Internal marketing and organisational performance of SMEs in the EDV industrial sector

Open access


Focusing on the industrial sector, this research aims to identify conditions for the implementation of internal marketing concepts among employees and its impact on the organisational performance. Only one study was found simultaneously integrating the two constructs. It concerned the cork processing industry alone, yet considered expanding the efforts – namely, using qualitative exploratory research in the form of 10 in-depth interviews based on a script of generally open questions – to the entire industry in the Portuguese region between rivers Douro and Vouga. The unit of analysis was constructed considering distinct features as well as activity criteria and the geographic location, thus ensuring the necessary heterogeneity. The results inform about the awareness of the internal marketing conceptualisation. The research found that all analysed enterprises had more or less structured model frames and worked with the conceptualisation of the guidance for the internal market, a strategic concern, and in some instances, this concept was an organisational desideratum in the sector. In addition to the lapse of the research according to a qualitative paradigm of exploratory nature, the main limitation is the need for objective sustainably of the results obtained through future quantitative studies to promote an integrated triangulation of their outcomes. The research allowed identifying the companies that use organisational models conducive to the individual well-being of employees and facilitating the desired orientation to the market.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Ahmed P. K. & Rafiq M. (2003). Internal marketing issues and challenges. European Journal of Marketing37(9) 1177-1186.

  • Ahmed P. K. & Rafiq M. (2011). Internal Marketing – Tools and Concepts for Customer-Focused Management. New York USA: Routledge.

  • Ahmed P. K. Rafiq M. & Saad N. M. (2003). Internal marketing and the mediating role of organizational competencies. European Journal of Marketing37(9) 1221-1241.

  • Arnett D B. Laverie D.A. & McLane Ch. (2002). Using Job Satisfaction and Pride as Internal-marketing Tools. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly43(2) 87-96.

  • Azêdo D. F. & Alves M. H. (2013). Práticas de marketing interno nas organizações de saúde e a sua influência na motivação dos colaboradores [Internal marketing practices in health organizations and their influence on employee motivation]. Revista Portuguesa de Saúde Pública31(2) 201-212.

  • Ballantyne D. (2003). A relationship-mediated theory of internal marketing. European Journal of Marketing37(9) 1242-1260.

  • Bansal H. Mendelson M. B. & Sharma B. (2001). The impact of internal marketing activities on external marketing outcomes. Journal of Quality Management6(1) 61-76.

  • Barnes B. R. & Morris D. S. (2000). Revising quality awareness through internal marketing: an exploratory study among French and English medium-sized enterprises. Total Quality Management11(6) 473-483.

  • Bouckaert G. & Peters B. G. (2002). Performance Measurement and Management – The Achilles’ Heel in Administrative Modernization. Public Performance and Management Review25(4) 359-362.

  • Carson D. J. Gilmore A. Perry Ch. & Gronhaug K. (2001). Qualitative Marketing Research. Thousand Oaks USA: Sage Publications.

  • Ceric A. D’Alessandro S. Soutar G. & Johnson L. (2016). Using blueprinting and benchmarking to identify marketing resources that help co-create customer value. Journal of Business Research (In Press).

  • Chang Ch.-Sh. & Chang H.-H. (2007). Effects of internal marketing on nurse job satisfaction and organizational commitment: example of medical centers in southern Taiwan. Journal of Nursing Research15(4) 265-274.

  • Chang T.-Z. Mehta R. Chen S.-J. Polsa P. & Mazur J. (1999). The effects of market orientation on effectiveness and efficiency: the case of automotive distribution channels in Finland and Poland. Journal of Services Marketing13(4/5) 407-418.

  • Che Ha N. Bakar R. A. & Jaafar S. I. S. (2007). Internal Marketing Issues in Service Organizations in Malaysia. International Review of Business Research Papers3(5) 134-145.

  • Chow Ch. W. C. Lai J. Y. M. & Loi R. (2015). Motivation of travel agents’ customer service behavior an organizational citizenship behavior: the role of leadermember exchange and internal marketing orientation. Tourism Management48 362-369.

  • Conduit J. & Mavondo F. T. (2001). How critical is internal customer orientation to market orientation? Journal of Business Research51 11-24.

  • Crick A. P. (2003). Internal marketing of attitudes in Caribbean tourism. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management15(3) 161-166.

  • Davis P. S. Babakus E. Englis P. D. & Pett T. (2010). The Influence of CEO Gender on Market Orientation and Performance in Service Small and Medium-Sized Service Businesses. Journal of Small Business Management48(4) 475-496.

  • Deshpandé R. & Farley J. U. (1998). Measuring Market Orientation: Generalization and Synthesis. Journal of Market-Focused Management2(3) 213-232.

  • Diário de Aveiro. (2016). 1.500 Maiores Empresas Aveiro 2015. Aveiro Portugal: Maisis Information Systems.

  • Farrell M. A. (2000). Developing a Market-Oriented Learning Organization. Australian Journal of Management25(2) 201-223.

  • Foreman S. K. & Money A. H. (1995). Internal Marketing: Concepts Measurement and Application. Journal of Marketing Management11 755-768.

  • Franco M. Mendes L. & Almeida A. (2001). Marketing Interno: Uma Abordagem Teórica. Covilhã Portugal: Universidade da Beira Interior.

  • Fu Y.-K. (2013). The influence of internal marketing by airlines on customer-oriented behavior: A test of the mediating effect of emotional labor. Journal of Air Transport Management32 49-57.

  • Gounaris S. P. (2006). Internal-market orientation and its measurement. Journal of Business Research59(4) 432-448.

  • Gounaris S. (2008). Antecedents of internal marketing practice: some preliminary empirical evidence. International Journal of Service Industry Management19(3) 400-434.

  • Gray B. J. & Hooley G. J. (2002). Market orientation and service firms performance – a research agenda. European Journal of Marketing36(9/10) 980-989.

  • Gray D. M. (2008). Putting Internal Market Orientation into Behavioural Patterns Employed During Marketing Strategy Implementation. Sydney Australia: ANZMAC.

  • Greene W. E. Walls G. D. & Schrest L. J. (1994). Internal marketing – the key to external marketing success. Journal of Services Marketing8(4) 5-13.

  • Gronroos Ch. (1995). Relationship Marketing: The Strategy Continuum. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science23(4) 252-254.

  • Gronroos Ch. (1997). Value-Driven Relational Marketing: From Products to Resources and Competencies. Journal of Marketing Management13(4) 407-19.

  • Huang Y.-T. & Rundle-Thiele S. (2014). The moderating effect of cultural congruence on the internal marketing practice and employee satisfaction relationship: An empirical examination of Australian and Taiwanese born tourism employees. Tourism Management42 196-206.

  • Jaakkola M. Moller K. Parvinen P. Evanschitzky H. & Muhlbacher H. (2010). Strategic marketing and business performance: A study in three European “engineering countries”. Industrial Marketing Management (In Press).

  • Javadein S. R. S. Rayej H. Estiri M. & Ghorbani H. (2011). The Role of Internal Marketing in Creation of Sustainable Competitive Advantages. Trends in Applied Sciences Research6(4) 364-374.

  • Jou J. Y. H. Chou C. K. & Fu F. L. (2008). Development of an instrument to measure internal marketing concept. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship13(3) 66-79.

  • Jungsun K. Hak J. S. & Choong-Ki L. (2016). Effects of corporate social responsibility and internal marketing on organizational commitment and turnover intentions. International Journal of Hospitality Management55 25-32.

  • Kanibir H. & Nart S. (2012). The effects of internal marketing on superior customer relations as competitive performance: evidence from healthcare industry. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Science58 1378-1385.

  • Kaur G. Sharma R. D. & Seli N. (2010). An assessment of internal market orientation in Jammu and Kashmir Bank Through Internal Suppliers’ Perspetive. Journal of Services Research10(2) 117-141.

  • Kim B. & Lee J. (2016). Relationships between personal traits emotional intelligence internal marketing service management and customer orientation in Korean Outpatient Department Nurses. Asian Nursing Research10(1) 18-24.

  • Kirca A. H. (2011). The effects of market orientation on subsidiary performance: Empirical evidence from MNCs in Turkey. Journal of World Business46(4) 447-454.

  • Kohli A. K. & Jaworski B. J. (1990). Market Orientation: The Construct Research Propositions and Managerial Implications. Journal of Marketing54 1-18.

  • Kwon Y.-Ch. & Hu M. Y. (2000). Market orientation among small Korean exporters. International Business Review9 61-75.

  • Lings I. N. (2000). Internal marketing and supply chain management. Journal of Service Marketing14(1) 27-43.

  • Lings I. N. (2004). Internal market orientation – Construct and consequences. Journal of Business Research57 405-413.

  • Lings I. N. & Greenley G. E. (2005). Measuring internal market orientation. Journal of Service Research7(3) 290-305.

  • Lings I. N. & Greenley G. E. (2010). Internal market orientation and market-oriented behaviours. Journal of Service Management21(3) 321-343.

  • Lukas B. A. & Maignan I. (1996). Striving for quality: the key role of internal and external customers. Journal of Marketing Focused Management1 175-197.

  • Malhotra N. & Mukherjee A. (2004). The relative influence of organizational commitment and job satisfaction on service quality of customer-contact employees in banking call centers. Journal of Services Marketing18(3) 162-174.

  • Malik M. Nawab S. & Naeem B. (2010). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment of university teachers in public sector of Pakistan. International Journal of Business & Management5(6) 17-26.

  • Matsuno K. Mentzer J. T. & Ozsomer A. (2002). The effects of entrepreneurial proclivity and market orientation on business performance. Journal of Marketing66(3) 18-32.

  • Panigyrakis G. G. & Theodoridis P. K. (2009). Internal marketing impact on business performance in a retail context. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management37(7) 600-628.

  • Piercy N. F. (1995). Customer satisfaction and the internal market – marketing our customers to our employees. Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science1(1) 22-44.

  • Piercy N. F. Harris L. C. & Lane N. (2002). Market orientation and retail operatives’ expectations. Journal of Business Research55(4) 261-273.

  • Piercy N. & Morgan N. (1990). Internal marketing: making marketing happen. Marketing Intelligence and Planning8(1) 4-6.

  • Quester P. G. & Kelly A. (1999). Internal Marketing Practices in the Australian Financial Sector: an exploratory study. Journal of Applied Management Studies8(2) 217-229.

  • Rafiq M. & Ahmed P. K. (1998). A Customer-oriented framework for empowering service employees. Journal of Services Marketing12(5) 379-394.

  • Rainey M. M. (2014). Internal marketing of the patent information team in the corporate environment. World Patent Information36 16-21.

  • Richardson B. A. & Robinson C. G. (1986). The impact of internal marketing on customer service in a retail bank. International Journal of Bank Marketing4(5) 3-30.

  • Rifai H. A. (2005). A test of the relationships among perceptions of justice job satisfaction affective commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business7(2) 131-154.

  • Rodrigues A. P. & Pinho J. C. M. R. (2010). Market orientation job satisfaction commitment and organizational performance – the specific case of local public sector. Transforming Government People Process and Policy4(2) 172-192.

  • Rodrigues R. G. (2004). Orientação para o Mercado Orientação Empreendedora e Desempenho nas PME Industriais Portuguesas: Exploração da Relação entre Marketing e Empreendedorismo [Market Orientation Entrepreneurial Orientation and Performance in Portuguese Industrial SMEs: Exploring the Relationship between Marketing and Entrepreneurship]. Covilhã Portugal: Universidade da Beira Interior.

  • Sánchez F. J. S. (1999). Metodología para la investigación en marketing y dirección de empresas [Methodology for research in marketing and business management]. Madrid Spain: Ediciones Pirámide.

  • Schneider B. Hanges P. J. Smith D. B. & Salvaggio A. N. (2003). Which Comes First: Employee Attitudes or Organizational Financial and Market Performance? Journal of Applied Psychology88(5) 836-851.

  • Seiders K. Voss G. B. Grewal D. & Godfrey A. L. (2005). Do Satisfied Customers Buy More? Examining Moderating Influences in a Retailing Context. Journal of Marketing69 26-43.

  • Shiu Y.-M. & Yu T. W. (2010). Internal marketing organizational culture job satisfaction and organizational performance in non-life insurance. Service Industries Journal30(6) 793-809.

  • Silva E. S. (2011). Gestão Financeira – Análise de Fluxos Financeiros [Financial Management - Financial Flow Analysis]. Porto Portugal: Vida Económica.

  • Simão J. V. Ribeiro J. F. & Chorincas J. (2011). Carta Regional de Competitividade Entre Douro e Vouga in Carta Magna da Competitividade [Regional Competitiveness Chart Between Douro and Vouga in Competitiveness Chart]. Lisboa Portugal: Associação Industrial Portuguesa.

  • Sousa J. P. & Rodrigues R. (2014). As Implicações dos Programas de Marketing Interno na Orientação para o Mercado Interno no Sector Transformador de Cortiça Português [The Implications of Internal Marketing Programs in the Orientation for the Internal Market in the Portuguese Cork Sector]. International Journal of MarketingCommunication and New Media2(2) 81-104.

  • Theodoridis P. K. & Panigyrakis G. G. (2010). Internal Marketing Market Orientation and Organizational Performance: The Mythological Triangle in a Retail Context. European Retail Research24(2) 33-67.

  • To W. M. Martin E. F. & Yu B. T. W. (2015). Effect of management commitment to internal marketing on employee attitude. International Journal of Hospitality Management45 14-21.

  • Tortosa V. Moliner M. A. & Sánchez J. (2009). Internal market orientation and its influence on organizational performance. European Journal of Marketing43(11/12) 1435-1456.

  • Tortosa-Edo V. García-Sánchez J. & Moliner-Tena M. A. (2010). Internal market orientation and its influence on the satisfaction of contact personnel. The Service Industries Journal30(8) 1279-1297.

  • Varey R. J. (1995). A Model of Internal Marketing for Building and Sustaining a Competitive Service Advantage. Journal of Marketing Management11 41-54.

  • Varey R. J. & Lewis B. R. (1999). A broadened conception of internal marketing. European Journal of Marketing33(9/10) 926-944.

  • Várnai S. & Fojtik J. (2008). Internal Marketing Orientation in Cultural Change Management for Organization Development. 6th International Conference on Management Enterprise and Benchmarking 161-166.

  • Vasconcelos A. F. (2008). Broadening even more the internal marketing concept. European Journal of Marketing42(11) 1246-1264.

  • Webster F. E. (1992). The Changing Role of Marketing in the Corporation. Journal of Marketing56(4) 1-17.

  • Yin R. K. (2003a). Applications of Case Study Research. Thousand Oaks USA: Sage Publications.

  • Yin R. K. (2003b). Case Study Research Design and Methods. Thousand Oaks USA: Sage Publications.

  • Zhou K. Z. & Li C. B. (2007). How does strategic orientation matter in Chinese firms? Asia Pacific Journal of Management24 447-466.

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 0.72

Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.505

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 916 378 10
PDF Downloads 713 365 5