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urbanization and latitude on the patterns of species occupancy frequency distribution (SOFD) in urban core zones
of European towns (38 towns) along a 3850-km latitudinal gradient. We determined which of the three most
common distributional models (unimodal-satellite dominant, bimodal symmetrical, and bimodal asymmetrical)
provides the best fit for urban bird communities using the AICc-model selection procedure. Our pooled data
exhibited a unimodal-satellite SOFD pattern. This result is inconsistent with the results from previous studies
that have been conducted in more natural habitats, where data have mostly exhibited a bimodal SOFD pattern.
Large-sized towns exhibited a bimodal symmetric pattern, whereas smaller-sized towns followed a unimodal-
-satellite dominated SOFD pattern. The difference in environmental diversity is the most plausible explanation
for this observation because habitat diversity of the study plots decreased as urbanization increased. Southern
towns exhibited unimodal satellite SOFD patterns, central European towns exhibited bimodal symmetric, and
northern towns exhibited bimodal asymmetric SOFD patterns. One explanation for this observation is that
urbanization is a more recent phenomenon in the north than in the south. Therefore, more satellite species
are found in northern towns than in southern towns. We found that core species in European towns are widely
distributed, and their regional population sizes are large. Our results indicated that earlier urbanized species are
more common in towns than the species that have urbanized later. We concluded that both the traits of bird
species and characteristics of towns modified the SOFD patterns of urban-breeding birds. In the future, it would
be interesting to study how the urban history impacts SOFD patterns and if the SOFD patterns of wintering and
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