Objective. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and multifactorial disease associated with female factor infertility. Ulmus minor bark (UMB) is one of the medicinal plants used in Persian folklore as a fertility enhancer. In the current study, we aimed to elucidate the effect of UMB hydro-alcoholic extract on histological parameters and testosterone condition in an experimental model of PCOS rats.
Methods. Thirty female rats were randomly divided into five groups: (1) control, (2) vehicle, (3) PCOS/50 mg [6 mg/kg dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) + 50 mg/kg UMB hydro-alcoholic extract], (4) PCOS/150 mg (6 mg/kg DHEA + 150 mg/kg UMB hydro-alcoholic extract), and (5) PCOS (6 mg/kg DHEA). All interventions were performed for 21 days. Afterwards, stereological analysis was done for determination of ovarian volume and follicle number. The serum level of testosterone was measured by ELISA kit.
Results. UMB hydro-alcoholic extract improved the total number of the corpus luteum in the treatment groups when compared to the PCOS group (p<0.05). PCOS/150 mg and PCOS/50 mg groups showed significantly lower total number of the primordial, primary, and secondary follicles as well as testosterone level compared to the PCOS group (p<0.05). The total number of antral follicles and volume of ovary did not differ significantly between groups.
Conclusion. UMB extract may be an effective and good alternative in improving PCOS histo-logical and testosterone disturbances although further studies are warranted to confirm the safety of UMB plant in human.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
AbuMweis SS Marinangeli CP Frohlich J Jones PJ. Implementing phytosterols into medical practice as a cholesterol-lowering strategy: overview of efficacy effectiveness and safety. Can J Cardiol 30 1225–1232 2014.
Adnan M Tariq A Mussarat S Begum S AbdEIsalam NM Ullah R. Ethnogynaecological assessment of medicinal plants in Pashtun’s tribal society. Biomed Res Int 2015 196475 2015.
Agra LC Ferro JN Barbosa FT Barreto E. Triterpenes with healing activity: A systematic review. J Dermatolog Treat 26 465–470 2015.
Anderson K Norman RJ Middleton P. Preconception lifestyle advice for people with subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4 CD008189 2010.
Bahmani M Baharvand-Ahmadi B Tajeddini P Rafieian-Kopaei M Naghdi N. Identification of medicinal plants for the treatment of kidney and urinary stones. J Renal Inj Prev 5 129–133 2016.
Barzegar MH Khazali H Kalantar SM Khoradmehr A. Effect of Citrullus colocynthis hydro-alcoholic extract on hormonal and folliculogenesis process in estradiol valerate-induced PCOs rats model: An experimental study. Int J Reprod Biomed (Yazd) 15 661–668 2017.
Dasanu CA Clark BA Ichim TE Alexandrescu DT. Polycystic ovary syndrome: focus on platelets and prothrombotic risk. South Med J 104 174–178 2011.
Ding Z Dai Y Hao H Pan R Yao X Wang Z. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of scopoletin and underlying mechanisms. Pharmaceutical Biology 46 854–860 2008.
Dunne N Slater B. The Natural Diet Solution for PCOS and Infertility. Health Solutions Press 2005. Escobar-Morreale HF. Polycystic ovary syndrome: definition aetiology diagnosis and treatment. Nat Rev Endocrinol 14 270–284 2018.
Franks S Stark J Hardy K. Follicle dynamics and anovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod Update 14 367–378 2008.
Ghafurniyan H Azarnia M Nabiuni M Karimzadeh L. The effect of green tea extract on reproductive improvement in estradiol valerate-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in rat. Iran J Pharm Res 14 1215–1233 2015.
Gundersen HJ Bendtsen TF Korbo L Marcussen N Moller A Nielsen K Nyengaard JR Pakkenberg B Sorensen FB Vesterby A West MJ. Some new simple and efficient stereological methods and their use in pathological research and diagnosis. APMIS 96 379–394 1988a.
Gundersen HJ Bagger P Bendtsen TF Evans SM Korbo L Marcussen N Moller A Nielsen K Nyengaard JR Pakkenberg B Sorensen FB Vesterby A West MJ. The new stereological tools: disector fractionator nucleator and point sampled intercepts and their use in pathological research and diagnosis. APMIS 96 857–881 1988b.
Hosseinkhani A Asadi N Pasalar M Zarshenas MM. Traditional Persian Medicine and management of metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome. J Tradit Complement Med 8 17–23 2018.
Khan S Riaz N Afza N Malik A Aziz-ur-Rehman Iqbal L Lateef M. Antioxidant constituents from Cotoneaster racemiflora. J Asian Nat Prod Res 11 44–48 2009.
Klippel KF Hiltl DM Schipp B. A multicentric placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial of beta-sitosterol (phytosterol) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. German BPH-Phyto Study group. Br J Urol 80 427–432 1997.
Leema G. Tamizhselvi R. Protective effect of scopoletin against cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury in mice. Pancreas 47 577–585 2018.
Li J Li X Li Z Zhang L Liu Y Ding H Yin S. Isofraxidin a coumarin component improves high-fat diet induced hepatic lipid homeostasis disorder and macrophage inflammation in mice. Food Funct 8 2886–2896 2017.
Liu W Hua J Zhou J Zhang H Zhu H Cheng Y Gust R. Synthesis and in vitro antitumor activity of novel scopoletin derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 22 5008–5012 2012.
Liu L Mu Q Li W Xing W Zhang H Fan T Yao H He L. Isofraxidin protects mice from LPS challenge by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines and alleviating histopathological changes. Immunobiology 220 406–413 2015.
Ma QW Tan Y. Effectiveness of co-treatment with traditional Chinese medicine and letrozole for polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis. J Integr Med 15 95–101 2017.
Maciel GA Baracat EC Benda JA Markham SM Hensinger K Chang RJ Erickson GF. Stockpiling of transitional and classic primary follicles in ovaries of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89 5321–5327 2004.
Macut D Bjekic-Macut J Savic-Radojevic A. Dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in PCOS. Front Horm Res 40 51–63 2013.
Martin D Garcia-Vallejo MC Pajares JA Lopez D Diez JJ. Elm bark components and their potential influence on bark beetle feeding. Forest Systems 13 227–235 2004.
McNeilly AS Duncan WC. Rodent models of polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol 373 2–7 2013.
O’Flynn N. Assessment and treatment for people with fertility problems: NICE guideline. Br J Gen Pract 64 50–51 2014.
Oakley O Lin PC P Bridges P Ko C. Animal models for the study of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Endocrinology and Metabolism 26 6193–6202 2011.
Ong HG Kim YD. Herbal therapies and social-health policies: Indigenous Ati Negrito women’s dilemma and reproductive healthcare transitions in the Philippines. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015 491209 2015.
Patel S. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) an inflammatory systemic lifestyle endocrinopathy. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 182 27–36 2018.
Peng Z Sun Y Lv X Zhang H Liu C Dai S. Interleukin-6 levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A Systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 11 e0148531 2016.
Rezaei-Golmisheh A Sadrkhanlou RA Malekinejad H Ahmadi A. The ameliorative effects of lupeol and flutamide on dehydroepiandrosterone-induced uterine hyperfibrosis in mice. The Journal of Urmia University of Medical Sciences 26 923–934 2017.
Ried K. Chinese herbal medicine for female infertility: an updated meta-analysis. Complement Ther Med 23 116–128 2015.
Roy S Mahesh VB Greenblatt RB. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone and delta4-androstenedione on the reproductive organs of female rats: production of cystic changes in the ovary. Nature 196 42–43 1962.
Salmabadi Z Mohseni Kouchesfahani H Parivar K Karimzadeh L. Effect of grape seed extract on lipid profile and expression of interleukin-6 in polycystic ovarian syndrome Wistar rat model. Int J Fertil Steril 11 176–183 2017.
Shaw CY Chen CH Hsu CC Chen CC Tsai YC. Antioxidant properties of scopoletin isolated from Sinomonium acutum. Phytother Res 17 823–825 2003.
Shin EJ Choi HK Sung MJ Park JH Chung MY Chung S Hwang JT. Anti-tumour effects of beta-sitosterol are mediated by AMPK/PTEN/HSP90 axis in AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and xenograft mouse models. Biochem Pharmacol 152 60–70 2018.
Siddique HR Saleem M. Beneficial health effects of lupeol triterpene: a review of preclinical studies. Life Sci 88 285–293 2011.
Siddique HR Mishra SK Karnes RJ Saleem M. Lupeol a novel androgen receptor inhibitor: implications in prostate cancer therapy. Clin Cancer Res 17 5379–5391 2011.
Swaroop A Jaipuriar AS Gupta SK Bagchi M Kumar P Preuss HG Bagchi D. Efficacy of a movel fenugreek seed extract (Trigonella foenum-graecum Furocyst) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Int J Med Sci 12 825–831 2015.
Tao P Coates R Maycock B. The impact of infertility on sexuality: A literature review. Australas Med J 4 620–627 2011.
Telefo PB Lienou LL Yemele MD Lemfack MC Mouokeu C Goka CS Tagne SR Moundipa FP. Ethnopharmaco-logical survey of plants used for the treatment of female infertility in Baham Cameroon. J Ethnopharmacol 136 178–187 2011.
van Andel T de Boer HJ Barnes J Vandebroek I. Medicinal plants used for menstrual disorders in Latin America the Caribbean sub-Saharan Africa South and Southeast Asia and their uterine properties: A review. J Ethnopharmacol 155 992–1000 2014.
Verma A Dewangan P Kesharwani D Kela SP. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of scopoletin (coumarin derivative) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 22 79–83 2013.
Wilt TJ MacDonald R Ishani A. beta-sitosterol for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review. BJU Int 83 976–983 1999.
Yazbek PB Tezoto J Cassas F Rodrigues E. Plants used during maternity menstrual cycle and other women’s health conditions among Brazilian cultures. J Ethnopharmacol 179 310–331 2016.
Yemele MD Telefo PB Lienou LL Tagne SR Fodouop CS Goka CS Lemfack MC Moundipa FP. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used for pregnant women’s health conditions in Menoua division-West Cameroon. J Ethnopharmacol 160 14–31 2015.
Yildirim B Sabir N Kaleli B. Relation of intra-abdominal fat distribution to metabolic disorders in non-obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 79 1358–1364 2003.
Yilmaz O Calan M Kume T Temur M Yesil P Senses MY. The effect of prolactin levels on MPV in women with PCOS. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 82 747–752 2015.
Yin Y Liu X Liu J Cai E Zhu H Li H Zhang L Li P Zhao Y. Beta-sitosterol and its derivatives repress lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine-induced acute hepatic injury by inhibiting the oxidation and inflammation in mice. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 28 1525–1533 2018.