Distribution of mosquito larvae in rice field habitats: a spatial scale analysis in semi-field condition

Abstract

The distribution of the mosquito larvae in the breeding habitats varies at the spatial scale depending on the availability of the resources and the predators. This proposition was assessed through the observation of the spatial distribution of Culex larvae (Culex tritaeniorhynchus) in artificially constructed rice field habitats. Using a binomial generalized linear model with logit link, the disparity in the abundance of the larvae was evaluated to justify the effects of light (light vs shade), vertical (surface vs bottom), and horizontal (wall vs center) distribution as explanatory variables. Under light availability, the spatial occupancy of the mosquito larvae was higher in the center than in the walls of the mesocosms. However, the larval orientation was higher on the surface than at the bottom of the mesocosms in all instances. In comparison to open spaces, the larval aggregation was higher in the presence of the floating vegetations like Azolla and Lemna, indicating that the habitat heterogeneity of the mesocosms influenced the distribution of the mosquito larvae in the available spaces. A reduction in the larval aggregation pattern in the spaces was observed in the presence of the predator (Anisops sp.) reflecting the possible evasion tactics of the mosquito larvae. The observations suggest that the mosquito larvae may utilize the vegetation in the rice field habitats quite effectively and occupy empty spaces of predators. The results may be considered as a prototype of the prospective localization of the mosquito larvae in the rice fields and help to frame the strategies of spraying the biopesticides to achieve optimal efficacy in mosquito regulation.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Addinsoft SARL. (2010) XLSTAT software, version 9.0. Addinsoft, Paris, France.

  • Aditya, G., Pal, S., Saha, N. & Saha, G.K. (2012) Mosquito prey preference of indigenous larvivorous fishes: implications for biological control. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, 49(4), 217–225.

  • Awasthi, A.K., Molinero, J.C., Wu, C.H., Tsai, K.H., King, C.C. & Hwang J.S. (2015) Behavioral changes in mosquito larvae induced by cope-pods predation. Hydrobiologia, 749, 113–123.

  • Dale, P.E.R. & Knight, J.M. (2008) Wetlands and Mosquitoes: a review. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 16, 255–276.

  • Das, P.K., Sivagnaname, N. & Amalraj, D.D. (2006) Population interactions between Culex vishnui mosquitoes and their natural enemies in Pondicherry, India. Journal of Vector Ecology, 31, 84 – 88.

  • Hurlbert, S.H. (1984) Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecological Monographs, 54(2), 187–211.

  • Juliano, S.A.& Reminger, L. (1992)The relationship between vulnerability to predation and behavior of larval treehole mosquitoes: geographic and ontogenetic differences. Oikos, 63(3),465–476.

  • Juliano, S.A., Hechtel, L.J. & Waters, J.R. (1993) Behavior and risk of predation in larval tree-hole mosquitoes: effects of hunger and population history of predation. Oikos, 68, 229–241.

  • Legendre, P. & Legendre, L. (1998) Numerical Ecology. 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science BV. 853 p.

  • Lytra, I.& Emmanouel, N. (2014) Study of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and species composition of mosquitoes in a rice field in Greece. Acta Tropica, 134, 66–71.

  • Merritt, R.W., Dadd, R.H.& Walker, E.D. (1992) Feeding behavior, natural food, and nutritional relationships of larval mosquitoes. Annual Review of Entomology, 37, 349–374.

  • Mogi, M., Memah, V., Miyagi, I., Toma, T.& Sembel, D.T. (1995) Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) and predator abundance in irrigated and rain-fed rice fields in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Journal of Medical Entomology, 32, 361–367.

  • Mogi, M.& Miyagi, I. (1990) Colonization of rice fields by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and larvivorous predators in a synchronous rice cultivation areas in the Philippines. Journal of Medical Entomology, 27, 530–536.

  • Muturi, E.J., Shililu, J.I., Jacob, B.G., Mwangangi, J.M., Mbogo, C.M., Githure, J.I.& Novak, R.J. (2008) Diversity of riceland mosquitoes and factors affecting their occurrence distribution in Mewa, Kenya. Journal of American Mosquito Control Association, 24(3), 349–358.

  • Mwangangi, J.M., Muturi, E.J., Shililu, J.I., Jacob, B., Kabiru, E.W., Mbogo, C.M., Githure, J.I.& Novak, R.J. (2008) Distribution of mosquito larvae within the paddy and its implication in larvicidal application in Mewa rice irrigation scheme, Central Kenya. Journal of American Mosquito Control Association, 24(1), 36–41.

  • Ohba, S.Y., Matsuo, T.& Takagi, M. (2013) Mosquitoes and other aquatic insects in fallow field biotopes and rice paddy fields. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 27, 96–103.

  • Ohba, S.Y., Soai, N.V., Anh, D.T.V., Nguyen, Y.T.& Takagi, M. (2014) Study of mosquito fauna in rice ecosystems around Hanoi, Northern Vietnam. Acta Tropica, 142, 89–95.

  • Orr, B.K.& Resh, V.H. (1992) Influence of Myriophyllum aquaticum cover on Anopheles mosquito abundance, oviposition, and larval microhabitat. Oecologia, 90, 474–482.

  • Overgaard, H.J., Tsuda, Y., Suwonkerd, W. & Takagi, M. (2002) Characteristics of Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats in Northern Thailand. Environmental Entomology, 31 (1), 134–141.

  • Overgaard, H.J. (2007) Effect of plant structure on ovipositing behavior of Anopheles minimus s.l. Journal of Vector Ecology, 32 (2), 193–197.

  • Pitcairn, M.J., Wilson, L.T., Washino, R.K. & Rejmánková, E. (1994) Spatial patterns of Anopheles freeborni and Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in California ricefields. Journal of Medical Entomology, 31(4), 545–553.

  • Pramanik, M.K., Aditya, G. & Raut, S.K. (2006) A survey of anopheline mosquitoes and malarial parasite in commuters in a rural and an urban area in West Bengal, India. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, 43, 198–202.

  • Rattanarithikul, R., Harbach, R.E., Harrison, B.A., Panthusiri, P., Jones, J.W. & Coleman, R.E. (2005) Illustrated keys to the mosquitoes of Thailand II. Genera Culex and Lutzia. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 36(2), 1–97.

  • Saha, N., Aditya, G., Bal, A. & Saha, G.K. (2008) Light and habitat structure influences predation of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae by the water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Insect Science, 15, 461–469.

  • Saha, N., Aditya, G. & Saha, G.K. (2009) Habitat complexity reduces prey vulnerability: An experimental analysis using aquatic insect predators and immature dipteran prey. Journal of Asia Pacific Entomology, 12, 233–239.

  • Skiff, J.J.& Yee, D.A. (2014) Behavioral differences among four co-occurring species of container mosquito larvae: effects of depth and resource environments. Journal of Medical Entomology, 51(2), 375–381.

  • Sunish, I.P., Reuben, R. & Rajendran, R. (2006) Natural survivorship of immature stages of Culex vishnui (Diptera: Culicidae) complex, vectors of Japanese encephalitis virus, in rice fields in southern India. Journal of Medical Entomology, 43(2), 185–191.

  • Sunish, I.P.& Reuben, R. (2002)Factors including the abundance of Japanese encephalitis vectors in rice fields in India-II. Biotic. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 16, 1–9.

  • Walker, E.D.& Merritt, R.W. (1991) Behavior of larval Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 28(5), 581–589.

  • Walker, E.D.& Merritt, R.W. (1993) Bacterial enrichment in the surface micro layer of an Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitat. Journal of Medical Entomology, 30(6), 1050–1052.

  • Wallace, J.R.& Merritt, R.W. (2004) Diel feeding periodicity of larval anopheline mosquitoes on microorganisms and microinverte-brates: a spatial and temporal comparison of Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Diptera: Culicidae) diets in a Michigan pond. Journal of Medical Entomology, 41(5), 853–860.

  • Watanabe, K., Koji, S., Hidaka, K. & Nakamura, K. (2013) Abundance, diversity, and seasonal population dynamics of aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera in rice fields: effects of direct seeding management. Environmental Entomology, 42(5), 841–850.

  • Workman, P.D. & Walton, W.E. (2003) Larval behavior of four Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) associated with treatment wetlands in the southwestern United States. Journal of Vector Ecology, 28(2), 213–228.

  • Zar, J.H. (1999) Biostatistical analysis. New Delhi: Pearson Education. 663p.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search