Pheochromocytoma

Open access

Abstract

Pheochromocytomas are rare tumors originating in the adrenal medulla. They may be sporadic or in the context of a hereditary syndrome. A considerable number of pheochromocytomas carry germline or somatic gene mutations, which are inherited in the autosomal dominant way. All patients should undergo genetic testing. Symptoms are due to catecholamines over production or to a mass effect. Diagnosis is confirmed by raised plasma or urine metanephrines or normetanephrines. Radiology assists in the tumor location and any local invasion or metastasis. All the patients should have preoperative preparation with α-blockers and/or other medications to control hypertension, arrhythmia, and volume expansion. Surgery is the definitive treatment. Follow up should be life-long.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Adler JT Meyer-Rochow GY Chen H Benn DE Robinson BG Sippel RS Sidhu SB. Pheochromocytoma: current approaches and future directions. Oncologist 13 779–793 2008.

  • Ahlawat SK Jain S Kumari S Varma S Sharma BK. Pheochromocytoma associated with pregnancy: case report and review of the literature. Obstet Gynecol Surv 54 728–737 1999.

  • Amar L Baudin E Burnichon N Peyrard S Silvera S Bertherat J Bertagna X Schlumberger M Jeunemaitre X Gimenez-Roqueplo AP Plouin PF. Succinate dehydrogenase B gene mutations predict survival in patients with malignant pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92 3822–3828 2007.

  • Amar L Fassnacht M Gimenez-Roqueplo A Januszewicz A Prejbisz A Timmers H Plouin PF. Long-term postoperative follow-up in patients with apparently benign pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Horm Metab Res 44 385–389 2012.

  • Andrade MO Cunha VSD Oliveira DC Moraes OL Lofrano-Porto A. What determines mortality in malignant pheochromocytoma? - Report of a case with eighteen-year survival and review of the literature. Arch Endocrinol Metab 62 264–269 2018.

  • Arnaldi G Boscaro M. Adrenal incidentaloma. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 26 405–419 2012.

  • Baguet JP Hammer L Mazzuco TL Chabre O Mallion JM Sturm N Chaffanjon P. Circumstances of discovery of phaeochromocytoma: a retrospective study of 41 consecutive patients. Eur J Endocrinol 150 681–686 2004.

  • Baudin E. Treatment of malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Endocrine Abstracts 32 S14.3 2013.

  • Bausch B Wellner U Bausch D Schiavi F Barontini M Sanso G Walz MK Peczkowska M Weryha G Dall’igna P Cecchetto G Bisogno G Moeller LC Bockenhauer D Patocs A Racz K Zabolotnyi D Yaremchuk S Dzivite-Krisane I Castinetti F Taieb D Malinoc A von Dobschuetz E Roessler J Schmid KW Opocher G Eng C Neumann HP. Long-term prognosis of patients with pediatric pheochromocytoma. Endocr Relat Cancer 21 17–25 2013.

  • Bausch B Tischler AS Schmid KW Leijon H Eng C Neumann HPH. Max Schottelius: pioneer in pheochromocytoma. J Endocr Soc 1 957–964 2017.

  • Bayley JP Kunst HP Cascon A Sampietro ML Gaal J Korpershoek E Hinojar-Gutierrez A Timmers HJ Hoefsloot LH Hermsen MA Suarez C Hussain AK Vriends AH Hes FJ Jansen JC Tops CM Corssmit EP de Knijff P Lenders JW Cremers CW Devilee P Dinjens WN de Krijger RR Robledo M. SDHAF2 mutations in familial and sporadic paraganglioma and phaeochromocytoma. Lancet Oncol 11 366–372 2010.

  • Bednarczuk T Bolanowski M Sworczak K Gornicka B Cieszanowski A Otto M Ambroziak U Pachucki J Kubicka E Babinska A Koperski L Januszewicz A Prejbisz A Gorska M Jarząb B Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A Glinicki P Ruchała M Kasperlik-Zaluska A. Adrenal incidentaloma in adults - management recommendations by the Polish Society of Endocrinology. Endokrynol Pol 67 234–258 2016.

  • Bessell-Browne R O’Malley ME. CT of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: risk of adverse events with i.v. administration of nonionic contrast material. AJR Am J Roentgenol 188 970–974 2007.

  • Bholah R Bunchman TE. Review of pediatric pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Front Pediatr 5 155 2017.

  • Biggar MA Lennard TW. Systematic review of phaeochromocytoma in pregnancy. Br J Surg 100 182–190 2013.

  • Bjorklund P Pacak K Crona J. Precision medicine in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: current and future concepts. J Intern Med 280 559–573 2016.

  • Blake MA Krishnamoorthy SK Boland GW Sweeney AT Pitman MB Harisinghani M Mueller PR Hahn PF. Low-density pheochromocytoma on CT: a mimicker of adrenal adenoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 181 1663–1668 2003.

  • PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board. Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version. 2018 Feb 8. In: PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK65873/.

  • Bowerman RA Silver TM Jaffe MH Stuck KJ Hinerman DL. Sonography of adrenal pheochromocytomas. AJR Am J Roentgenol 137 1227–1231 1981.

  • Bozin M Lamb A Putra LJ. Pheochromocytoma with negative metanephrines: A rarity and the significance of dopamine secreting tumors. Urol Case Rep 12 51–53 2017.

  • Briere JJ Favier J Benit P El Ghouzzi V Lorenzato A Rabier D Di Renzo MF Gimenez-Roqueplo AP Rustin P. Mitochondrial succinate is instrumental for HIF1a nuclear translocation in SDHA-mutant fibroblasts under normoxic conditions. Hum Mol Genet 14 3263–3269 2005.

  • Brito JP Asi N Gionfriddo MR Norman C Leppin AL Zeballos-Palacios C Undavalli C Wang Z Domecq JP Prustsky G Elraiyah TA Prokop LJ Montori VM Murad MH. The incremental benefit of functional imaging in pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma: a systematic review. Endocrine 50 176–186 2015.

  • Brunaud L Boutami M Nguyen-Thi PL Finnerty B Germain A Weryha G Fahey TJ 3rd Mirallie E Bresler L Zarnegar R. Both preoperative alpha and calcium channel blockade impact intraoperative hemodynamic stability similarly in the management of pheochromocytoma. Surgery 156 1410–1418 2014.

  • Brunt LM Doherty GM Norton JA Soper NJ Quasebarth MA Moley JF. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy compared to open adrenalectomy for benign adrenal neoplasms. J Am Coll Surg 183 1–10 1996.

  • Bruynzeel H Feelders RA Groenland TH van den Meiracker AH van Eijck CH Lange JF de Herder WW Kazemier G. Risk Ffactors for hemodynamic instability during surgery for pheochromocytoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95 678–685 2010.

  • Bryant J Farmer J Kessler LJ Townsend RR Nathanson KL. Pheochromocytoma: the expanding genetic differential diagnosis. J Natl Cancer Inst 95 1196–1204 2003.

  • Burgess GE 3rd. Alpha blockade and surgical intervention of pheochromocytoma in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 53 266–270 1979.

  • Burnichon N Abermil N Buffet A Favier J Gimenez-Roqueplo AP. The genetics of paragangliomas. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis 129 315–318 2012.

  • Burnichon N Buffet A Gimenez-Roqueplo AP. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: molecular testing and personalized medicine. Curr Opin Oncol 28 5–10 2016.

  • Castinetti F. Outcome of adrenal sparing surgery in heritable pheochromocytoma: the example of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Endocrine Abstracts 37 S12.3 2015.

  • Castro-Vega LJ Buffet A De Cubas AA Cascon A Menara M Khalifa E Amar L Azriel S Bourdeau I Chabre O Curras-Freixes M Franco-Vidal V Guillaud-Bataille M Simian C Morin A Leton R Gomez-Grana A Pollard PJ Rustin P Robledo M Favier J Gimenez-Roqueplo AP. Germline mutations in FH confer predisposition to malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Hum Mol Genet 23 2440–2446 2014.

  • Chang A Glazer HS Lee JK Ling D Heiken JP. Adrenal gland: MR imaging. Radiology 163 123–128 1987.

  • Cheah WK Clark OH Horn JK Siperstein AE Duh Q. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma. World J Surg 26 1048–1051 2002.

  • Chen H Sippel RS O’Dorisio MS Vinik AI Lloyd RV Pacak K; North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (NANETS). The North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society consensus guideline for the diagnosis and management of neuroendocrine tumors: pheochromocytoma paraganglioma and medullary thyroid cancer. Pancreas 39 775–783 2010.

  • Chen Y Hodin RA Pandolfi C Ruan DT McKenzie TJ. Hypoglycemia after resection of pheochromocytoma. Surgery 156 1404–1409 2014.

  • Cho YY Suh S Joung JY Jeong H Je D Yoo H Park TK Min YK Kim KW Kim JH. Clinical characteristics and follow-up of Korean patients with adrenal incidentalomas. Korean J Intern Med 28 557–564 2013.

  • Choi EK Kim WH Park KY. A case of a composite adrenal medullary tumor of pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma masquerading as acute pancreatitis. Korean J Intern Med 21 141–145 2006.

  • Chrisoulidou A Kaltsas G Ilias I Grossman AB. The diagnosis and management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocr Relat Cancer 14 569–585 2007.

  • Comstock JM Willmore-Payne C Holden JA Coffin CM. Composite pheochromocytoma: a clinicopathologic and molecular comparison with ordinary pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. Am J Clin Pathol 132 69–73 2009.

  • Crona J Delgado Verdugo A Maharjan R Stålberg P Granberg D Hellman P Bjorklund P. Somatic mutations in HRAS in sporadic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma identified by exome sequencing. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98 E1266–E1271 2013.

  • Crona J Taieb D Pacak K. New perspectives on pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: toward a molecular classification. Endocr Rev 38 489–515 2017.

  • Dahia PL. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma pathogenesis: learning from genetic heterogeneity. Nat Rev Cancer 14 108–119 2014.

  • Dahia PL. Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas genetically diverse and minimalist all at once! Cancer Cell 31 159–161 2017.

  • Dean RE. Pheochromocytoma and pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 11 35–42 1958.

  • Delellis RA Lloyd RV Heitx PU. Pathology and genetics of tumors of endocrine organs. In World Health Organization of Tumours. IARC Lyon pp. 73–76 2004.

  • Desmonts JM Marty J. Anaesthetic management of patients with phaeochromocytoma. Br J Anaesth 56 781–789 1984.

  • Dunnick NR Korobkin M. Imaging of adrenal incidentalomas: current status. AJR Am J Roentgenol 179 559–568 2002.

  • Dunwoodie SL. The role of hypoxia in development of the Mammalian embryo. Dev Cell 17 755–773 2009.

  • Eisenhofer G Goldstein DS Walther MM Friberg P Lenders JW Keiser HR Pacak K. Biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: how to distinguish true-from false-positive test results. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88 2656–2666 2003.

  • Eisenhofer G Lenders JW Pacak K. Biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Front Horm Res 31 76–106 2004a.

  • Eisenhofer G Bornstein SR Brouwers FM Cheung NK Dahia PL de Krijger RR Giordano TJ Greene LA Goldstein DS Lehnert H Manger WM Maris JM Neumann HP Pacak K Shulkin BL Smith DI Tischler AS Young WF Jr. Malignant pheochromocytoma: current status and initiatives for future progress. Endocr Relat Cancer 11 423–436 2004b.

  • Eisenhofer G Goldstein DS Sullivan P Csako G Brouwers FM Lai EW Adams KT Pacak K. Biochemical and clinical manifestations of dopamine-producing paragangliomas: utility of plasma methoxytyramine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90 2068–2075 2005.

  • Eisenhofer G Lenders JW Timmers H Mannelli M Grebe SK Hofbauer LC Bornstein SR Tiebel O Adams K Bratslavsky G Linehan WM Pacak K. Measurements of plasma methoxytyramine normetanephrine and metanephrine as discriminators of different hereditary forms of pheochromocytoma. Clin Chem 57 411–420 2011.

  • Eisenhofer G Lenders JW Siegert G Bornstein SR Friberg P Milosevic D Mannelli M Linehan WM Adams K Timmers HJ Pacak K. Plasma methoxytyramine: a novel biomarker of metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma in relation to established risk factors of tumour size location and SDHB mutation status. Eur J Cancer 48 1739–1749 2012.

  • Eisenhofer G Prejbisz A Peitzsch M Pamporaki C Masjkur J Rogowski-Lehmann N Langton K Tsourdi E Pęczkowska M Fliedner S Deutschbein T Megerle F Timmers HJLM Sinnott R Beuschlein F Fassnacht M Januszewicz A Lenders JWM. Biochemical diagnosis of chromaffin cell tumors in patients at high and low risk of disease: plasma versus urinary free or deconjugated O-methylated catecholamine metabolites. Clin Chem 64 1646–1656 2018.

  • Elder EE Elder G Larsson C. Pheochromocytoma and functional paraganglioma syndrome: no longer the 10% tumor. J Surg Oncol 89 193–201 2005.

  • Elsayes KM Mukundan G Narra VR Lewis JS Jr Shirkhoda A Farooki A Brown JJ. Adrenal masses: MR imaging features with pathologic correlation. Radiographics 24 S73–S86 2004.

  • Evenepoel L Papathomas TG Krol N Korpershoek E de Krijger RR Persu A Dinjens WN. Toward an improved definition of the genetic and tumor spectrum associated with SDH germ-line mutations. Genet Med 17 610–620 2015.

  • Farrugia FA Georgios M Panagiotis T Nikolaos Z Anestis C Dimitrios S Nikolaoes K Anna P Erini K Machairas A. Adrenal incidentaloma or epinephroma and review of the literature. Differential diagnosis of adrenal incidentaloma. Khirurgiia 82 120–128 2016.

  • Farrugia FA. “Ephidrosis” Is a New Term to Replace the Term “Diaphoresis” J Ren Nutr 27 445 2017.

  • Farrugia FA Martikos G Tzanetis P Charalampopoulos A Misiakos E Zavras N Sotiropoulos D. Pheochromocytoma diagnosis and treatment: Review of the literature. Endocr Regul 51 168–181 2017.

  • Favier J Amar L Gimenez-Roqueplo AP. Paraganglioma and phaeochromocytoma: from genetics to personalized medicine. Nat Rev Endocrinol 11 101–111 2015.

  • Fishbein L Leshchiner I Walter V Danilova L Robertson AG Johnson AR Lichtenberg TM Murray BA Ghayee HK Else T Ling S Jefferys SR de Cubas AA Wenz B Korpershoek E Amelio AL Makowski L Rathmell WK Gimenez-Roqueplo AP Giordano TJ Asa SL Tischler AS; Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network Pacak K Nathanson KL Wilkerson MD. Comprehensive molecular characterization of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Cancer Cell 31 181–193 2017.

  • Flynn A Benn D Clifton-Bligh R Robinson B Trainer AH James P Hogg A Waldeck K George J Li J Fox SB Gill AJ McArthur G Hicks RJ Tothill RW. The genomic landscape of phaeochromocytoma. J Pathol 236 78–89 2015.

  • Francis IR Korobkin M. Pheochromocytoma. Radiol Clin North Am 34 1101–1112 1996.

  • Gagner M Lacroix A Bolte E. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy in Cushing’s syndrome and pheochromocytoma. N Engl J Med 327 1033 1992.

  • Gagner M Pomp A Heniford BT Pharand D Lacroix A. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: lessons learned from 100 consecutive procedures. Ann Surg 226 238–247 1997.

  • Galati SJ Said M Gospin R Babic N Brown K Geer EB Kostakoglu L Krakoff LR Leibowitz AB Mehta L Muller S Owen RP Pertsemlidis DS Wilck E Xiao GQ Levine AC Inabnet WB 3rd. The Mount Sinai clinical pathway for the management of pheochromocytoma. Endocr Pract 21 368–382 2015.

  • Giannini AJB Henry R Goettsche Roger L. Psychiatric Psychogenic and Somatopsychic Disorders Handbook. M. Examination. Garden City NY 1978.

  • Goffredo P Sosa JA Roman SA. Malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: a population level analysis of long-term survival over two decades. J Surg Oncol 107 659–664 2013.

  • Goldstein M Fuxe K Hokfelt T. Characterization and tissue localization of catecholamine synthesizing enzymes. Pharmacol Rev 24 293–309 1972.

  • Goldstein RE O’Neill JA Jr Holcomb GW 3rd Morgan WM 3rd Neblett WW 3rd Oates JA Brown N Nadeau J Smith B Page DL Abumrad NN Scott HW Jr. Clinical experience over 48 years with pheochromocytoma. Ann Surg 229 755–766 1999.

  • Graham JB. Pheochromocytoma and hypertension; an analysis of 207 cases. Int Abstr Surg 92 105–121 1951.

  • Gregory SH Yalamuri SM McCartney SL Shah SA Sosa JA Roman S Colin BJ Lentschener C Munroe R Patel S Feinman JW Augoustides JG. Perioperative management of adrenalectomy and inferior vena cava reconstruction in a patient with a large malignant pheochromocytoma with vena caval extension. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 31 365–377 2017.

  • Groeben H Nottebaum BJ Alesina PF Traut A Neumann HP Walz MK. Perioperative α-receptor blockade in phaeochromocytoma surgery: an observational case series. Br J Anaesth 118 182–189 2017.

  • Grubbs EG Rich TA Ng C Bhosale PR Jimenez C Evans DB Lee JE Perrier ND. Long-term outcomes of surgical treatment for hereditary pheochromocytoma. J Am Coll Surg 216 280–289 2013.

  • Guerrero MA Schreinemakers JM Vriens MR Suh I Hwang J Shen WT Gosnell J Clark OH Duh QY. Clinical spectrum of pheochromocytoma. J Am Coll Surg 209 727–732 2009.

  • Gunawardane PTK Grossman A. Phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. In: Hypertension: from basic research to clinical practice Vol. 2 (Ed. Md. Shahidul Islam) Springer pp. 239–259 2017.

  • Gut P Czarnywojtek A Fischbach J Baczyk M Ziemnicka K Wrotkowska E Gryczynska M Ruchala M. Chromogranin A - unspecific neuroendocrine marker. Clinical utility and potential diagnostic pitfalls. Arch Med Sci 12 1–9 2016.

  • Hack HA. The perioperative management of children with phaeochromocytoma. Paediatr Anaesth 10 463–476 2000.

  • Halkertson IDK. A Wiley Medical Publication: Biochemistry John Wiley & Sons 1988.

  • Harari A Inabnet WB 3rd. Malignant pheochromocytoma: a review. Am J Surg 201 700–708 2011.

  • Harrington JL Farley DR van Heerden JA Ramin KD. Adrenal tumors and pregnancy. World J Surg 23 182–186 1999.

  • Havekes B Lai EW Corssmit EP Romijn JA Timmers HJ Pacak K. Detection and treatment of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: current standing of MIBG scintigraphy and future role of PET imaging. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 52 419–429 2008.

  • Havekes B King K Lai EW Romijn JA Corssmit EP Pacak K. New imaging approaches to phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 72 137–145 2010.

  • Hickman PE Leong M Chang J Wilson SR McWhinney B. Plasma free metanephrines are superior to urine and plasma catecholamines and urine catecholamine metabolites for the investigation of phaeochromocytoma. Pathology 41 173–177 2009.

  • Hofer M. Ultrasound Teaching Manual. The Basics of Performing and Interpreting Ultrasound Scans. Thieme Stuttgart New York 1999.

  • Hrascan R Pecina-Slaus N Martic TN Colic JF Gall-Troselj K Pavelic K Karapandza N Analysis of selected genes in neuroendocrine tumours: insulinomas and phaeochromocytomas. J Neuroendocrinol 20 1015–1022 2008.

  • Huang LE Bindra RS Glazer PM Harris AL. Hypoxia-induced genetic instability-a calculated mechanism underlying tumor progression. J Mol Med (Berl) 85 139–148 2007.

  • Huang D Li C Zhang H. Hypoxia and cancer cell metabolism. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 46 214–219 2014.

  • Ilias I Pacak K. Current approaches and recommended algorithm for the diagnostic localization of pheochromocytoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89 479–491 2004.

  • Jaroszewski DE Tessier DJ Schlinkert RT Grant CS Thompson GB van Heerden JA Farley DR Smith SL Hinder RA. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma. Mayo Clin Proc 78 1501–1504 2003.

  • Jimenez C Waguespack SG. Functional imaging for pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma: a step closer to understanding its place in clinical practice. Endocrine 50 6–8 2015.

  • Jochmanova I Yang C Zhuang Z Pacak K. Hypoxia-inducible factor signaling in pheochromocytoma: turning the rudder in the right direction. J Natl Cancer Inst 105 1270–1283 2013.

  • Jochmanova I Pacak K. Pheochromocytoma: the first metabolic endocrine cancer. Clin Cancer Res 22 5001–5011 2016.

  • Juarez D Brown RW Ostrowski M Reardon MJ Lechago J Truong LD. Pheochromocytoma associated with neuroendocrine carcinoma. A new type of composite pheochromocytoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 123 1274–1279 1999.

  • Karvonen H Perttila R Niininen W Barker H Ungureanu D. Targeting Wnt signaling pseudokinases in hematological cancers. Eur J Haematol 101 457–465 2018.

  • Katoh M Katoh M. Molecular genetics and targeted therapy of WNT-related human diseases. Int J Mol Med 40 587–606 2017.

  • Kawashima A Sandler CM Ernst RD Takahashi N Roubidoux MA Goldman SM Fishman EK Dunnick NR. Imaging of nontraumatic hemorrhage of the adrenal gland. Radiographics 19 949–963 1999.

  • Keith B Johnson RS Simon MC. HIF1α and HIF2α: sibling rivalry in hypoxic tumour growth and progression. Nat Rev Cancer 12 9–22 2012.

  • Kenchegowda D Natale B Lemus MA Natale DR Fisher SA. Inactivation of maternal Hif-1α at mid-pregnancy causes placental defects and deficits in oxygen delivery to the fetal organs under hypoxic stress. Dev Biol 422 171–185 2017.

  • Kercher KW Novitsky YW Park A Matthews BD Litwin DE Heniford BT. Laparoscopic curative resection of pheochromocytomas. Ann Surg 241 919–928 2005.

  • Khatami F Mohammadamoli M Tavangar SM. Genetic and epigenetic differences of benign and malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs). Endocr Regul 52 41–54 2018.

  • Kiernan CM Solorzano CC. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: diagnosis genetics and treatment. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 25 119–138 2016.

  • Kimura N Takayanagi R Takizawa N Itagaki E Katabami T Kakoi N Rakugi H Ikeda Y Tanabe A Nigawara T Ito S Kimura I Naruse M; Phaeochromocytoma Study Group in Japan. Pathological grading for predicting metastasis in phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocr Relat Cancer 21 405–414 2014.

  • Kinney MAO Narr BJ Warner MA. Perioperative management of pheochromocytoma. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 16 359–369 2005.

  • Krestin GP Steinbrich W Friedmann G. Adrenal masses: evaluation with fast gradient-echo MR imaging and Gd-DTPA-enhanced dynamic studies. Radiology 171 675–680 1989.

  • Kudva YC Young Jr WF Thompson GB Grant CS Van Heerden JA. Adrenal incidentaloma: an important component of the clinical presentation spectrum of benign sporadic adrenal pheochromocytoma. The Endocrinologist 9 77–80 1999.

  • Landsberg L. Pheochromocytomas Paragangliomas and Disorders of the Sympathoadrenal System. Chicago Springer 2018.

  • Lang B Fu B OuYang JZ Wang BJ Zhang GX Xu K Zhang J Wang C Shi TP Zhou HX Ma X Zhang X. Retrospective comparison of retroperitoneoscopic versus open adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma. J Urol 179 57–60 2008.

  • Lee JK. Computed Body Tomography with MRI correlation. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 1998.

  • Lenders JW Pacak K Eisenhofer G. New advances in the biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: moving beyond catecholamines. Ann N Y Acad Sci 970 29–40 2002a.

  • Lenders JW Pacak K Walther MM Linehan WM Mannelli M Friberg P Keiser HR Goldstein DS Eisenhofer G. Biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: which test is best? JAMA 287 1427–1434 2002b.

  • Lenders JW Eisenhofer G Mannelli M Pacak K. Phaeochromocytoma. Lancet 366 665–675 2005.

  • Lenders JW Duh QY Eisenhofer G Gimenez-Roqueplo AP Grebe SK Murad MH Naruse M Pacak K Young WF Jr; Endocrine Society. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99 1915–1942 2014.

  • Lenders JW Eisenhofer G. Update on modern management of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 32 152–161 2017.

  • Lendvai N Pawlosky R Bullova P Eisenhofer G Patocs A Veech RL Pacak K. Succinate-to-fumarate ratio as a new metabolic marker to detect the presence of SDHB/D-related paraganglioma: initial experimental and ex vivo findings. Endocrinology 155 27–32 2014.

  • Lentschener C Gaujoux S Thillois J Duboc D Bertherat J Ozier Y Dousset B. Increased arterial pressure is not predictive of haemodynamic instability in patients undergoing adrenalectomy for phaeochromocytoma. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 53 522–527 2009.

  • Lentschener C Gaujoux S Tesniere A Dousset B. Point of controversy: perioperative care of patients undergoing pheochromocytoma removal-time for a reappraisal? European Eur J Endocrinol 165 365–373 2011.

  • Leung K Stamm M Raja A Low G. Pheochromocytoma: the range of appearances on ultrasound CT MRI and functional imaging. AJR Am J Roentgeno 200 370–378 2013.

  • Li J Yang CH. Improvement of preoperative management in patients with adrenal pheochromocytoma. Int J Clin Exp Med 7 5541–5546 2014.

  • Liao D Johnson RS. Hypoxia: a key regulator of angiogenesis in cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev 26 281–290 2007.

  • Lloyd RV Osamura RY International Agency for Research on Can. WHO Classification of Tumours of Endocrine Organs. Lyon WHO 2017.

  • Ludwig AD Feig DI Brandt ML Hicks MJ Fitch ME Cass DL. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma in children. Am J Surg 194 792–797 2007.

  • Lukashev D Ohta A Sitkovsky M. Hypoxia-dependent anti-inflammatory pathways in protection of cancerous tissues. Cancer Metastasis Rev 26 273–279 2007.

  • Luo W Hu H Chang R Zhong J Knabel M O’Meally R Cole RN Pandey A Semenza GL. Pyruvate kinase M2 is a PHD3-stimulated coactivator for hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Cell 145 732–744 2011.

  • Maitra A. The Endocrine System. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease Professional Edition (Eds. Kumar V Abbas A Fausto N Aster J.). Phladelphia PA Saunders Elsevier 2010.

  • Majmundar AJ Wong WJ Simon MC. Hypoxia-inducible factors and the response to hypoxic stress. Mol Cell 40 294–309 2010.

  • Mak P Leav I Pursell B Bae D Yang X Taglienti CA Gouvin LM Sharma VM Mercurio AM. ERbeta impedes prostate cancer EMT by destabilizing HIF-1alpha and inhibiting VEGF-mediated snail nuclear localization: implications for Gleason grading. Cancer Cell 17 319–332 2010.

  • Makino Y Cao R Svensson K Bertilsson G Asman M Tanaka H Cao Y Berkenstam A Poellinger L. Inhibitory PAS domain protein is a negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible gene expression. Nature 414 550–554 2001.

  • Malec K Miskiewicz P Witkowska A Krajewska E Toutounchi S Galaka Z Piotrowski M Kacka A Bednarczuk T Ambroziak U. Comparison of phenoxybenzamine and doxazosin in perioperative management of patients with pheochromocytoma. Kardiol Pol 75 1192–1198 2017.

  • Mallat J Pironkov A Destandau MS Tavernier B. Systolic pressure variation (Deltadown) can guide fluid therapy during pheochromocytoma surgery. Can J Anaesth 50 998–1003 2003.

  • Manger WM. The protean manifestations of pheochromocytoma. Horm Metab Res 41 658–663 2009.

  • Mantero F Terzolo M Arnaldi G Osella G Masini AM Ali A Giovagnetti M Opocher G Angeli A. A survey on adrenal incidentaloma in Italy. Study Group on Adrenal Tumors of the Italian Society of Endocrinology. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85 637–644 2000.

  • Maurea S Cuocolo A Reynolds JC Neumann RD Salvatore M. Diagnostic imaging in patients with paragangliomas. Computed tomography magnetic resonance and MIBG scintigraphy comparison. Q J Nucl Med 40 365–371 1996.

  • Mayo CH. Paroxysmal hypertension with tumor of retroperitoneal nerve: report of a case. JAMA 89 1047–1050 1927.

  • Mazza A Armigliato M Marzola MC Schiavon L Montemurro D Vescovo G Zuin M Chondrogiannis S Ravenni R Opocher G Colletti PM Rubello D. Anti-hypertensive treatment in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: current management and therapeutic features. Endocrine 45 469–478 2014.

  • McHenry CR. Pheochromocytoma: A clinical enigma. AACE Clinical Case Reports 3 e180–e181 2017.

  • McNeil AR Blok BH Koelmeyer TD Burke MP Hilton JM. Phaeochromocytomas discovered during coronial autopsies in Sydney Melbourne and Auckland. Aust N Z J Med 30 648–652 2000.

  • Megias MC Puyol DR Rodriguez LF Martinez GLS Miguel PM. Feocromocitoma-paraganglioma: del diagnostico bioquímico al genetico (Pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma: Biochemical and genetic diagnosis). Nefrologia 36 481–488 2016.

  • Melicow MM. One hundred cases of pheochromocytoma (107 tumors) at the Columbia and Presbyterian Medical Center 1926–1976: a clinicopathological analysis. Cancer 40 1987–2004 1977.

  • Mercado-Asis LB Wolf KI Jochmanova I Taieb D. Pheochromocytoma: A genetic and diagnostic update. Endocr Pract 24 78–90 2018.

  • Minno AM Bennett WA Kvale WF. Pheochromocytoma: a study of 15 cases diagnosed at autopsy. N Engl J Med 251 959–965 1954.

  • Mirallie E Jafari M Pattou F Ernst O Huglo D Carnaille B Proye C. [Outcome of non-operated adrenal masses in 126 patients observed from 1986 to 1999]. Ann Chir 126 212–220 2001.

  • Mirica A Badarau IA Stefanescu AM Mirica R Paun S Stefan DAC Paun DL. The role of chromogranin a in adrenal tumors. Revista de Chimie 69 678–681 2018.

  • Mishra AK Agarwal G Kapoor A Agarwal A Bhatia E Mishra SK. Catecholamine cardiomyopathy in bilateral malignant pheochromocytoma: successful reversal after surgery. Int J Cardiol 76 89–90 2000.

  • Miyake H Maeda H Tashiro M Suzuki K Nagatomo H Aikawa H Ashizawa A Iechika S Moriuchi A. CT of adrenal tumors: frequency and clinical significance of low-attenuation lesions. AJR Am J Roentgenol 152 1005–1007 1989.

  • Moon KL Jr Hricak H Crooks LE Gooding CA Moss AA Engelstad BL Kaufman L. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal gland: a preliminary report. Radiology 147 155–160 1983.

  • Morrison PJ Nevin NC. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (mucosal neuroma syndrome Wagenmann-Froboese syndrome). J Med Genet 33 779–782 1996.

  • Morrison DK. MAP kinase pathways. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 4 a011254 2012.

  • Nakajima Y Masaoka N Sodeyama M Tsuduki Y Sakai M. Pheochromocytoma-related cardiomyopathy during the antepartum period in a preterm pregnant woman. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 37 908–911 2011.

  • Naranjo J Dodd S Martin YN. Perioperative management of pheochromocytoma. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 31 1427–1439 2017.

  • Naruse M Satoh F Tanabe A Okamoto T Ichihara A Tsuiki M Katabami T Nomura M Tanaka T Matsuda T Imai T Yamada M Harada T Kawata N Takekoshi K. Efficacy and safety of metyrosine in pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma: a multi-center trial in Japan. Endocr J 65 359–371 2018.

  • Neumann HP Bausch B McWhinney SR Bender BU Gimm O Franke G Schipper J Klisch J Altehoefer C Zerres K Januszewicz A Eng C Smith WM Munk R Manz T Glaesker S Apel TW Treier M Reineke M Walz MK Hoang-Vu C Brauckhoff M Klein-Franke A Klose P Schmidt H Maier-Woelfle M Peczkowska M Szmigielski C Eng C; Freiburg-Warsaw-Columbus Pheochromocytoma Study Group. Germ-line mutations in nonsyndromic pheochromocytoma. N Engl J Med 346 1459–1466 2002.

  • Newhouse JH. MRI of the adrenal gland. Urol Radiol 12 1–6 1990.

  • Nomura K Kimura H Shimizu S Kodama H Okamoto T Obara T Takano K. Survival of patients with metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma and efficacy of combined cyclophosphamide vincristine and dacarbazine chemotherapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94 2850–2856 2009.

  • Nonaka K Makuuchi H Naruse Y Kobayashi T Goto M. Surgical excision of malignant pheochromocytoma in the left atrium. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 48 126–128 2000.

  • Oak S Javid M Callender GG Carling T Gibson CE. Management of pheochromocytoma in the setting of acute stroke. AACE Clinical Case Reports 4 e245–e248 2018.

  • Pacak K Eisenhofer G Carrasquillo JA Chen CC Li ST Goldstein DS. 6-[18F]fluorodopamine positron emission tomographic (PET) scanning for diagnostic localization of pheochromocytoma. Hypertension 38 6–8 2001a.

  • Pacak K Fojo T Goldstein DS Eisenhofer G Walther MM Linehan WM Bachenheimer L Abraham J Wood BJ. Radiofrequency ablation: a novel approach for treatment of metastatic pheochromocytoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 93 648–649 2001b.

  • Pacak K. Preoperative management of the pheochromocytoma patient. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92 4069–4079 2007.

  • Pacak K Eisenhofer G Ahlman Hk Bornstein SR Gimenez-Roqueplo AP Grossman AB Kimura N Mannelli M McNicol AM Tischler AS; International Symposium on Pheochromocytoma. Pheochromocytoma: recommendations for clinical practice from the First International Symposium. October 2005. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 3 92–102 2007.

  • Pacak K Wimalawansa SJ. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocr Pract 21 406–412 2015.

  • Pamporaki C Hamplova B Peitzsch M Prejbisz A Beuschlein F Timmers HJLM Fassnacht M Klink B Lodish M Stratakis CA Huebner A Fliedner S Robledo M Sinnott RO Januszewicz A Pacak K Eisenhofer G. Characteristics of pediatric vs adult pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 102 1122–1132 2017.

  • Papadakis M Manios A Schoretsanitis G Trompoukis C. Landmarks in the history of adrenal surgery. Hormones (Athens) 15 136–141 2016.

  • Pappachan JM Raskauskiene D Sriraman R Edavalath M Hanna FW. Diagnosis and management of pheochromocytoma: a practical guide to clinicians. Curr Hypertens Rep 16 442 2014.

  • Pick L. Das Ganglioma embryonale sympathicum (Sympathoma embryonale). Berl Klin Wschnschr 49 16–22 1912.

  • Pillai S Gopalan V Smith RA Lam AK. Updates on the genetics and the clinical impacts on phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma in the new era. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 100 190–208 2016.

  • Plesoianu CE Andriescu G Salaru D Georgescu CA. The relationship between biochemical variables and the quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure. Rev Chim (Bucharest) 68 2452–2458 2017.

  • Plouin PF Chatellier G Fofol I Corvol P. Tumor recurrence and hypertension persistence after successful pheochromocytoma operation. Hypertension 29 1133–1139 1997.

  • Plouin PF Duclos JM Soppelsa F Boublil G Chatellier G. Factors associated with perioperative morbidity and mortality in patients with pheochromocytoma: analysis of 165 operations at a single center. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86 1480–1486 2001.

  • Plouin PF Amar L Dekkers OM Fassnacht M Gimenez-Roqueplo AP Lenders JW Lussey-Lepoutre C Steichen O; Guideline Working Group. European Society of Endocrinology Clinical Practice Guideline for long-term follow-up of patients operated on for a phaeochromocytoma or a paraganglioma. Eur J Endocrinol 174 G1–G10 2016.

  • Pogorzelski R Toutounchi S Krajewska E Fiszer P Lykowski M Zapala L Szostek M Jakuczun W Pachucki J Skorski M. The effect of surgical treatment of phaeochromocytoma on concomitant arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus in a single-centre retrospective study. Cent European J Uro 67 361–365 2014.

  • Pollard P Briere J Alam N Barwell J Barclay E Wortham N Hunt T Mitchell M Olpin S Moat SJ Hargreaves IP Heales SJ Chung YL Griffiths JR Dalgleish A McGrath JA Gleeson MJ Hodgson SV Poulsom R Rustin P Tomlinson IP. Accumulation of Krebs cycle intermediates and over-expression of HIF1alpha in tumours which result from germline FH and SDH mutations. Hum Mol Genet 14 2231–2239 2005.

  • Poopalalingam R Chin EY. Rapid preparation of a patient with pheochromocytoma with labetolol and magnesium sulfate. Can J Anaesth 48 876–880 2001.

  • Pourian M Mostafazadeh DB Soltani A. Does this patient have pheochromocytoma? A systematic review of clinical signs and symptoms. J Diabetes Metab Disord 15 11 2016.

  • Press D Akyuz M Dural C Aliyev S Monteiro R Mino J Mitchell J Hamrahian A Siperstein A Berber E. Predictors of recurrence in pheochromocytoma. Surgery 156 1523–1528 2014.

  • Prinz RA. A comparison of laparoscopic and open adrenalectomies. Arch Surg 130 489–494 1995.

  • Proye C Fossati P Fontaine P Lefebvre J Decoulx M Wemeau JL Dewailly D Rwamasirabo E Cecat P. Dopamine-secreting pheochromocytoma: an unrecognized entity? Classification of pheochromocytomas according to their type of secretion. Surgery 100 1154–1162 1986.

  • Raimundo N Baysal BE Shadel GS. Revisiting the TCA cycle: signaling to tumor formation. Trends Mol Med 17 641–649 2011.

  • Ramachandran R Rewari V. Current perioperative management of pheochromocytomas. Indian J Urol 33 19–25 2017.

  • Rao N Ramachandran R Tandon N Singh P Kumar R. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma-does size matter? A single surgeon comparative study. Transl Androl Urol 5 780–783 2016.

  • Renard J Clerici T Licker M Triponez F. Pheochromocytoma and abdominal paraganglioma. J Visc Surg 148 e409–e416 2011.

  • Reyes HA Paquin JJ Harris DM. Pheochromocytoma “the Great Masquerader” Presenting as Severe Acute Decompensated Heart Failure in a Young Patient. Case Rep Cardiol 2018 8767801 2018.

  • Robbins SL Kumar V. Basic Pathology 4th Edition. Philadelphia Saunders 1987.

  • Rossitti HM Soderkvist P Gimm O. Extent of surgery for phaeochromocytomas in the genomic era. Br J Surg 105 e84–e98 2018.

  • Saffarini O. Open versus laparoscopic adrenalectomy for Pheochromocytoma. Diploma In Minimal Access Surgery Laparoscopy Hospital New Delhi India 2007.

  • Sanford EL Hickey T Lu J. Acute Takotsubo cardiomyopathy during elective hernia repair in a patient with previously resected pheochromocytoma. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 29 1596–1598 2015.

  • Scheffler IE. Mitochondria. New Jersey Wiley and Sons Inc. 2008.

  • Schenker JG Granat M. Phaeochromocytoma and pregnancy-an updated appraisal. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 22 1–10 1982.

  • Scholten A Cisco RM Vriens MR Cohen JK Mitmaker EJ Liu C Tyrrell JB Shen WT Duh QY. Pheochromocytoma crisis is not a surgical emergency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98 581–591 2013.

  • Schteingart DE Doherty GM Gauger PG Giordano TJ Hammer GD Korobkin M Worden FP. Management of patients with adrenal cancer: recommendations of an international consensus conference. Endocr Relat Cancer 12 667–680 2005.

  • Schultz CL Haaga JR Fletcher BD Alfidi RJ Schultz MA. Magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal glands: a comparison with computed tomography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 143 1235–1240 1984.

  • Schulz C Eisenhofer G Lehnert H. Principles of catecholamine biosynthesis metabolism and release. Front Horm Res. 31 1–25 2004.

  • Selak MA Armour SM MacKenzie ED Boulahbel H Watson DG Mansfield KD Pan Y Simon MC Thompson CB Gottlieb E. Succinate links TCA cycle dysfunction to oncogenesis by inhibiting HIF-alpha prolyl hydroxylase. Cancer Cell 7 77–85 2005.

  • Semenza GL. Targeting HIF-1 for cancer therapy. Nat Rev Cancer 3 721–732 2003.

  • Semenza GL. Defining the role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in cancer biology and therapeutics. Oncogene 29 625–634 2010.

  • Semenza GL. Hypoxia-inducible factors in physiology and medicine. Cell 148 399–408 2012.

  • Shawar L Svec F. Pheochromocytoma with elevated metanephrines as the only biochemical finding. J La State Med Soc 148 535–538 1996.

  • Shulkin BL Ilias I Sisson JC Pacak K. Current trends in functional imaging of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1073 374–382 2006.

  • Siddiqi HK Yang HY Laird AM Fox AC Doherty GM Miller BS Gauger PG. Utility of oral nicardipine and magnesium sulfate infusion during preparation and resection of pheochromocytomas. Surgery 152 1027–1036 2012.

  • Sinclair D Shenkin A Lorimer A. Normal catecholamine production in a patient with a paroxysmally secreting phaeochromocytoma. Ann Clin Biochem 28 417–419 1991.

  • Soltani A Pourian M Davani BM. Correction to: Does this patient have Pheochromocytoma? a systematic review of clinical signs and symptoms. J Diabetes Metab Disord 16 42 2017.

  • Stein PP Black HR. A simplified diagnostic approach to pheochromocytoma. A review of the literature and report of one institution‘s experience. Medicine (Baltimore) 70 46–66 1991.

  • Steinsapir J Carr AA Prisant LM Bransome ED Jr. Metyrosine and pheochromocytoma. Arch Intern Med 157 901–906 1997.

  • Sternberg SS Antonioli DA Carter D Mills SE Oberman HA. Diagnostic Surgical Pathology 3rd ed. Vol. 2. Philadelphia PA USA Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 1999.

  • Stewart MF Reed P Weinkove C Moriarty KJ Ralston AJ. Biochemical diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma: two instructive case reports. J Clin Pathol 46 280–282 1993.

  • Sutton MG Sheps SG Lie JT. Prevalence of clinically unsuspected pheochromocytoma. Review of a 50-year autopsy series. Mayo Clin Proc 56 354–360 1981.

  • Swietach P Vaughan-Jones RD Harris AL. Regulation of tumor pH and the role of carbonic anhydrase 9. Cancer Metastasis Rev 26 299–310 2007.

  • Tanaka M Tokuda N Koga H Kimoto Y Naito S. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma: comparison with open adrenalectomy and comparison of laparoscopic surgery for pheochromocytoma versus other adrenal tumors. J Endourol 14 427–431 2000.

  • Thanapaalasingham K Pollmann AS Schelew B. Failure of metyrosine therapy for preoperative management of pheochromocytoma: a case report. Can J Anaesth 62 1303–1307 2015.

  • Thompson LD. Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal gland Scaled Score (PASS) to separate benign from malignant neoplasms: a clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic study of 100 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 26 551–566 2002.

  • Thomson BN Moulton CA Davies M Banting SW. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for phaeochromocytoma: with caution. ANZ J Surg 74 429–433 2004.

  • Toledo RA Burnichon N Cascon A Benn DE Bayley JP Welander J Tops CM Firth H Dwight T Ercolino T1 Mannelli M Opocher G Clifton-Bligh R Gimm O Maher ER Robledo M Gimenez-Roqueplo AP Dahia PL NGS in PPGL (NGSnPPGL) Study Group. Consensus statement on next-generation-sequencing-based diagnostic testing of hereditary phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Nat Rev Endocrinol 13 233–247 2017.

  • Toledo R Jimenez C. Recent advances in the management of malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: focus on tyrosine kinase and hypoxia-inducible factor inhibitors. F1000Res 7 pii: F1000 Faculty Rev-1148 2018.

  • Toniato A Piotto A Pagetta C Bernante P Pelizzo M. Technique and results of laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Langenbecks Arch Surg 386 200–203 2001.

  • Toniato A Boschin IM Opocher G Guolo A Pelizzo M Mantero F. Is the laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma the best treatment? Surgery 141 723–727 2007.

  • Townsend CM Beauchanp RD Evers BM Mattox KL. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery 19th Ed. Elsevier Publishers 2012.

  • Tschuor C Sadri H Clavien PA. Pheochromocytoma crisis. Clin Case Rep 2 14 2014.

  • Turchini J Gill AJ Tischler AS. Pathology of Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma. In: Pheochromocytomas Paragangliomas and Disorders of the Sympathoadrenal System (ed. Landsberg L). Humana Press Springer 2018.

  • Udelsman R. Adrenal. In: Surgery Basic Science and Clinical Evidence (eds. Norton JA Bollinger RR). Bollinger Springer 2001.

  • Unger N Hinrichs J Deutschbein T Schmidt H Walz M Mann K Petersenn S. Plasma and urinary metanephrines determined by an enzyme immunoassay but not serum chromogranin A for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in patients with adrenal mass. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 120 494–500 2012.

  • van Berkel A Lenders JW Timmers HJ. Diagnosis of endocrine disease: Biochemical diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Eur J Endocrinol 170 R109–R119 2014.

  • van der Weerd K van Noord C Loeve M Knapen M Visser W de Herder W Franssen G van der Marel C Feelders R. Endocrinology in pregnancy: Pheochromocytoma in pregnancy: case series and review of literature. Eur J Endocrinol 177 R49–R58 2017.

  • von Schlegel GG. Neurofibromatose recklinghausen und phaochromocytom. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 90 31–39 1960.

  • Waguespack SG Rich T Grubbs E Ying AK Perrier ND Ayala-Ramirez M Jimenez C. A current review of the etiology diagnosis and treatment of pediatric pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95 2023–2037 2010.

  • Wang Y Liu Y Malek SN Zheng P Liu Y. Targeting HIF1α eliminates cancer stem cells in hematological malignancies. Cell Stem Cell 8 399–411 2011.

  • Warburg O Wind F Negelein E. The metabolism of tumors in the body. J Gen Physiol 8 519–530 1927.

  • Weiner MM Asher DI Augoustides JG Evans AS Patel PA Gutsche JT Mookadam F Ramakrishna H. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: A clinical update for the cardiovascular anesthesiologist. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 31 334–344 2017.

  • Weingarten TN Cata JP O‘Hara JF Prybilla DJ Pike TL Thompson GB Grant CS Warner DO Bravo E Sprung J. Comparison of two preoperative medical management strategies for laparoscopic resection of pheochromocytoma. Urology 76 508.e6–508.e11 2010.

  • Weinstein JN Collisson EA Mills GB Shaw KRM Ozenberger BA Ellrott K Shmulevich I Sander C Stuart JM Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network. The cancer genome atlas pan-cancer analysis project. Nat Genet 45 1113–1120 2013.

  • Welander J Larsson C Backdahl M Hareni N Sivler T Brauckhoff M Soderkvist P Gimm O. Integrative genomics reveals frequent somatic NF1 mutations in sporadic pheochromocytomas. Hum Mol Genet 21 5406–5416 2012.

  • Welbourn RB. Early surgical history of phaeochromocytoma. Br J Surg 74 594–596 1987.

  • Wiese KE Nusse R van Amerongen R. Wnt signalling: conquering complexity. Development 145 dev165902 2018.

  • Wiesener MS Jurgensen JS Rosenberger C Scholdge CK Horstrup JH Warnecke C Mandriota S Bechmann I Frei UA Pugh CW Ratcliffe PJ Bachmann S Maxwell PH Eckardt KU. Widespread hypoxia-inducible expression of HIF-2alpha in distinct cell populations of different organs. FASEB J 17 271–273 2003.

  • Wing LA Conaglen JV Meyer-Rochow GY Elston MS. Paraganglioma in pregnancy: a case series and review of the literature. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 100 3202–3209 2015.

  • Wyszynska T Cichocka E Wieteska-Klimczak A Jobs K Januszewicz P. A single pediatric center experience with 1025 children with hypertension. Acta Paediatr 81 244–246 1992.

  • Yu R Wei M. False positive test results for pheochromocytoma from 2000 to 2008. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 118 577–585 2010.

  • Yumi H Guidelines Committee of the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons. Guidelines for diagnosis treatment and use of laparoscopy for surgical problems during pregnancy: this statement was reviewed and approved by the Board of Governors of the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) September 2007. It was prepared by the SAGES Guidelines Committee. Surg Endosc 22 849–861 2008.

  • Zhikrivetskaya SO Snezhkina AV Zaretsky AR Alekseev BY Pokrovsky AV Golovyuk AL Melnikova NV Stepanov OA Kalinin DV Moskalev AA Krasnov GS Dmitriev AA Kudryavtseva AV. Molecular markers of paragangliomas/pheochromocytomas. Oncotarget 8 25756–25782 2017.

  • Zhu H Bunn HF. Oxygen sensing and signaling: impact on the regulation of physiologically important genes. Respir Physiol 115 239–247 1999.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2018: 1.27

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.411
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.441

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 284 284 68
PDF Downloads 192 192 65