Spatial Relation of Bumblebees (Hymenoptera-Apidae) with Host-Plant and their Conservation Issues: An Outlook from Urban Ecosystem of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

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Ecology and conservation status of bumblebee species remains poorly understood, especially in rapidly degrading urban ecosystems, which is important considering the role of bumblebees in the pollinations. We collected more than 200 bumblebee (Bombus spp.) specimens under six species in different parts of the Kathmandu valley (Kathmandu, Lalitpur, and Bhaktapur cities) in Nepal. The species of bumblebees were analyzed with their host plant types and the land use change using remote sensing and field observation data. We found that the bumblebees exert strong variation and were significantly affected by the families of the host plants and the nature of flowers (open and closed type) rather than colors and categories (invasive and noninvasive). We underline that the rapid habitat loss by changing land use in the study area can be a potential threat to the conservation of these important pollinators, and thus, need focused habitat conservation efforts.

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