This paper examines the ethnicity as an issue prevailing upon the Kenyan society and its implication on the social, economic and political dimensions in Kenya. Devolved ethnicity has been seen to be on the arise since the county’s independence (1963) to date and therefore the distrust among communities is seen as an impediment to the socio-economic and political developments in Kenya. Moreover, the issues that arise include marginalization of minority ethnic communities towards accessing resources. Uneven distribution of national resources has led to underdevelopment of regions in Kenya thereby bring about regional imbalance in terms of distribution of national resources, which has negatively affected socio-economic development of the country. Negative ethnicity brings about marginalization, distrust and heightens ethnic tensions and this eventually leads to conflict, for example, the 1992, 1997 and the 2007/2008 post-election violence over the sharing and allocation of power and national resources. This paper examines ways in which ethnic problems in Kenya have been attributed to the social, economic and political perspectives and therefore provides the solution/medicine towards negative ethnicity.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Alesina A.F. Stelios M. & Elias P. (2012). “Ethnic Inequality” NBER WP 18512 CEPR Discussion Paper 9225.
Bates R. (2008). When Things Fell Apart: State Failure in Late-Century Africa. Cambridge University Press.
Burgess R. Jedwab R. Miguel E. & Ameet-Morjaria A. (2010). Our Turn To Eat : The Political Economy of Roads in Kenya. JEL classification.
Cadot O. Lars-Hendrik R. & Stephan A. (2006). “Contribution to Productivity or Pork Barrel? The Two Faces of Infrastructure Investment.” Journal of Public Economics 90 (6-7): 1133-1153.
Caselli F. & Coleman. W. J. (2012). On the Theory of Ethnic Conflict: London School of Economics.
Chandra K. (2004). Why Ethnic Parties Succeed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
FIAN (2010). “Land Grabbing in Kenya and Mozambique: A Report on Two Research Missions and a Human Rights Analysis of Land Grabbing”. FIAN International Press Heidelberg.
Ghai Y. & Ghai J. (2011). Kenya’s Constitution: An Instrument for Change. Katiba Institute K-Rep Centre Nairobi Kenya.
Magaga G. O. & Ogalo J. A. (2012). Living on the Edge: Rustling Raids and Banditry in Kenya’s North-Eastern Frontier. Maseno University Journal Volume 1. Maseno Kisumu – Kenya
Government of Kenya (2004). “Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Illegal/Irregular Allocation of Public Land” (referred to throughout this report as the “Ndung’u Commission Report
Government of Kenya (GoK) (2009) National Population Census Ministry of Planning National Development. Nairobi and Vision 2030: The Government Printer.
Kanyinga K. (2014) The Democracy and Political Participation: A review by AfriMAP Open Society Initiative for Eastern Africa and the Institute for Development Studies (IDS) University of Nairobi: Open Society Foundations.
Kasomo D. (2012). Historical Manifestation of Ethnocentrism and its Challenges Today Maseno University Journal Volume 1: 32-41.
Kuria K. (1998). Land Clashes. Kenya Daily Nation News Paper Saturday November 28th Nairobi: Nation Media Group.
Kioli F.N. (2012). Ethnicity: The Legacy of Kenyan Politics from Colonial to Post-colonial Era. Maseno University Journal Volume 1. Maseno Kisumu – Kenya.
Mann M. (2004). The Dark-Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge University Press 2004.
Miguel E. (2014). Tribe or nation? Nation building and public goods in Kenya versus Tanzania. World Politics 56(3) 327-62. 2004.
Mitullah V. W. (2012). Development Ideals and Reality: Bridging the Kenya Gap through Devolution. Maseno University Journal Volume 1 (105-127).
Montalvo J. & Reynal-Querol. M. (2005). Ethnic Diversity and Economic Development. Journal of Development Economics 76 (2): 293-323
NCIC (2012). Report on Ethnic Audit of Kenya’s Civil Service. Nairobi: National Cohesion and Integration Commission (NCIC).
Norris P. & Mattes R. (2003). Does Ethnicity Determine Support for the Ruling Party? Afro barometer Working Paper: 25
Ochieng W. (1989). “Independent Kenya (1963 – 1986)”. In A Modern History of Kenya 1895 1980. Edited by W. R. Ochieng Pg. 202-218. Nairobi: Evans Brothers 1989.
Oloo A. (2007) Minority Rights and Transition Politics In. Wanyande P. Omosa M. Ludeki C. (eds) Governance and Transition Politics in Kenya. University of Nairobi: Nairobi.
Rigon A. (2013). Fragmentation and Democratic Transformation In Kenya: Ethnicity as an outcome Rather than A Cause (1992-2013). Analysis No. 170. ISPI.
Scarritt J.R. & Mozaffar S. (1999). The Specification of Ethnic Cleavages and Ethno-political groups for the Analysis of Democratic Competition in Contemporary Africa. Nationalism & Ethnic Politics 5 (1): 82-117
Southall R. (2005). “The Ndung’u Report: Land and Graft in Kenya”. In Review of African Political Economy 103 March 2005 pp.142-51.
Transparency International (TI) (2008). Global Corruption Report.