The southwest Ethiopian Afromontane moist forests are recognized as one of the biodiversity hotspots as they are the centres of origin and domestication of Arabica coffee. But they are under threat due to deforestation and conversion to coffee farms. Coffee agroforests are believed to buffer the natural forest from these threats. The study was conducted to investigate the importance of coffee agroforest adjacent to Belete forest southwest Ethiopia. Vegetation data were collected from 68 plots (34 each) and socioeconomic data were collected from 136 households (68 each). The results showed that statistically, there were no significant differences between the natural forest and adjacent coffee agroforests in the species composition, species richness and Shannon diversity index of the woody species(P > 0.05). The socioeconomic benefit result showed a number of forest products that are collected from the coffee agroforest. There were statistically significant differences between the natural forest and coffee agroforest in the forest income and the Simpson Diversification Index of the households (p < 0.05). Coffee agroforests contribute to the conservation of woody species through the retention of woody species and reducing pressure on the natural forest. Therefore, the socioeconomic benefits of coffee agroforests must take into account the conservation of woody species in linking the conservation and development arena.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Aerts, R., Hundera, K., Berecha, G., Gijbels, P., Baeten, M., Mechelen, M.V., Hermy, M., Muys, B. & Honnay O. (2011). Semi-forest coffee cultivation and the conservation of Ethiopian Afromontane rainforest fragments. For. Ecol. Manag., 261(6), 1034–1041. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2010.12.025.
Anthony, F., Combes, M.C., Astorga, C., Bertrand, B., Graziosi, G. & Lashermes P. (2002). The origin of cultivated Coffea arabica L. varieties revealed by AFLP and SSR markers. Theor. Appl. Genet., 104(5), 894−900. DOI: 10.1007/s00122-001-0798-8.
Barlett, J.E., Kotrlik, J.W. & Higgins C.C. (2001). Organizational research: Determining appropriate sample size in survey research. Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, 19(1), 43.
Bekele-Tesemma, A. (2007). Useful trees and shrubs for Ethiopia: identification, propagation and management in 17 agroecology zones. ICRAF project. Nairobi: RELMA.
Belay, H., Urgessa, K., Lemenih, M. & Kebebew Z. (2013). Forest dependency among forest user communities in and around Belete-Gera forest, southwest Ethiopia. International Journal of Ecology and Development, 26, 50−60.
Cheng, S., Hiwatashi, Y., Imai, H., Naito, M. & Numata T. (1998). Deforestation and degradation of natural resources in Ethiopia: Forest management implications from a case study in the Belete-Gera Forest. J. For. Res., 3, 199−204. DOI: 10.1007/BF02762193.
DeFries, R.S., Foley, J.A. & Asner G.P. (2004). Land-use choices: Balancing human needs and ecosystem function. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2(5), 249−257. DOI: 10.1890/1540-9295(2004)002[0249:LCBHNA]2.0.CO;2.
Dibaba, A., Soromessa, T., Kelbessa, E. & Tilahun A. (2014). Diversity, structure and regeneration status of the woodland and riverine vegetation of Sire Beggo in Gololcha district, eastern Ethiopia. Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science, 6(1), 70−96.
Didita, M., Nemomissa, S. & Woldemariam T. (2010). Floristic and structural analysis of the woodland vegetation around Dello Menna, Southeast Ethiopia. J. For. Res., 21, 395−408. DOI: 10.1007/s11676-010-0089-9.
Edwards, S., Mesfin, T., Sebsebe, D. & Hedberg I. (Eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. 2(1). The National Herbarium Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa and Department of Systematic Botany, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
Fisher, B., Turner, R.K. & Morling P. (2009). Defining and classifying ecosystem services for decision-making. Ecological Economics, 68(3), 643−653. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2008.09.014.
Foley, J.A., DeFries, R., Asner, G.P., Barford, C., Bonan, G., Carpenter, S.R., Chapin, F.S., Coe, M.T., Daily, G.C., Gibbs, H.K., Helkowski, J.H., Holloway, T., Howard, E.A., Kucharik, C.J., Monfreda, C., Patz, J.A., Prentice, I.C., Ramankutty, N. & Snyder P.K. (2005). Global consequences of land use. Science, 309, 570–574. DOI: 10.1126/science.1111772.
Gobeze, T., Bekele, M., Lemenih, M. & Kassa H. (2009). Participatory forest management and its impacts on livelihoods and forest status: the case of Bonga forest in Ethiopia. International Forestry Review, 11, 346–358. DOI: 10.1505/ifor.11.3.346.
Gole, T.W., Borsch, T., Denich, M. & Teketay D. (2008). Floristic composition and environmental factors characterizing coffee forests in southwest Ethiopia. For. Ecol. Manag., 255(7), 2138−2150. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2007.12.028.
Gomez-Baggethun, E., Groot, R., Lomas, P.L. & Montes C. (2010). The history of ecosystem services in economic theory and practice: from early notions to markets and payment schemes. Ecological Economics, 69(6), 1209−1218. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.11.007.
Gordon, C., Manson, R., Sundberg, J. & Cruz-Angon A. (2007). Biodiversity, profitability and vegetation structure in a Mexican coffee agroecosystems. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 118(1), 256−266. DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2006.05.023
Hedberg, I., Ensermu, K., Edwards, S., Sebsebe, D. & Persson E. (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Vol. 5. Addis Ababa: The National Herbarium.
Hundera, K. & Gadissa T. (2008). Vegetation composition and structure of the Belete Forest, Jimma Zone, South Western Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences, 7(1), 1−15.
Hundera, K., Aerts, R., Fontaine, A., Mechelen, M.V., Gijbels, P., Honnay, O. & Muys B. (2013). Effects of coffee management intensity on composition, structure, and regeneration status of Ethiopian Moist Evergreen Afromontane forests. Environ. Manag., 51(3), 801–809. DOI: 10.1007/s00267-012-9976-5.
Illukpitiya, P. & Yanagida J.F. (2010). Farming vs. forests: trade-off between agriculture and the extraction of non-timber forest products. Ecological Economics, 69, 1952–1963. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2010.05.007.
Kelbessa, E. & Soromessa T. (2008). Interfaces of regeneration, structure, diversity and uses of some plant species in Bonga forest: A reservoir for wild coffee gene pool. Ethiopian Journal of Sciences, 31(2), 121–134.
Komar, O. (2006). Priority contribution. Ecology and conservation of birds in coffee plantations: a critical review. Bird Conserv. Int., 16(01), 1−23. DOI: 10.1017/S0959270906000074.
Moguel, P. & Toledo V.M. (1999). Biodiversity conservation in traditional coffee systems of Mexico. Conserv. Biol., 13(1), 11−21. DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.97153.x.
Molla, A. & Asfaw Z. (2014). Woody species diversity under natural forest patches and adjacent enset-coffee based Agroforestry in the Midland of Sidama Zone, Ethiopia. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 6(10), 708−723. http://www.academicjournals.org/IJBC
Molla, A. & Kewessa G. (2015). Woody species diversity in traditional agroforestry practices of Dellomenna District, Southeastern Ethiopia: Implication for maintaining native woody species. International Journal of Biodiversity, 2015, ID643031, 13, DOI: 10.1155/2015/643031.
Saha, B. & Bahal R. (2010). Livelihood diversification pursued by farmers in West Bengal. Indian Research Journal of Extension Education, 10(2), 1−9.
Schmitt, C.B., Denich, M., Demissew, S., Friis, I. & Boehmer H.J. (2010). Floristic diversity in fragmented Afromontane rainforests: Altitudinal variation and conservation importance. Appl. Veg. Sci., 13, 291–304. DOI: 10.1111/j.1654-109X.2009.01067.x.
Senbeta, F. & Teketay D. (2001). Regeneration of indigenous woody species under the canopies of tree plantations in Central Ethiopia. Trop. Ecol., 42, 175−185.
Senbeta, F. & Denich M. (2006). Effects of wild coffee management on species diversity in the Afromontane rainforests of Ethiopia. For. Ecol. Manag., 232(1), 68−74. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2006.05.064.
Sikor, T., Jun He, J. & Lestrelin G. (2017). Property rights regimes and natural resources: A conceptual analysis revisited. World Development, 93, 337–349. DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2016.12.032.
Stellmacher, T. (2008). Prospects and challenges of forest coffee certification in Ethiopia: the need to effectively link economic benefits and biodiversity conservation. Proceedings of the Conference: Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change. Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin.
Tadesse, G., Zavaleta, E. & Shennan C. (2014). Coffee landscapes as refugia for native woody biodiversity as forest loss continues in southwest Ethiopia. Biol. Conserv., 169, 384−391. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2013.11.034.
Tieguhong, J.C. & Nkamgnia E.M. (2012). Household dependence on forests around Lobeke National Park, Cameroon. International Forestry Review, 14(2), 196−212. DOI: 10.1505/146554812800923426.
Vedeld, P., Angelsen, A., Bojo, J., Sjaastad, E. & Berg G.K. (2007). Forest environmental incomes and the rural poor. Forest Policy and Economics, 9, 869–879. DOI: 10.1016/j.forpol.2006.05.008.
Wiersum, K.F. (2004). Forest gardens as an ‘intermediate’ land-use system in the nature–culture continuum: Characteristics and future potential. Agrofor. Syst., 61, 123–134. DOI: 10.1023/B:AGFO.0000028994.54710.44.