A. (2015). Workplace stressors & health outcomes: Health policy for the workplace. Behavioural Science & Policy 1(1): 43–52.

  • Gregory A.L. Yitzhak F. & Steffen R. (2016). Evidence for the need to distinguish between self-initiated and organizationally imposed overload in studies of work stress. Work & Stress 30(4): 337-355 DOI: 10.1080/02678373.2016.1253045.

  • Haq I.U. (2014). Workplace ostracism and job outcomes: moderating effects of psychological capital. International Conference on Management Knowledge and Learning 25-27 June 2014 Portoroz Slovenia.

  • Ikonne C.N. & Madukoma E. (2016). An investigation of the relationship between job satisfaction job stress and organizational citizenship behavior: A research on librarians in Nigerian University Libraries. International Journal of Science and Research 5(8): 480-484.

  • Jamal M. & Baba V.V. (1992). Shiftwork and department type related to job stress work attitudes and behavioural intentions: A study of nurses. Journal of Organisational Behaviour 13: 449–464.

  • Karolidis D. (2016). Organisational citizenship behaviour in the Greek public sector. Interdependent Programme of Postgraduate Studies in Business Administration University of Macedonia.

  • Laschinger H.K.S. (2011). Job and career satisfaction and turnover intentions of newly graduated nurses. Journal of Nursing Management. Advance online publication.

  • Lelei J.C. Chepkwony P.K. & Ambrose K. (2016). Effect of organisational citizenship behaviour on employee performance in banking sector Nairobi County Kenya. International Journal of Business Humanities and Technology 5(4): 55-61.

  • Li X. Kan D. Liu L. Shi M. Wang Y. Yang X. Wang J. Wang L. & Wu H. (2015). The mediating role of psychological capital on the association between occupational stress and job burnout among bank employees in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12: 2984-3001; doi:10.3390/ijerph120302984.

  • Luthans F. Avolio B.J. Avey J.B. & Norman S.M. (2007). Psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology 60: 541-572.

  • North Carolina Center for Public Health Preparedness (2013). Two-stage cluster sampling: general guidance for use in public health assessments. Cited in Aramide O.K. (2014). Relationship between the use of family planning related information and attitudes of rural childbearing women toward family planning. A Ph.D Thesis Postgraduate School Babcock University Nigeria 73-75.

  • Nourani S.S. Kohansal D.Z. Esmaily H. & Hooshmand E. (2016). The relationship between organisational citizenship behaviour job satisfaction and occupational stress among Midwives Working in Healthcare Centers of Mashhad Iran. Journal of Midwifery and Reproductive Health 4(2): 622-630.

  • Paillé P. (2011). Stressful work citizenship behaviour and intention to leave the organization in a high turnover environment: Examining the mediating role of job satisfaction. Journal of Management Research 3 (1): 1-14.

  • Paul H. Bamel U.K. & Garg P. (2016). Employee resilience and organisational citizenship behaviour: Mediating effects of organizational commitment. The Journal for Decision Makers 41(4): 308–324.

  • Podsakoff P. M. Mackenzie S.B Moorman R.H. & Fetter R. (1990). Transformational leader behaviours and their effects on followers’ trust in leader satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour. The Leadership Quarterly 1(2): 107-142.

  • Pradhan R.K. & Jena L.K. & Bhattacharya P. (2016). Impact of psychological capital on organizational citizenship behaviour: Moderating role of emotional intelligence. Cogent Business & Management 3(1): 1-16.

  • Shaheen S. Bukhari I. & Adil A. (2016). Moderating role of psychological capital between perceived organizational support and organizational citizenship behaviour and its dimensions. International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology 5(2): 41-50.

  • Soo H.S. & Ali H. (2016). The linkage between stress and organizational citizenship behaviour. International Business Management 10(14): 2713-2718.

  • Suifan T.S. (2016). The impact of organizational climate and psychological capital on organizational citizenship behaviour. International Journal of Business and Management 11(1): 224-230.

  • The Research Advisors (2006). http://research-advisors.com.

  • Uzonwanne F.C. (2014). Depression anxiety and stress as correlates of organizational citizenship behaviour among oil workers in Nigeria. European Journal of Globalization and Development Research 10(1): 619-637.

  • World Health Organization (2010). Healthy workplaces: A model for action for employers workers policymakers and practitioners. Geneva: WHO.

Journal information
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 403 241 7
PDF Downloads 357 261 19