Radiology of the adrenal incidentalomas. Review of the literature

Open access


The term “adrenal incidentaloma” is a radiological term. Adrenal incidentalomas are adrenal tumors discovered in an imaging study that has been obtained for indications exclusive to adrenal conditions (Udelsman 2001; Linos 2003; Bulow et al. 2006; Anagnostis et al. 2009). This definition excludes patients undergoing imaging testing as part of staging and work-up for cancer (Grumbach et al. 2003; Anagnostis et al. 2009). Papierska et al. (2013) have added the prerequisite that the size of a tumor must be “greater than 1cm in diameter”, in order to be called incidentaloma. Although in the most cases these masses are non-hypersecreting and benign, they still represent an important clinical concern because of the risk of malignancy or hormone hyperfunction (Barzon et al. 2003). Th e adrenal tumors belong to the commonest incidental findings having been discovered (Kanagarajah et al. 2012).

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Abrams HL Siegelman SS Adams DF Sanders R Finberg HJ Hessel SJ McNeil BJ. Computed tomography versus ultrasound of the adrenal gland: a prospective study. Radiology 143 121-128 1982.

  • Adusumilli S Ramchandani P. Adrenal myelolipoma. eMedicine - Radiology online:

  • Allolio B. Adrenal incidentalomas. In: Contemporary Endocrinology: Adrenal Disorders (Eds. Margioriss AN Chrousos GP) pp. 249-261 Springer-Science+Business Media New York 2001.

  • Anagnostis P Karagiannis A Tziomalos K Kakafi ka AI Athyros VG Mikhailidis DP. Adrenal incidentaloma: a diagnostic challenge. Hormones (Athens) 8 163-184 2009.

  • Anderson WAD. In Pathology. Vol. I. Ed. 6. Th e C. V. Mosby Co. St. Louis; 819-820 1971.

  • Angeli A Terzolo M. Adrenal incidentaloma--a modern disease with old complications. Th e J Clin Endocrinol Met 87 4869 2002.

  • Barzon L Sonino N Fallo F Palu G Boscaro M. Prevalence and natural history of adrenal incidentalomas. Eur J Endocrinol 149 273-285 2003.

  • Bednarczuk T Bolanowski M Sworczak K Gornicka B Cieszanowski A Otto M Ambroziak U Pachucki J Kubicka E Babinska A Koperski L Januszewicz A Prejbisz A Gorska M Jarzab B Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A Glinicki P Ruchala M Kasperlik-Zaluska A. Adrenal incidentaloma in adults-management recommendations by the Polish Society of Endocrinology. Endokrynol Pol 67 234-258 2016.

  • Bessell-Browne R O’Malley ME. CT of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: risk of adverse events with i.v. administration of nonionic contrast material. ARJ Am J Roentgenol 188 970-974 2007.

  • Birnholz JC. Ultrasound imaging of adrenal mass lesions. Radiology 109 163-166 1973.

  • Blake MA Krishnamoorthy SK Boland GW Sweeney AT Pitman MB Harisinghani M Mueller PR Hahn PF. Low-density pheochromocytoma on CT: a mimicker of adrenal adenoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 181 1663-1668 2003.

  • Blake MA Cronin CG Boland GW. Adrenal imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol 194 1450-1460 2010.

  • Bley TA Wieben O Francois CJ Brittain JH Reeder SB. Fat and water magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 31 4-18 2010.

  • Block MB Roberts JP Kadair RG Seyfer AE Hull SF Nofeldt FD. Multiple endocrine adenomatosis type IIb. Diagnosis and treatment. JAMA 234 710-714 1975.

  • Boland GW Goldberg MA Lee MJ Mayo-Smith WW Dixon J McNicholas MM Mueller PR. Indeterminate adrenal mass in patients with cancer: evaluation at PET with 2-[F-18]-fl uoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Radiology 194 131-134 1995.

  • Boland GW Lee M Gazelle GS Halpern EF McNicholas MM Mueller PR. Characterization of adrenal masses using unenhanced CT: an analysis of the CT literature. AJR Am J Roentgenol 171 201-204 1998.

  • Boland GW Blake MA Hahn PF Mayo-Smith WW. Incidental adrenal lesions: principles techniques and algorithms for imaging characterization. Radiology 249 756-775 2008.

  • Boland GW. Adrenal imaging: why when what and how? Part 3. Th e algorithmic approach to defi nitive characterization of the adrenal incidentaloma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 196 W109-W111 2011.

  • Boland GW Dwamena BA Jagtiani Sangwaiya M Goehler AG Blake MA Hahn PF Scott JA Kalra MK. Characterization of adrenal masses by using FDG PET: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test performance. Radiology 259 117-126 2011.

  • Bowerman RA Silver TM Jaff e MH Stuck KJ Hinerman DL. Sonography of adrenal pheochromocytomas. AJR Am J Roentgenol 137 1227-1231 1981.

  • Bulow B Jansson S Juhlin C Steen L Th oren M Wahrenberg H Valdemarsson S Wangberg B Ahren B. Adrenal incidentaloma - follow-up results from a Swedish prospective study. Eur J Endocrinol 154 419-423 2006.

  • Caoili EM Korobkin M Francis IR Cohan RH Dunnick NR. Delayed enhanced CT of lipid-poor adrenal adenomas. AJR Am J Roentgenol 175 1411-1415 2000.

  • Cheema P Cartagena R Staubitz W. Adrenal cysts: diagnosis and treatment. J Urol 126 396-399 1981.

  • Chidiac RM Aron DC. Incidentalomas: a disease of modern technology. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 26 233-253 1997.

  • Cho YY Suh S Joung JY Jeong H Je D Yoo H Park TK Min YK Kim KW Kim JH. Clinical characteristics and follow-up of Korean patients with adrenal incidentalomas. Korean J Int Med 28 557-5564 2013.

  • Conder G Rendle J Kidd S Misra RR. A-Z of Abdominal Radiology. Cambridge University Press Cambridge UK 2009.

  • Cyran KM Kenney PJ Memel DS Yacoub I. Adrenal myelolipoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 166 395-400 1996.

  • Defechereux T Degauque C Hamoir E Lamberty G Preud’homme L Meurisse M. [Discordance between actual and radiologically estimated size of an incidentaloma. Delay in questions regarding operative decision-making criteria.] Ann Chir 127 126-129 2002.

  • Dobbie J. Adrenocortical nodular hyperplasia: the ageing adrenal. J Pathol 99 1-18 1969.

  • Dunnick N. Hanson lecture. Adrenal imaging: current status. AJR Am J Roentgenol 154 927-936 1990.

  • Dunnick NR Korobkin M. Imaging of adrenal incidentalomas: current status. AJR Am J Roentgenol 179 559-568 2002.

  • Eghrari M McLoughlin MJ Rosen IE St Louis EL Wilson SR Yeung HP. Th e role of computed tomography in assessment of tumoral pathology of the adrenal glands. J Comput Assist Tomogr 4 71-77 1980.

  • Fiebrich HB Brouwers AH Kerstens MN Pijl ME Kema IP de Jong JR Jager PL Elsinga PH Dierckx RA van der Wal JE Sluiter WJ de Vries EG Links TP. 6-[F-18]Fluoro-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography is superior to conventional imaging with 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in localizing tumors causing catecholamine excess. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94 3922-3930 2009.

  • Fischman AJ Babich B Strauss HW. A ticket to ride: peptide radiopharmaceuticals. J Nucl Med 34 2253-2253 1993.

  • Fontana D Porpiglia F Destefanis P Fiori C Ali A Terzolo M Osella G Angeli A. What is the role of ultrasonography in the follow-up of adrenal incidentalomas? Th e Gruppo Piemontese Incidentalomi Surrenalici. Urology 54 612-616 1999.

  • Forsythe JR Gosink BB Leopold GR. Ultrasound in the evaluation of adrenal metastases. J Clin Ultrasound 5 31-34 1977.

  • Francis IR Gross MD Shapiro B Korobkin M Quint LE. Integrated imaging of adrenal disease. Radiology 184 1-13 1992.

  • Friedrich-Rust M Schneider G Bohle RM Herrmann E Sarrazin C Zeuzem S Bojunga J. Contrast-enhanced sonography of adrenal masses: diff erentiation of adenomas and nonadenomatous lesions. AJR Am J Roentgenol 191 1852-1860 2008.

  • Fujiyoshi F Nakajo M Fukukura Y Tsuchimochi S. Characterization of adrenal tumors by chemical shift fast lowangle shot MR imaging: comparison of four methods of quantitative evaluation. AJR Am J Roentgenol 180 1649-1657 2003.

  • Funder JW Carey RM Fardella C Gomez-Sanchez CE Mantero F Stowasser M Young WF Jr Montori VM; Endocrine Society. Case detection diagnosis and treatment of patients with primary aldosteronism: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Met 93 3266-3281 2008.

  • Gajraj H Young AE. Adrenal incidentaloma. Br J Surg 80 422-426 1993.

  • Ghiatas A Chopra S Schnitker JB. Is sonographic fl ow imaging useful in the diff erential diagnosis of adrenal masses? Br J Radiol 69 1005-1008 1996.

  • Goldman HB Howard RC Patterson AL. Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage from a giant adrenal myelolipoma. J Urol 155 639 1996.

  • Grumbach MM Biller BM Braunstein GD Campbell KK Carney JA Godley PA Harris EL Lee JK Oertel YC Posner MC Schlechte JA Wieand HS. Management of the clinically inapparent adrenal mass (“incidentalomas”). Ann Int Med 138 424-429 2003.

  • Haider MA Ghai S Jhaveri K Lockwood G. Chemical shift MR imaging of hyperattenuating (>10 HU) adrenal masses: does it still have a role? Radiology 231 711-716 2004.

  • Herr K Muglia VF Koff WJ Westphalen AC. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions. Radiol Bras 47 228-39 2014.

  • Herrera M Grant C van Heerden JA Sheedy PF Ilstrup DM. Incidentally discovered adrenal tumors: an institutional perspective. Surgery 110 1014-1021 1991.

  • Hofer M. Kidneys and Adrenal Glands. Ultrasound Teaching Manual Hofer Matthias Th ieme 37-50 1999.

  • Hornsby PJ. Aging of the human adrenal cortex. Ageing Res Rev 1 229-242 2002.

  • Ilias I Sahdev A Reznek RH Grossman AB Pacak K. Th e optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of diff erent methods. Endocr Relat Cancer 14 587-599 2007.

  • Jain SM. Adrenal incidentaloma: A puzzle for clinician. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 17 S59-S63 2013.

  • Kahn SL Angle JF. Adrenal vein sampling. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol 13 110-125 2010.

  • Kanagarajah P Ayyathurai R Manoharan M Narayanan G Kava BR. Current concepts in the management of adrenal incidentalomas. Urol Ann 4 137-144 2012.

  • Karstaedt N Sagel SS Stanley RJ Melson GL Levitt RG. Computed tomography of the adrenal gland. Radiology 129 723-730 1978.

  • Kasperlik-Zaluska AA Slowinska-Srzednicka J Rosłonowska E Kochman M Jeske W Otto M Cichocki A Slapa RZ Zgliczynski W. Bilateral incidentally found adrenal tumours-results of observation of 1790 patients registered at a single endocrinological centre. Endokrynol Pol 61 69-73 2010.

  • Kawashima A Sandler CM Ernst RD Takahashi N Roubidoux MA Goldman SM Fishman EK Dunnick NR. Imaging of nontraumatic hemorrhage of the adrenal gland. Radiographics 19 949-963 1999.

  • Khurana A Kaur P Chauhan AK Kataria SP Bansal N. Primary non Hodgkin’s lymphoma of left adrenal gland-“A rare presentation. J Clin Diagn Res 9 XD01-XD03 2015

  • Kim J Bae KH Choi YK Jeong JY Park KG Kim JG Lee IK. Clinical characteristics for 348 patients with adrenal incidentaloma. Endocrinol Metab 28 20-25 2013.

  • Korobkin M. CT Characterization of adrenal masses: the time has come. Radiology 217 629-632 2000.

  • Korobkin M White E Kressel HY Moss AA Montagne JP. Computed tomography in the diagnosis of adrenal disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol 132 231-238 1979.

  • Krestin GP Steinbrich W Friedmann G. Adrenal masses: evaluation with fast gradient-echo MR imaging and Gd- DTPA-enhanced dynamic studies. Radiology 171 675-680 1989.

  • Kurtaran A Traub T Shapiro B. Scintigraphic imaging of the adrenal glands. Eur J Radiol 41 123-130 2002.

  • Lam K Lo C. Metastatic tumours of the adrenal glands: a 30-year experience in a teaching hospital. Clin Endocrinol 56 95-101 2002.

  • Lamberts SW Krenning EP Reubi JC. Th e role of somatostatin and its analogs in the diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Endocr Rev 12 450-482 1991.

  • Launay N Silvera S Tenenbaum F Groussin L Tissier F Audureau E Vignaux O Dousset B Bertagna X Legmann P. Value of 18-F-FDG PET/CT and CT in the diagnosis of indeterminate adrenal masses. Int J Endocrinol 2015 213875 2015.

  • Lee JE Evans DB Hickey RC Sherman SI Gagel RF Abbruzzese MC Abbruzzese JL. Unknown primary cancer presenting as an adrenal mass: frequency and implications for diagnostic evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas. Surgery 124 1115-1122 1998.

  • Lee JK Sagel SS Stanley RJ Heiken JP. Computed body tomography with MRI correlation. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 1998.

  • Leung K Stamm M et al. Pheochromocytoma: the range of appearances on ultrasound CT MRI and functional imaging. Am J Roentgenol 200 370-378 2013.

  • Linos DA. Adrenal incidentaloma (adrenaloma). Hormones (Athens) 2 12-21 2003.

  • Lockhart ME Smith JK Kenney PJ. Imaging of adrenal masses. Eur J Radiol 41 95-112 2002.

  • Ma J. Dixon techniques for water and fat imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 28 543-558 2008.

  • Mansmann G Lau J Balk E Rothberg M Miyachi Y Bornstein SR. Th e clinically inapparent adrenal mass: update in diagnosis and management. Endocr Rev 25 309-340 2004.

  • Mantero F Terzolo M Arnaldi G Osella G Masini AM Ali A Giovagnetti M Opocher G Angeli A. A survey on adrenal incidentaloma in Italy. Study Group on Adrenal Tumors of the Italian Society of Endocrinology. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85 637-644 2000.

  • Mattsson C Young WF. Primary aldosteronism: diagnostic and treatment strategies. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol 2 198-208 2006.

  • Maurea S Klain M Mainolfi C Ziviello M Salvatore M. Th e diagnostic role of radionuclide imaging in evaluation of patients with nonhypersecreting adrenal masses. J Nucl Med 42 884-892 2001.

  • Maurea S Lastoria S Caraco C Klain M Varrella P Acampa W Muto P Salvatore M. Th e role of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs in adrenal imaging. Nucl Med Biol 23 677-680 1996.

  • Mayo-Smith WW Boland GW Noto RB Lee MJ. State-of-the-art adrenal imaging. Radiographics 21 995-1012 2001.

  • Melby JC Spark RF Dale SL Egdahl RH Kahn PC. Diagnosis and localization of aldosterone-producing adenomas by adrenal-vein catheterization. Prog Clin Cancer 4 175-184 1970.

  • Melicow MM. One hundred cases of pheochromocytoma (107 tumors) at the Columbian-Presbyterian medical center 1926-1976. A clinicopathological analysis. Cancer 40 1987-2004 1977.

  • Mengozzi G Rossato D Bertello C Garrone C Milan A Pagni R Veglio F Mulatero P. Rapid cortisol assay during adrenal vein sampling in patients with primary aldosteronism. Clin Chem 53 1968-1971 2007.

  • Miller FH Wang Y McCarthy RJ Yaghmai V Merrick L Larson A Berggruen S Casalino DD Nikolaidis P. Utility of diff usion-weighted MRI in characterization of adrenal lesions. AJR Am J Roentgenol 194 W179-W185 2010.

  • Mittendorf EA Evans DB Lee JE Perrier ND. Pheochromocytoma: advances in genetics diagnosis localization and treatment. Hematol/Oncol Clin North Am 21 509-525 2007.

  • Miyake H Maeda H Tashiro M Suzuki K Nagatomo H Aikawa H Ashizawa A Iechika S Moriuchi A. CT of adrenal tumors: frequency and clinical signifi cance of low-attenuation lesions. AJR Am J Roentgenol 152 1005-1007 1989.

  • Montagne J Kressel H Korobkin M Moss AA. Computed tomography of the normal adrenal glands. AJR Am J Roentgenol 130 963-966 1978.

  • Moraitis A Stratakis C. Adrenocortical causes of hypertension. Int J Hypertens 2011 624691 2011.

  • Newhouse JH Heff ess CS Wagner BJ Imray TJ Adair CF Davidson AJ. Large degenerated adrenal adenomas: radiologic- pathologic correlation. Radiology 210 385-391 1999.

  • NIH Consens State Sci Statements. NIH state-of-the-science statement on management of the clinically inapparent adrenal mass (“incidentaloma”). NIH Consens State Sci Statements 19 1-25 2002.

  • Nurnberg D Szebeni A Zatura F. Ultrasound of the adrenal glands. In: EFSUMB - European Course Book (Ed. Dietrich ChF) pp. 1-31 2011.

  • Pacak K Wimalawansa SJ. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocr Pract 21 406-412 2015.

  • Paling MR Abbitt PL Mugler JP Brookeman JR. Liver metastases: optimization of MR imaging pulse sequences at 1.0 T. Radiology 167 695-699 1988.

  • Pantalone KM Gopan T Remer EM Faiman C Ioachimescu AG Levin HS Siperstein A Berber E Shepardson LB Bravo EL Hamrahian AH. Change in adrenal mass size as a predictor of a malignant tumor. Endocr Pract 16 577-587 2010.

  • Papierska L Cichocki A Sankowski AJ Cwikła JB. Adrenal incidentaloma imaging - the fi rst steps in therapeutic management. Polish J Radiol 78 47-55 2013.

  • Pasternak JD Seib CD Seiser N Tyrell JB Liu C Cisco RM Gosnell JE Shen WT Suh I Duh QY. Diff erences between bilateral adrenal incidentalomas and unilateral lesions. JAMA Surg 150 974-978 2015.

  • Patel J Davenport MS Cohan RH Caoili EM. Can established CT attenuation and washout criteria for adrenal adenoma accurately exclude pheochromocytoma? AJR Am J Roentgenol 201 122-127 2013.

  • Paterson F Th eodoraki A Amajuoyi A Bouloux PM Maclachlan J Khoo B. Radiology reporting of adrenal incidentalomas - who requires further testing? Clin Med (Lond) 14 16-21 2014.

  • Pokharel SS Macura KJ Kamel IR Zaheer A. Current MR imaging lipid detection techniques for diagnosis of lesions in the abdomen and pelvis. Radiographics 33 681-702 2013.

  • Popescu A Saftoiu A. Can elastography replace fi ne needle aspiration? Endosc Ultrasound 3 109-117 2014.

  • Powlson AS Gurnell M Brown MJ. Nuclear imaging in the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 22 150-156 2015.

  • Rajaratnam A Waugh J. Adrenal metastases of malignant melanoma: characteristic computed tomography appearances. Australas Radiol 49 325-329 2005.

  • Reinig JW Doppman J Dwyer AJ Frank J. MRI of indeterminate adrenal masses. AJR Am J Roentgenol 147 493-496 1986.

  • Rossi GP Ganzaroli C Miotto D De Toni R Palumbo G Feltrin GP Mantero F Pessina AC. Dynamic testing with high-dose adrenocorticotrophic hormone does not improve lateralization of aldosterone oversecretion in primary aldosteronism patients. J Hypertens 24 371-379 2006.

  • Rossi GP Pitter G Bernante P Motta R Feltrin G Miotto D. Adrenal vein sampling for primary aldosteronism: the assessment of selectivity and lateralization of aldosterone excess baseline and aft er adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation. J Hypertens 26 989-997 2008.

  • Rozenblit A Morehouse HT Amis ES Jr. Cystic adrenal lesions: CT features. Radiology 201 541-548 1996.

  • Russell C Goodacre B vanSonnenberg E Orihuela E. Spontaneous rupture of adrenal myelolipoma: spiral CT appearance. Abdom Imaging 25 431-434 2000.

  • Schteingart D Doherty G Gauger PG Giordano TJ Hammer GD Korobkin M Worden FP. Management of patients with adrenal cancer: recommendations of an international consensus conference. Endocr Relat Cancer 12 667-680 2005.

  • Scully R Galdabini J McNeely BU. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 17-1978. N Engl J Med 298 1014-1021 1978.

  • Saftoiu A Vilma P. Endoscopic ultrasound elastography - a new imaging technique for the visualization of tissue elasticity distribution. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 15 161 2006.

  • Shulkin BL Wieland DM Schwaiger M Thompson NW Francis IR Haka MS Rosenspire KC Shapiro B Sisson JC Kuhl DE. PET scanning with hydroxyephedrine: an approach to the localization of pheochromocytoma. J Nucl Med 33 1125-1131 1992.

  • Shuman W Baron R Peters MJ Tazioli PK. Comparison of STIR and spin-echo MR imaging at 1.5 T in 90 lesions of the chest liver and pelvis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 152 853-859 1989.

  • Slattery JM Blake MA Kalra MK Misdraji J Sweeney AT Copeland PM Mueller PR Boland GW. Adrenocortical carcinoma: contrast washout characteristics on CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol 187 W21-W24 2006.

  • Slonina J Nienartowicz E Agrawal AK Malczewska J Moron K. Th e usefulness of contrast-enhanced sonography in the diff erential diagnostic of adrenal tumors. Endokrynol Pol 57 230-236 2006.

  • Song JH Chaudhry FS Mayo-Smith WW. Th e incidental adrenal mass on CT: prevalence of adrenal disease in 1049 consecutive adrenal masses in patients with no known malignancy. AJR Am J Roentgenol 190 1163-1168 2008.

  • Song JH Grand DJ Beland MD Chang KJ Machan JT Mayo-Smith WW. Morphologic features of 211 adrenal masses at initial contrast-enhanced CT: can we diff erentiate benign from malignant lesions using imaging features alone? AJR Am J Roentgenol 201 1248-1253 2013.

  • Stajgis M Guzikowska-Ruszkowska I Horst-Sikorska W. CT diagnostic imaging of adrenal adenomas. Pol J Radiol 70 62-68 2005.

  • Slapa RZ Kasperlik-Zaluska AA Migda B Jakubowski WS. Shear wave elastography of adrenal masses is feasible and may help to diff erentiate between solid and cystic lesions - an initial report. Endokrynol Pol 65 119-124 2014.

  • Sundin A. Imaging of adrenal masses with emphasis on adrenocortical tumors. Th eranostics 2 516-22 2012.

  • Szolar DH Korobkin M Reittner P Berghold A Bauernhofer T Trummer H Schoellnast H Preidler KW Samonigg H. Adrenocortical carcinomas and adrenal pheochromocytomas: mass and enhancement loss evaluation at delayed contrast-enhanced CT. Radiology 234 479-485 2005.

  • Tabuchi Y Otsuki M Kasayama S Kosugi K Hashimoto K Yamamoto T Tsugawa M Mineo I Yamada Y Kurebayashi S Ohashi M Umayahara Y Kouhara H Nakamura T Taki H Matsuoka TA Imagawa A Funahashi T Shimomura I. Clinical and endocrinological characteristics of adrenal incidentaloma in Osaka region Japan. Endocr J 63 29-35 2016.

  • Taylor K Ramos I Carter D Morse SS Snower D Fortune K. Correlation of Doppler US tumor signals with neovascular morphologic features. Radiology 166 57-62 1988.

  • Thompson GB Young Jr WF. Adrenal incidentaloma. Curr Opinion Oncol 15 84-90 2003.

  • Trojan J Schwarz W Sarrazin C Th alhammer A Vogl TJ Dietrich CF. Role of ultrasonography in the detection of small adrenal masses. Ultraschall Med 23 96-100 2002.

  • Truong B Jolles PR Mullaney JM. Primary adrenal lymphoma: gallium scintigraphy and correlative imaging. J Nucl Med 38 1770-1771 1997.

  • Turcios RAS. Diagnosis and management of primary aldosteronism. Rev Mex Cardiol 26 113-117 2015.

  • Udelsman R. Adrenal. Surgery Basic Science and Clinical Evidence. J. Norton A and R. R. Bollinger Springer 2001.

  • Unal E Karaosmanoglu A Akata D Ozmen MN Karcaaltincaba M. Invisible fat on CT: making it visible by MRI. Diagn Interv Radiol 22 133-140 2016.

  • van Niel MB Collins I Beer MS Broughton HB Cheng SK Goodacre SC Heald A Locker KL MacLeod AM Morrison D Moyes CR O’Connor D Pike A Rowley M Russell MG Sohal B Stanton JA Th omas S Verrier H Watt AP Castro JL. Fluorination of 3-(3-(piperidin-1-yl) propyl) indoles and 3-(3-(piperazin-1-yl) propyl) indoles gives selective human 5-HT1D receptor ligands with improved pharmacokinetic profi les. J Med Chem 42 2087-2104 1999.

  • Vella A Nippoldt TB Morris JC 3rd. Adrenal hemorrhage: a 25-year experience at the Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clin Proc 6 161-168 2001.

  • Westra SJ Zaninovic AC Hall TR Kangarloo H Boechat MI. Imaging of the adrenal gland in children. Radiographics 14 1323-1340 1994.

  • White ML Gauger PG Doherty GM Cho KJ Th ompson NW Hammer GD Miller BS. Th e role of radiologic studies in the evaluation and management of primary hyperaldosteronism. Surgery 144 926-933 2008.

  • Willatt J Chong S Ruma JA Kuriakose J. Incidental adrenal nodules and masses: Th e imaging approach. Int J Endocrinol 2015 410185 2015.

  • Willemse A Coppes M Feldberg MA Kramer PP Witkamp TD. Magnetic resonance appearance of adrenal hemorrhage in a neonate. Ped Radiol 19 210-211 1989.

  • Wilms G Baert A Marchal G Goddeeris P. Computed tomography of the normal adrenal glands: correlative study with autopsy specimens. J Comput Assis Tomogr 3 467-469 1979.

  • Yeh HC. Sonography of the adrenal glands: normal glands and small masses. AJR Am J Roentgenol 135 1167-1177 1980.

  • Young WF Stanson AW Th ompson GB Grant CS Farley DR van Heerden JA. Role for adrenal venous sampling in primary aldosteronism. Surgery 136 1227-1235 2004.

  • Young Jr WF. Th e incidentally discovered adrenal mass. N Engl J Med 356 601-610 2007.

  • Young WF. Primary aldosteronism: renaissance of a syndrome. Clin Endocrinol 66 607-618 2007.

  • Young WF Stanson AW. What are the keys to successful adrenal venous sampling (AVS) in patients with primary aldosteronism? Clin Endocrinol 70 14-17 2009.

  • Zeiger MA Th ompson GB Duh QY Hamrahian AH Angelos P Elaraj D Fishman E Kharlip J; American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; American Association of Endocrine Surgeons. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Association of Endocrine Surgeons medical guidelines for the management of adrenal incidentalomas. Endocr Pract 15 Suppl. 1 1-20 2009.

  • Zeiger MA Siegelman SS Hamrahian AH. Medical and surgical evaluation and treatment of adrenal incidentalomas. J Clin Endocrinol Met 96 2004-2015 2011.

  • Zhou L Peng W Wang C Liu X Shen Y Zhou K. Primary adrenal lymphoma: radiological; pathological clinical correlation. Eur J Radiol 81 401-405 2012.

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 1.27

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.411
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.441

Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 1068 425 30
PDF Downloads 753 334 35