Polycystic Ovary Syndrome as a systemic disease with multiple molecular pathways: a narrative review

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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism, amenorrhea, and polycystic ovaries. This endocrinopathy is associated with many metabolic disorders such as dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular complications. Inflammation is likely to play an important role in the promoting these metabolic imbalances, while prothrombotic and pro-oxidative mechanisms further contribute to the cardiovascular risk of these patients. The etiology of PCOS is still not fully understood, but there is evidence of genetic and environmental components. This review aims to discuss some molecular pathways associated with PCOS that could contribute to the better understanding about this syndrome. Recent evidence suggests that intrauterine exposure of female mice to an excess of anti-Müllerian hormone may induce PCOS features in their post-natal life. High cytokine levels and cytokine gene polymorphisms also appear to be associated with the pathophysiology of PCOS. Furthermore, high levels of microparticles may contribute to the altered hemostasis and enhanced inflammation in PCOS. All these mechanisms may be relevant to clarify some aspects of PCOS pathogenesis and inspire new strategies to prevent the syndrome as well as treat its symptoms and mitigate the risk of long-term complications.

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