This paper presents a study investigating performance of brown trout fry, with different behavioural characteristics, in environments differing in food predictability. Based on previous experimental findings, we hypothesised that more active individuals would be favoured by a predictable environment, as compared to an unpredictable environment, as a consequence of being more aggressive and likely to dominate the best feeding stations. This hypothesis was not supported, as more active individuals instead tended to perform better, in terms of growth and survival, in unpredictable environments. However, this effect may stem from initial size differences, as more active fish also tended to be larger. In predictable environments, no trends between activity (or size) and performance were detected. Dominant individuals could be identified based on lighter body colouration in 9 out of 10 rearing tanks, but dominance appeared not to be related to activity score. The results highlight a potential advantage of more active and/or larger fry in unpredictable environments, while performance in predictable environments is likely depending on other phenotypic characteristics. Our general experimental approach can be useful for further developments in the investigation of performance of different ethotypes of brown trout fry.
Abbott, J.C. & Dill, L.M. (1985) Patterns of aggressive attack in juvenile steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 42(11), 1702-1706. DOI 10.1139/f85-213
Abbott, J.C. & Dill, L.M. (1989) The relative growth of dominant and subordinate juvenile steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) fed equal rations. Behaviour, 108, 104-113. DOI 10.1163/156853989X00079.
Adriaenssens, B. & Johnsson, J.I. (2010) Shy trout grow faster: exploring links between personality and fitness-related traits in the wild. Behavioral Ecology, 22(1), 135-143. DOI 10.1093/beheco/arq185.
Adriaenssens, B. & Johnsson, J.I. (2013) Natural selection, plasticity and the emergence of a behavioural syndrome in the wild. Ecology Letters, 16(1), 47-55. DOI 10.1111/ele.12011.
Berejikian, B.A., Tezak, E.P., Schroder, S.L., Flagg, T.A. & Knudsen, C.M. (1999) Competitive differences between newly emerged offspring of captive-reared and wild coho salmon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 128(5), 832-839. DOI 10.1577/1548-8659(1999)128<0832:CDBNEO>2.0.CO;2.
Elliott, J.M. (1990) Mechanisms responsible for population regulation in young migratory trout, Salmo trutta. III. The role of territorial behaviour. Journal of Animal Ecology, 58, 987-1001. DOI 10.2307/5015
Gibson, R.J. (2015) Some behavioural and ecological factors affecting distribution, biomass and production of juvenile Atlantic salmon. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 24(3), 397-411. DOI 10.1111/eff.12154.
Grand, T.C. & Grant, J.W.A. (1994) Spatial predictability of food influences its monopolization and defence by juvenile convict cichlids. Animal Behaviour, 47(1), 91-100. DOI 10.1006/anbe.1994.1010
Grant, J.W.A. (1997) Territoriality. In: Godin J-GG ed. Behavioural Ecology of Teleost Fishes. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 81-103.
Héland, M. (1999) Social organization and territoriality in brown trout juveniles during ontogeny. In: Baglinière, J.L., Maisse, G. eds. Biology and Ecology of the Brown Trout and Sea Trout. Chichester: Praxis Publishing Ltd., 115-143.
Höjesjö, J., Adriaenssens, B., Bohlin, T., Jönsson, C., Hellström, I. & Johnsson, J.I. (2011) Behavioural syndromes in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta); life history, family variation and performance in the wild. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 65(9), 1801-1810. DOI 10.1007/s00265-011-1188-0.
Höjesjö, J., Johnsson, J.I. & Bohlin, T. (2004) Habitat complexity reduces the growth of aggressive and dominant brown trout (Salmo trutta) relative to subordinates. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 56(3), 286-289. DOI 10.1007/s00265-004-0784-7.
Hoogenboom, M.O., Armstrong, J.D., Groothuis, T.G.G., & Metcalfe, N.B. (2013) The growth benefits of aggressive behavior vary with individual metabolism and resource predictability. Behavioral Ecology, 24(1), 253-261. DOI 10.1093/beheco/ars161.
Johnsson, J.I., Rydeborg, A. & Sundström, L.F. (2004) Predation risk and the territory value of cover: an experimental study. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 56(4), 388-392.
Kalleberg, H. (1958) Observations in a stream tank of territoriality and competition in juvenile salmon and trout (Salmo salar L. and S. trutta L.). Report - Institute of Freshwater Research, Drottingholm, 39, 55-98.
Keenleyside, M.H.A. & Yamamoto, F.T. (1962) Territorial behaviour of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Behaviour, 19(1), 139-169. DOI 10.1163/156853961X00231
Kortet, R., Vainikka, A., Janhunen, M., Piironen, J. & Hyvärinen, P. (2014) Behavioral variation shows heritability in juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 68(6), 927-934. DOI 10.1007/s00265-014-1705-z.
McLaughlin, R.L., Ferguson, M.M. & Noakes, D.L.G. (1999) Adaptive peaks and alternative foraging tactics in brook charr: evidence of short-term divergent selection for sitting-and-waiting and actively searching. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 45(5), 386-395. DOI 10.1007/s002650050575.
Näslund, J., Bererhi, B. & Johnsson, J.I. (2015) Design of emergence test arenas can affect the results of boldness assays. Ethology, 121(6), 556-565. DOI 10.1111/eth.12368.
Näslund, J. & Johnsson, J.I. (2016) State-dependent behavior and alternative behavioral strategies in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) fry. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 70(12), 2111-2125. DOI 10.1007/s00265-016-2215-y.
Näslund, J., Saarinen Claesson, P. & Johnsson, J.I. (2017a) Performance of wild brown trout in relation to energetic state and lab-scored activity during the early-life survival bottleneck. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 71(11), 165. DOI 10.1007/s00265-017-2395-0.
Näslund, J., Sandquist, L. & Johnsson, J.I. (2017b) Is behaviour in a novel environment associated with bodily state in brown trout Salmo trutta fry? Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 26(3), 462-474. DOI 10.1111/eff.12291.
Puckett, K.J. & Dill, L.M. (1985) The energetics of feeding territoriality in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Behavior, 92(1), 97-111. DOI 10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004.
Réale, D., Garant, D., Humphries, M.M., Bergeron, P., Careau, V. & Montiglio, P.-O. (2010) Personality and the emergence of the paceof- life syndrome concept at the population level. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 365(1560), 4051-4063. DOI 10.1098/rstb.2010.0208.
Reid, D., Armstrong, J.D. & Metcalfe, N.B. (2011) Estimated standard metabolic rate interacts with territory quality and density to determine the growth rates of juvenile Atlantic salmon. Functional Ecology, 25(6), 1360-1367. DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2435.2011.01894.x.
Roy, M.L., Roy, A.G., Grant, J.W.A. & Bergeron, N.E. (2013) Individual variability in the movement behaviour of juvenile Atlantic salmon. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 70(2), 339-347. DOI 10.1139/cjfas-2012-0234
Schneider, C.A., Rasband, W.S. & Eliceiri, K.W. (2012) NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis. Nature Methods, 9(7), 671-675. DOI 10.1038/nmeth.2089.
Sloat, M.R. & Reeves, G.H. (2014) Demographic and phenotypic responses of juvenile steelhead trout to spatial predictability of food resources. Ecology, 95(9), 2423-2433. DOI 10.1890/13-1442.1.
Titus, R.G. (1990) Territorial behavior and its role in population regulation of young brown trout (Salmo trutta): new perspectives. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 27, 119-130.
Walsh, R.N. & Cummins, R.A. (1976) The open-field test: a critical review. Psychological Bulletin, 83:482-504. DOI 10.1037/0033-2909.83.3.482.
Warnock, W.G. & Rasmussen, J.B. (2013) Assessing the effects of fish density, habitat complexity, and current velocity on interference competition between bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in an artificial stream. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 91:619-625. DOI 10.1139/cjz-2013-0044.
Watt, C., Swanson, C., Miller, D., Chen, L. & May, C. (2017) Social hierarchies override environmental conditions in determining body colouration of brook trout. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 32(1), 575-580. DOI 10.1080/02705060.2017.1360218.
Wengström, N., Wahlqvist, F., Näslund, J., Aldvén, D., Závorka, L., Österling, E.M. & Höjesjö, J. (2016) Do individual activity patterns of brown trout (Salmo trutta) alter the exposure to parasitic freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) larvae? Ethology, 122(9), 769-778. DOI 10.1111/eth.1252
Werner, E.E. & Anholt, B.R. (1993) Ecological consequences of the trade-off between growth and mortality rates mediated by foraging activity. American Naturalist, 142(2), 242-272. DOI 10.1086/285537
Závorka, L., Aldvén, D., Näslund, J., Höjesjö, J. & Johnsson, J.I. (2015a) Linking lab activity with growth and movement in the wild: explaining pace-of-life in a trout stream. Behavioral Ecology, 26(3), 877-884. DOI 10.1093/beheco/arv029.
Závorka, L., Näslund, J., Aldvén, D., Höjesjö, J. & Johnsson, J.I. (2015b) Effects of familiarity and population density on competitive interactions and growth: an experimental study on a territorial salmonid fish. Ethology, 121(12), 1202-1211. DOI 10.1111/eth.12436.