Objectives. Adverse effects of obesity, which is caused by an imbalance between the energy intake and expenditure, on the male reproductive system have been reported. Considering the anti-obesity effect of Glycyrrhiza Glabra (GC), we conducted this study to elucidate whether it can ameliorate the sperm parameters.
Methods. In this experimental study, male Wistar rats of 6–8 weeks old were divided into four groups: control, high fat diet (HFD), GC50 (HFD plus 50 mg/kg GC extract), and GC100 (HFD plus 100 mg/kg GC extract). During the 16 weeks of the study course, the rats consumed the extract through gavage, daily. Body mass index (BMI), body weight gain, serum lipid profile, leptin concentration, and sperm parameters were investigated. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (post hoc Tukey) to express the significance of mean differences of variables between groups, and linear regression test was used to express the correlation model of variables. Both tests were performed by SPSS software; p≤0.05 was considered significant.
Results. BMI was significantly decreased by the GC50 and GC100 groups compared to HFD group. GC50 group considerably decreased leptin level compared to HFD group. A significant positive correlation between leptin and triglyceride levels was evident. GC50 and GC100 extensively increased the total sperm motility and ameliorated the sperm abnormal morphology and count compared to HFD group.
Conclusion.Glycyrrhiza Glabra extract may exert its ameliorating effects on the sperm parameters through its anti-obesity impact. Both doses of the extract were effective, however, the GC100 was more effective in improving the sperm parameters.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Aoki F, Honda S, Kishida H, Kitano M, Arai N, Tanaka H, Yokota S, Nakagawa K, Asakura T, Nakai Y, Mae T. Suppression by licorice flavonoids of abdominal fat accumulation and body weight gain in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 71, 206–214, 2007.
Armanini D, Bonanni G, Palermo M. Reduction of serum testosterone in men by licorice. N Engl J Med 341, 1158, 1999.
Bakos HW, Henshaw RC, Mitchell M, Lane M. Paternal body mass index is associated with decreased blastocyst development and reduced live birth rates following assisted reproductive technology. Fertil Steril 95, 1700–1704, 2011.
Bibiloni MD, Salas R, De la Garza YE, Villarreal JZ, Sureda A, Tur JA. Serum lipid profile, prevalence of dyslipidaemia, and associated risk factors among Northern Mexican adolescents. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 63, 544–549, 2016.
Chavarro JE, Toth TL, Wright DL, Meeker JD, Hauser R. Body mass index in relation to semen quality, sperm DNA integrity, and serum reproductive hormone levels among men attending an infertility clinic. Fertil Steril 93, 2222–2231, 2010.
Fernandez CD, Bellentani FF, Fernandes GS, Perobelli JE, Favareto AP, Nascimento AF, Cicogna AC, Kempinas WD. Diet-induced obesity in rats leads to a decrease in sperm motility. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 9, 32, 2011.
Fukui M, Kitagawa Y, Nakamura N, Yoshikawa T. Glycyrrhizin and serum testosterone concentrations in male patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 26, 2962, 2003.
Ghanayem BI, Bai R, Kissling GE, Travlos G, Hoffler U. Diet-induced obesity in male mice is associated with reduced fertility and potentiation of acrylamide-induced reproductive toxicity. Biol Reprod 82, 96–104, 2010.
Goncharov NP, Katsya GV, Chagina NA, Gooren LJ. Testosterone and obesity in men under the age of 40 years. Andrologia 41, 76–83, 2009.
Hofny ER, Ali ME, Abdel-Hafez HZ, Kamal Eel-D, Mohamed EE, Abd El-Azeem HG, Mostafa T. Semen parameters and hormonal profile in obese fertile and infertile males. Fertil Steril 94, 581–584, 2010.
Kamisoyama H, Honda K, Tominaga Y, Yokota S, Hasegawa S. Investigation of the anti-obesity action of licorice flavonoid oil in diet-induced obese rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 72, 3225–3231, 2008.
Kaur R, Kaur H, Dhindsa AS. Glycyrrhiza glabra: a phytopharmacological review. Int J Pharm Sci Res 4, 2470–2477, 2013.
Kelishadi R, Hashemipour M, Sheikh-Heidar A, Ghatreh-Samani S. Changes in serum lipid profile of obese or over-weight children and adolescents following a lifestyle modification course. ARYA Atheroscler 8, 143–148, 2012.
Kelly T, Yang W, Chen CS, Reynolds K, He J. Global burden of obesity in 2005 and projections to 2030. Int J Obes (Lond) 32, 1431–1437, 2008.
Khanahmadi MM, Naghdi Badi H, Akhondzadeh S, Khalighi-Sigaroodi F, Mehrafarin A, Shahriari S, Hajiaghaee R. A review on medicinal plant of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. J Med Plant 2, 1–12, 2013.
Kim JH, Hahm DH, Yang DC, Kim JH, Lee HJ, Shim I. Effect of crude saponin of Korean red ginseng on high-fat diet-induced obesity in the rat. J Pharmacol Sci 97, 124–131, 2005.
Koppers AJ, Garg ML, Aitken RJ. Stimulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production by unesterified, unsaturated fatty acids in defective human spermatozoa. Free Radic Biol Med 48, 112–119, 2010.
Kort HI, Massey JB, Elsner CW, Mitchell-Leef D, Shapiro DB, Witt MA, Roudebush WE. Impact of body mass index values on sperm quantity and quality. J Androl 27, 450–452, 2006.
La Vignera S, Condorelli RA, Vicari E, Calogero AE. Negative effect of increased body weight on sperm conventional and nonconventional flow cytometric sperm parameters. J Androl 33, 53–58, 2012.
Liu CY, Chou YC, Lin SH, Wu ST, Cha TL, Chen HI, Tsao CW. Serum lipid profiles are associated with semen quality. Asian J Androl 19, 633–638, 2017.
Louei Monfared A Correlation of serum lipid profile with histological and seminal parameters of testis in the goat. Int J Fertil Steril 7, 122–129, 2013.
Malik ZA, Sharma PL. An ethanolic extract from Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) exhibits anti-obesity effects by decreasing dietary fat absorption in a high fat diet-induced obesity rat model. IJPSR 2, 3010–3018, 2011.
Margetic S, Gazzola C, Pegg GG, Hill RA. Leptin: a review of its peripheral actions and interactions. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26, 1407–1433, 2002.
Mitchell NS, Catenacci VA, Wyatt HR, Hill JO. Obesity: overview of an epidemic. The Psychiatr Clin North Am 34, 717–732, 2011.
Momeni HR, Eskandari N. Effect of vitamin E on sperm parameters and DNA integrity in sodium arsenite-treated rats. Iran J Reprod Med 10, 249–256, 2012.
Monton A, Gil L, Malo C, Olaciregui M, Gonzalez N, de Blas I. Sage (Salvia officinalis) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) improve cryopreserved boar epididymal semen quality study. Cryo Letters 36, 83–90, 2015.
Namazi N, Alizadeh M, Mirtaheri E, Farajnia S. The effect of dried Glycyrrhiza Glabra L. extract on obesity management with regard to PPAR-γ2 (Pro12Ala) gene polymorphism in obese subjects following an energy restricted diet. Adv Pharm Bull 7, 221–228, 2017.
Nejatbakhsh R, Riyahi S, Farrokhi A, Rostamkhani S, Mahmazi S, Yazdinezhad A, Kazemi M, Shokri S. Ameliorating effects of fennel and cumin extracts on sperm quality and spermatogenic cells apoptosis by inducing weight loss and reducing leptin concentration in diet-induced obese rats. Andrologia 49, 2017.
Overgaard A, Axel AM, Lie ME, Hansen HH, Mikkelsen JD. High plasma triglyceride levels strongly correlate with low kisspeptin in the arcuate nucleus of male rats. Endocr Regul 49, 51–57, 2015.
Palmer NO, Bakos HW, Fullston T, Lane M. Impact of obesity on male fertility, sperm function and molecular composition. Spermatogenesis 2, 253–263, 2012.
Rahimi R, Ardekani MR. Medicinal properties of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. in traditional Iranian medicine and modern phytotherapy. Chin J Integr Med 19, 73–79, 2013.
Saez F, Ouvrier A, Drevet JR. Epididymis cholesterol homeostasis and sperm fertilizing ability. Asian J Androl 13, 11–17, 2011.
Sakamoto K, Wakabayashi K. Inhibitory effect of glycyrrhetinic acid on testosterone production in rat gonads. Endocrinol Jpn. 35, 333–342, 1988.
Sekhavat L, Moein MR. The effect of male body mass index on sperm parameters. Aging Male 13, 155–158, 2010.
Shokri S, Aitken RJ, Abdolvahhabi M, Abolhasani F, Ghasemi FM, Kashani I, Ejtemaeimehr S, Ahmadian S, Minaei B, Naraghi MA, Barbarestani M. Exercise and supraphysiological dose of nandrolone decanoate increase apoptosis in spermatogenic cells. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 106, 324–330, 2010.
Sikaris KA. The clinical biochemistry of obesity. Clin Biochem Rev 25, 165–181, 2004.
Struck MB, Andrutis KA, Ramirez HE, Battles AH. Effect of a short-term fast on ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in rats. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 50, 344–348, 2011.
Teerds KJ, de Rooij DG, Keijer J. Functional relationship between obesity and male reproduction: from humans to animal models. Hum Reprod Update 17, 667–683, 2011.
Tena-Sempere M, Barreiro ML. Leptin in male reproduction: the testis paradigm. Mol Cell Endocrinol 188, 9–13, 2002.