Contamination of soil and vegetation at a magnesite mining area in Jelšava-Lubeník (Slovakia)

  • 1 Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Management, University of Prešov, 080 01, Prešov
  • 2 Department of Intercultural Communication, Faculty of Management, University of Prešov, 080 01, Prešov
  • 3 Institute of Landscape Ecology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, , 949 01, Nitra

Abstract

This paper is focused on the impacts of alkaline and metal deposition on soil and vegetation in the immission field of magnesium factory Jelšava-Lubeník (Slovakia). Soil samples and the foliage of vegetation were obtained from the Jelšava-Lubeník area with specific alkaline pollutants. The examined area is one of the most devastated regions of Slovakia. From the point of view of environmental regionalization, it belongs to an environmentally damaged area of Category 3. The total content of heavy metals in the soil and vegetation (Pb, Zn, Cr, Mn, Mg) were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Soil reaction was determined in a solution of 0.01 M CaCl2. Vegetation was assessed by the Braun-Blanquet scale. In conclusion, we can say that spray particles of free magnesium oxide (MgO) strongly influence soil reaction, diversity, and vegetation cover. The research showed that the investigated sites were mostly strongly alkaline; the contents of Cr, Mn and Mg were over the toxicity limit, while the measured values of Pb and Zn did not exceed the limits set by the law. The values that measured significantly above the set limit show contamination that can be considered harmful and toxic. In the monitored species, that is, Agrostis stolonifera, Elytrigia repens and Phragmites australis, an over-limit content of Pb and Zn and toxic contents of Mg and Mn were found.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Act No. 220/2004 (2004). Coll. of laws on the protection and use of agricultural land. Bratislava: National Council of Slovak Republic.

  • Adriano, D.C. (2001). Trace elements in the terrestrial environment. Springer: New York.

  • Baluchová, B., Bačík, P., Fejdi, P. & Čaplovičová M. (2011). Mineralogical research of the mineral dust fallout from the years 2006−2008 in the area of Jelšava (Slovak Republic). Mineralia Slovaca, 43, 327−334.

  • Banásová, V. (2004). The unique vegetation on old mining dumps (in Slovak). Chránené Územia Slovenska, 62, 42−43.

  • Barančoková, M. & Barančok P. (2015). Distribution of the traditional agricultural landscape types reflecting geological substrate and slope processes in the Kysuce region. Ekológia (Bratislava), 34(4), 339−355. DOI: 10.1515/eko-2015-0031.

  • Barančoková, M., Krnáčová, Z. & Chasníková S. (2017). Quantification of the natural factors impact effectiveness on environmental hazards – slope movements in the flysch areas of the Kysuce region. Ekológia (Bratislava), 36(3), 197−213. DOI: 10.1515/eko-2017-0017.

  • Barman, S.C., Kisku, G.C., Salve, P.R., Misra, D., Sahu, R.K., Ramteke, P.W. & Bhargava S.K. (2001). Assessment of industrial effluent and its impact on soil and plants. J. Environ. Biol., 22, 251–256.

  • Boguská, Z., Fazekašová, D. & Angelovičová L. (2013). Diversity of vegetation on contaminated substrates (in Slovak). In Zborník 17. mezinárodní konference o životním prostředí a úpravnictvi (p. 330). Ostrava: VŠB TU.

  • Bragato, C., Brix, H. & Malagoli M. (2006). Accumulation of nutrients and heavy metals in Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel and Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla in a constructed wetland of the Venice lagoon watershed. Environ. Pollut., 144, 967−975. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2006.01.046.

  • Braun-Blanquet, J. (1964). Pflanzensoziologie. Grundzüge der vegetationskunde. Wien: Springer Verlag.

  • Charlesworth, S.M., Bennett, J. & Waite A. (2016). An evaluation of the use of individual grass species in retaining polluted soil and dust particulates in vegetated sustainable drainage devices. Environ. Geochem. Health, 38, 973–985. DOI: 10.1007/s10653-016-9791-7.

  • Cicero-Fernandes, D., Peňa-Fernández, M., Expósito-Camagro, J.A. & Antizar-Ladislao B. (2017). Long term (two annual cycles) phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated estuarine sediments by Phragmites australis. New Biotechnology, 38, 56−64. DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2016.07.011.

  • Climate atlas of Slovakia (2015). Bratislava: SHMÚ.

  • Čurlík, J. & Šefčík P. (1999). Geochemical atlas of the Slovak Republic (in Slovak). Bratislava: MŽP SR.

  • Fazekašová, D., Barančíková, G., Torma, S., Ivanová, M. & Manko P. (2014). Chemical and environmental aspect of the component of the environment and landscape (in Slovak). Prešov: Fakulta manažmentu Prešovskej Univerzity.

  • Fazekašová, D., Boguská, Z., Fazekaš, J., Škvareninová, J. & Chovancová J. (2016). Contamination of vegetation growing on soil and substrates in the unhygienic region of central Spiš (Slovakia) polluted by heavy metals. J. Environ. Biol., 37, 1335−1340. ID: 29261257.

  • Fiala, K., Barančiková, G., Brečková, V., Burik, V., Houšková, B., Chomaničová, A., Kobza, J., Litavec, T., Makovniková, L., Pechová, B. & Varadiová D. (1999). Partial monitoring system – soil, binding methods (in Slovak). Bratislava: VÚPaOP.

  • Gikas, P. & Romanos P. (2006). Effects of tri-valent (Cr(III)) and hexa-valent (Cr(VI)) chromium on the growth rate of activated sludge. J. Hazard Mater., 133, 212−217. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.10.023.

  • Gladkov, E.A., Gladkova, O.N. & Glushetskaya L.S. (2011). Estimation of heavy metal resistance in the second generation of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) obtained by cell selection for resistance to these contaminants and the ability of this plant to accumulate heavy metals. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, 47, 776−779. DOI: 10.15389/agrobiology.2014.4.106eng.

  • Hohl, H. & Varma A. (2010). Soil: the living matrix. In I. Sherameti & A. Varma (Eds.), Soil heavy metals, soil biology (pp. 1−18). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Verlag. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-02436-8_1.

  • Hronec, O., Vilček, J., Tóth, T., Andrejovský, P., Adamišin, P., Andrejovská, A., Daňová, M., Huttmanová, E., Vilimová, M., Škultéty, P. & Juhászová M. (2008). Heavy metals in soils and plants in Rudniansko-Gelnická loaded area. Acta Regionalia et Environmentalica, 1, 24−28.

  • Hronec, O., Vilček, J., Tomáš, J., Adamišin, P. & Huttmanová E. (2010). Environmental components quality in problem ares in Slovakia (in Slovak). Brno: Mendelova univerzita v Brně.

  • Jiang, X. & Wang Ch. (2008). Zinc distribution and zinc-binding forms in Phragmites australis under zinc pollution. J. Plant Physiol., 165, 697−704. DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2007.05.011.

  • Kabata–Pendias, A. (2011). Trace elements in soil and plants. London: CRC Press.

  • Kafka, Z. & Punčochářová J. (2002). Toxicity of heavy metals in nature. Chemické Listy, 96, 611−617.

  • Kobza, J., Barančíková, G., Dodok, R., Hrivňáková, K., Makovníková, J., Mališ, J., Pálka, B., Styk, J. & Širáň M. (2010). Soil monitoring of Slovakia (in Slovak). Bratislava: VÚPaOP.

  • Mahmood, T. (2010). Review phytoextraction of heavy metals – the process and scope for remediation of contaminated soils. Soil & Environment, 29, 91−109. www.se.org.pk

  • Marhold, K. & Hindák F. (1998). Checklist of non-vascular and vascular plants of Slovakia (in Slovak). Bratislava: Veda, vydavateľstvo SAV.

  • Mazúr, E. & Lukniš M. (1980). Regional division SSR (in Slovak). Bratislava: Geografický ústav SAV.

  • Melichová, Z., Ďuricová, A., Samešová, D. & Nagyová I. (2017). Risk assessment of selected metallic elements in water. Banská Bystrica: UMB.

  • Minďáš, J. & Škvarenina J. (1995). Chemical composition of fog cloud and rain snow water in Biosphere Reserve Pol’ana. Ekológia (Bratislava), 14, 125−137.

  • Minkina, T.M., Mandzhieva, S.S., Chaplygin, V.A., Bauer, T.V., Burachevskaya, M.V., Nevidomskaya, D.G., Sushkova, S.N., Sherstnev, A.K. & Zamulina I.V. (2017). Content and distribution of heavy metals in herbaceous plants under the effect of industrial aerosol emissions. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 174, 113−120. DOI: 10.1016/j.gexplo.2016.05.011.

  • Pant, P.P. & Tripathi A.K. (2014). Impact of heavy metals on morphological and biochemical parameters of Shorea robusta plant. Ekológia (Bratislava), 33, 116–126. DOI: 10.2478/eko-2014-0012.

  • Ranieri, E., Fratino, U., Petruzzelli, D. & Borges A.C. (2013). A comparison between Phragmites australis and Helianthus annuus in chromium phytoextraction. Water Air Soil Pollut., 224, 1465−1474. DOI: 10.1155/2016/9415175.

  • Shanker, A.K., Cervantes, C., Loza-Tavera, H. & Avudainayagam S. (2005). Chromium toxicity in plants. Environ. Int., 31, 739−753. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2005.02.003.

  • Singh, R., Chavan, S.L. & Sapkale P.H. (2006). Heavy metal concentration in water, sediments and body tissues of Red Worm (tubifex SPP) collected from Natural Habitats in Mumbai, India. Environ. Monit. Assess., 129, 471–481. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-006-9377-4.

  • Song, J., Zhao, F.J., McGraft, S.P. & Luo Y.M. (2006). Influence of soil properties and aging of arsenic phytotoxicity. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 25, 1663−1670. DOI: 10.1897/05-480R2.1.

  • Ševčík, P., Pramuka, S. & Gluch A. (2008). Assessment of soil contamination in Slovakia according index of geoaccumulation. Agriculture, 54, 119−130.

  • Škvarenina, J., Tomlain, J., Hrvol, J., Škvareninová, J. & Nejedlik P. (2009). Progress in dryness and wetness parameters in altitudinal vegetation stages of West Carpathians: time-series analysis 1951–2007. Időjárás, 113, 47–54.

  • Špulerová, J. Dobrovodská, M., Lieskovský, J. Bača, A., Halabuk, A., Kohút, F., Mojses, M., Kenderessy, P., Piscová, V., Barančok, P., Gerhátová, K., Krajčí, J. & Boltižiar M. (2011). Inventory and classification of historical structures of the agricultural landscape in Slovakia. Ekológia (Bratislava), 30(2), 157−170. DOI: 10.4149/ekol_2011_02_157.

  • Špulerová, J., Drábová, M. & Lieskovský J. (2016). Traditional agricultural landscape and their management in less favoured areas in Slovakia. Ekológia (Bratislava), 35(1), 1−12. DOI: 10.1515/eko-2016-0001.

  • Takáč, P., Kozáková, Ľ, Vaľková, M. & Zeleňák F. (2008). Heavy metals in soils in the middle Spiš. Acta Montanistica Slovaca, 13, 82–86.

  • Vaiopoulou, E. & Gikas P. (2012). Effects of chromium on activated sludge and on the performance of wastewater treatment plants. Water Res., 46, 549−570. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2011.11.024.

  • Venkatesan, S. & Jayaganesh S. (2010). Characterisation of magnesium toxicity, its influence on amino acid synthesis pathway and biochemical parameters of tea. Research Journal of Phytochemistry, 4, 67−77. DOI: 10.3923/rjphyto.2010.67.77.

  • Vilček, J., Škvarenina, J., Vido, J., Nalevanková, P., Kandrík, R. & Škvareninová J. (2016). Minimal change of thermal continentality in Slovakia within the period 1961–2013. Earth System Dynamics, 7, 735–744. DOI: 10.5194/esd-7-735-2016.

  • Wang, L., Tai, P., Jia, Ch., Li, X., Li, P. & Xiong X. (2015). Magnesium contamination in soil at a magnesite mining region of Liaoning Province, China. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 95, 90–96. DOI: 10.1007/s00128-015-1530-8.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search