Community-based Conservation (CBC) has been regarded as one of the most appropriate approaches to the sustainable utilization and conservation of natural resources. Wetlands are believed to provide attributes, functions, and services that positively affect the daily livelihoods of members of the local community. Bearing in mind the incentives wetlands provide, if community members are not involved in the activities aimed at the management and conservation of wetlands then they result in being degraded. This study was initiated to explore how community livelihood activities influence CBC of wetlands in Uganda. A cross-sectional research design was used to collect qualitative and quantitative data. A questionnaire survey was conducted among four hundred households to collect information concerning community livelihood activities taking place in wetlands. Additionally, more information was obtained from National Environment Management Authority, and Wetlands Management Department staff using another non-structured questionnaire. Key informant interviews and direct observations were also used to collect data. Overall, the gathering of materials for building and crafts, fuel wood collection, clay and sand mining and practicing agriculture in wetlands are some of the reasons that have caused wetland degradation. Low levels of awareness, unclear ownership of wetlands and inadequate funding has not enabled Agencies responsible for implementing the Policies and Laws aimed for protecting and conserving wetlands from being degraded. Therefore, these above mentioned problems must be addressed in order for wetland resources to be sustainably utilized and conserved by members of the local community.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Abrams R.W. Anwana E.D. Ormsby A. Dovie D.B.K. Ajagbe A. Abrams A. 2009. Integrating Top-Down with Bottom-Up Conservation Policy in Africa. Cons. Bio. 23 (23): 779-804.
Acrenaz M. Dabek L. O’Neil S. 2007. The Costs of Exclusion: Recognizing a Role for Local Communities in Biodiversity Conservation. PLoS Bio. 11(5): 2443-2448.
Akello C.E. 2007. Environmental Regulation in Uganda. Successes and Challenges. Law Environ. Dev. J. Uganda.
Andrade G.S.M. Rhodes J.R. 2012. Protected Areas and Local Communities: an Inevitable Partnership toward Successful Conservation Strategies? Ecol. Society 17(4): 14.
Bakema R.J. Iyango L. 2001. Engaging Local Users in the Management of Wetland Resources: the Case of the National Wetlands Programme Uganda. IUCN Eastern Africa Regional Office Nairobi.
Ban N. Hansen G. Jones M. Vincent A. 2009. Systematic marine conservation planning in data-poor regions: socioeconomic data is essential. Marine Pol. 33:794-800.
Banana A.Y. Gombya-Ssembajjwe W. Bahati J. 2001. Explaining Deforestation: The Role of Forest Institutions in Ugandan Forests. A Policy Brief. UFRIC Makerere University Kampala.
Barrow E. Gicholi H. Infield M. 1997. Comparative Review and Analysis of Community Conservation in East Africa. Working Paper. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi-Kenya.
Barrow E. Gicholi H. Infield M. 2000. Rhetoric or Reality? A review of community conservation policy and practice in East Africa. IUCN. East Africa. Nairobi Kenya.
Bazaara N. 2002. Politics legal land reform and resource rights in Uganda. Centre for Basic Research Kampala.
Berkes F. 2007. Community-Based Conservation in a Globalized World. Natural Resources Institute University of Manitoba Winnipeg MB Canada.
Bos E. Muhweezi A. West K. 2005. From Conversion to Conservation. Fifteen Years of Managing Wetlands for People and the Environment in Uganda. Kampala Uganda.
Branch K. Hooper D.A. Thompson J. Craghton J.C. 1984. Guide to Social Impact Assessment. Boulder Westview Press.
Chapman L.J. Balirwa J. Bugenyi F.W.B. Chapman C. Crisman T.L. 2001. Wetlands of East Africa: biodiversity exploitation and policy perspectives. [in:] Gopal B. Junk W.J. Davis J.A. (eds.) Biodiversity in Wetlands: Assessment Function and Cons. vol. 2. Backhuys Publ. Leiden: 101-131.
Daffa J.W. Gamaya K.L. Mashamba C. 2002. Protection of Wildlife and Human Rights on a Balance Sheet: A Case of Killings in the Serengeti National Parks. Dar-es-Salaam: Legal and Human Rights Centre.
Forgie V. Horsley P. Johnston J. 2001. Facilitating Community-based Conservation Initiatives. Science for Conservation. Report No. 169 Department of Conservation Wellington New Zealand.
Ghimire K.B. Pimbert M. P. 1997. Social change and conservation. Environmental politics and impacts of national parks and protected areas. Earthscan and UNRISD London.
Goldman M. 2003. Partitioned Nature Privileged Knowledge: Community-based Conservation in Tanzania. Dev. Change. 34(5): 833-862.
Gombya-Ssembajjwe W. Banana A. Y. 1998. Property rights and the sustainability of forests in Uganda. [in:] Presented at International Association for the Study of Common Property Vancouver British Columbia Canada June 10–14.
Hartter J. Ryan S. J. 2009. Top-down or bottom-up? Decentralization natural resource management and usufruct rights in the forests and wetlands in western Uganda. Land Use Pol. 27: 815-826.
Hartter J. Southworth J. 2009. Dwindling resources and fragmentation of landscapes around parks: wetlands and forest fragments around Kibale National Park Uganda. Landscape Ecol. 24 (5) 643-656.
Hoggart K. Lee L. Davies A. 2002. Researching Human Geography. London Arnold.
Hough J.L. Sherpa M.N. 1989. Bottom-up vs. basic needs: integrating conservation and development in the Annapurna and Michiru Mountain Conservation Areas of Nepal and Malawi. Ambio 18(8): 431-41.
House A.P.N. MacLeod N.D. Cullen B. Whitbreed A.M. Brown S.D. McIvov J.G.M. 2008. Integrating Production and Natural Resource Management on mixed farms in Eastern Australia: The cost of Conservation in agricultural landscapes. Agr. Ecosystems Environ. 127:153-165.
Hyman D. McKnight J. Higdon F. 2001. Doing Democracy: Conflict and Consensus Strategies for Citizen Organisation and Communities. New York Erudition Press.
IUCN. 2003. Integrating Wetland Economic Values into River Basin Management. Nakivubo Swamp Uganda.
Le Bel S. Murwira A Mukamuri B. Czudek R. Taylor R. La Grange M. 2011. Human wildlife conflicts in southern Africa: riding the whirl wind in Mozambique and in Zimbabwe. [in:] López-Pujol J. (ed.). The importance of biological interactions in the study of biodiversity. InTech Croatia: 283–322.
Lindlof T.R. Taylor C.B. 2011. Qualitative Communication Research Methods. 3rd Ed. SAGE Publ. Inc. 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks California 91320.
Maclean I. Tinch R. Hassall M. Boar R. 2003. Towards Optimal Use of Tropical Wetlands: an Economic Valuation of Goods Derived from Papyrus Swamps in Southwest Uganda. Environmental Change and Management Working Paper ECM03-10. Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment Norwich.
Mbaiwa J.E. 2004. The Success and Sustainability of Community-based Natural Resource Management in the Okavango Delta Botswana. South African Geog. J. 86(1): 44-53.
Milton S.J. 2000. Community-Based Conservation: Exploring Positive Feedback between Economic Development and Conservation. SA. J. of Sc. 96.
Ministry of Natural Resources. 1995. The National Environment Management Policy. Kampala Uganda.
Munthali S.M. 1993. Traditional and Modern Wildlife Conservation in Malawi: the need for an integrated approach. Oryx 27: 185-187.
Murphree M.W. 1993. Communal Land Wildlife Resources and Rural District Council Revenues. Presented to the CAMPFIRE Association Annual General Meeting 16 December. Centre for Applied Social Studies. Occasional paper series No. 51/93. Harare Zimbabwe.
Murphree M.W. Hulme D. (eds.). 2001. African wildlife and livelihoods: the promise and performance of community conservation. London: James Currey.
Mwanikah M.O. 2006. Sustainable us of papyrus cyperus papyrus at Lake Victoria wetlands in Kenya. A case study of Dunga and Kusa swamps. Institute of International Education. National Museums of Kenya.
Ministry of Water and Environment 2005. Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report. Ministry of Water and Environment Kampala. Uganda.
Ministry of Water and Environment. 2009. Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report. Ministry of Water and Environment Kampala. Uganda.
National Environment Management Policy. 1994. Ministry of Natural Resources. Kampala. Uganda.
National Policy for the Conservation and Management of Wetland Resources. 1995. Ministry of Water and Environment. Wetlands Management Department. Kampala Uganda.
National Wetlands Conservation and Management Programme. 1998. Final report on External Review Mission Royal Netherlands Embassy Kampala-Uganda.
Nkonya E. Pender J. Kato E. Mugarura S. Muwonge J. 2005. Who Knows Who Cares? Determinants of Enactment Awareness and Compliance with Community Natural Resource Management By-laws in Uganda. CAPRi Working Paper 41. Washington DC.
Ntambirweki J. 1998. The evolution of policy and legislation of wetlands in Uganda. Technical Consultation on Designing Methodologies to Review Laws and Institutions Relevant to Wetlands. Gland Switzerland.
Pagdee A. Kim Y. Daugherty P. 2006. What makes Community Forest Management Successful: a meta-study from community forests throughout the World. Society Nat. Res. 19:33–52.
Pimbert M.P. Pretty J.N. 1997. Diversity and Sustainability in Community-based Conservation. Paper for the UNESCO-IIPA Regional Workshop on Community-based Conservation February 9-12 India.
Pretty J. Smith D. 2004. Social capital in biodiversity conservation and management. Conserv. Biol. 18 (3): 631-638.
Rudel T.K. 2006. Shrinking Tropical Forests Human Agents of Change and Conservation Policy. Conserv. Biol. 20(6): 1604-1609.
Sarantakos S. 2005. Social Research. Houndmills Basingstoke Hampshire RG21 6XS and 175 Fifth Avenue New York N.Y.10010 Palgrave MacMillan.
Schwartzmann S. Moreira A. Nepstad D. 2000. Rethinking tropical forest conservation: perils in parks. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1351-1357.
Sharma U.R. 1990. An overview of park-people interactions in Royal Chitwan National Park Nepal. Landscape Urban Plan. 19:133-4.
Tafara-Gadzirayi C.E. Mutandwa E. Chihiya J. Chikosha M. 2006. Indeginous Knowledge Systems in Sustainable utilization of wetlands in communal areas of Zimbabwe. Case of Hwedza district. Zimbabwe.
Thatcher P.S. 1984. Peril and opportunity: What it takes to make our choice. [in:] McNeely J. A. Miller K. R. (eds.) National Parks Conservation and Development: the Role of Protected Areas in Sustaining Society: 12-14.
The National Environment Statute. 1995. Statute Supplement to the Uganda Gazette. Number 21. Volume LXXXVIII. Printed by UPPC Entebbe.
Timmer V. 2004. Community-based Conservation and Leadership: Frameworks for Analyzing the Equator Initiative. CID Graduate Student Working Paper No. 2 Cambridge MA: Science Environment and Development Group Center for International Development Harvard University.
Uganda Bureau of Statistics 2002. Population and Housing Census Report. Uganda Bureau of Statistics. Kampala Uganda.
Wetlands Management Department. 2013. Wetlands and the Law. Legislation governing the ownership use and access to wetlands and their resources. Ministry of Water and Environment Kampala Uganda.