Conceptualising the Rise of the Rural Community Movement in Lithuania: A Framework for Analysis
This paper develops a framework for analysing the process of rural community development and institutionalisation in Lithuania. The first communal groups were established in rural Lithuania in the late 1990s. Over the last decade the number of such organisations in the country increased to 1,400. Although a very positive development, rapidly growing grass-roots activism has often led to a complex process of cooperation, conflict, competition and negotiation among the newly-created community groups and existing state agencies, non-governmental organisations, political parties, and various rural and urban interests. The model identifies four arenas of contention and negotiation, in which the newly-created communal groups have attempted to claim legitimacy and define their role in the social, economic and political life of the country: the public sphere, formalised (state financed and delivered) culture, social services' provision, and commercial (profitable) activities. Strategies of rural activists and their effectiveness in each of the four arenas of institutionalisation are examined. The contributions, as well as weaknesses, of the rural community development in promoting rural development in Lithuania are discussed.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Alanen I. 2002 Soviet community spirit and the fight over the rural future of the Baltic countries. Eastern European Countryside. No 8: 15-29.
Bertelsen F. and Zalimiene L. 2004 Social Policy and Community Social Service Development Project in Lithuania. Sida Evaluation 04/12. Stockholm: Swedish International development Cooperation Agency.
Bourdieu P. 1984 Distinction. A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste. Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Davis J. R. 1997 Understanding the process of decollectivisation and agricultural privatization in transition economies: the distribution of collective and state farm assets in Latvia and Lithuania. Europe-Asia Studies. Vol. 49(8): 1409-1433.
Edwards B. Dillard M. and Juska A. 2009 Gender and leadership in the Lithuanian rural community movement: Issues activities and impacts. Transitions XLIX(1): 107-131.
Hitaite L. and Spirgiene L. 2007 The need of the elderly for nursing and social services in the community of Kaunas district. Medicina. Vol. 43(11): 903-908.
Juska A. 2007 Discourses on rurality in post-socialist news media: The case of Lithuania's leading daily ‘Lietuvos Rytas’. Journal of Rural Studies. Vol. 23(2): 238-253.
Juska A. Poviliunas A. and Pozzuto R. 2005a. Resisting marginalisation: the rise of the rural community movement in Lithuania. Sociologia Ruralis. Vol. 45(1/2): 1-19.
Juska A. Poviliunas A. and Pozzuto R. 2005b. Rural grass-roots organizing in Eastern Europe: the experience from Lithuania. Community Development Journal. Vol. 41(2): 174-188.
Juska A. Poviliunas A. Žiliukaite R. and Gegužiene V. 2008 Rural intelligentsia and path dependency in post-socialist civic organizing: The case of Lithuania. Sociologia Ruralis. Vol. 48(2): 93-117.
Karwacki A. 2002 The culture of poverty in the post-state farm community. Eastern European Countryside. No 8: 79-92.
Kovach I. 2000 Rural Development in Europe: the EU LEADER Programme Reconsidered; LEADER a New Social Order and the Central- and East-European Countries. Sociologia Ruralis. Vol. 40(2): 181-189.
Maddock N. 1995 Agriculture after socialism: The transformation and development of Lithuanian agriculture. Food Policy. Vol. 20(2): 129-137.
Marcinkeviciute L. and Petrauskiene R. 2007 Socialiniu paslaugu teikimo tobulinimo aktualijos kamiskose seniunijose [Relevance of Improvement of Social Services' Provision in Rural Neighbourhoods]. Viesoji Politika ir Administravimas/Public Policy and Administration. Vol. (21): 28-37.
Mendelson S. and Glenn J. K. 2002 The Power and Limits of NGOs: A Critical Look at Building Democracy in Eastern Europe and Eurasia. New York: Columbia University Press.
Ministry of Social Security and Labour of Lithuania. 2009 Social Report 2008-09. Vilnius.
National Social Committee of Lithuania. 2000 Poverty Reduction Strategy. Lithuania. Vilnius: AB Puntukas.
North D. 1990 Institutions Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pekauskaite J. 1993 Ukininku sajungos primininkas mano zeme ne kaulas ir jos nedera tampyti is kiemo i kiema [The President of Farmer's Union Claims that Land Isn't Rag for Pulling about]. Lietuvos Rytas. Vilnius.
Poviliunas A. 2003 Kaimo Atskirties Profiliai [The Profiles of Rural Exclusion]. Vilnius: Kronta.
Poviliunas A. 2007. Lithuanian local community movement as a resistance to rural exclusion. In Heinonen M. Nikula J. Kopoteva I. and Granberg L. (Eds.) Reflecting Transformation in Post-socialist Rural Areas (pp. 164-184). Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Putnam R. Leonardi R. and Nanetti R. 1993 Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Radisauskiene E. and Zalimiene L. 2009 Social Services in Lithuania. In Natter M. (Ed.) Combining Choice Quality and Equity in Social Services (pp. 1-5). Copenhagen: European Commission DG Employment Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities. http://www.peer-review-social-inclusion.eu/peer-reviews/2009/combining-choice-quality-and-equity-in-social-services http://www.peer-review-social-inclusion.eu/peer-reviews/2009/combining-choice-quality-and-equity-in-social-services
Ratkeviciene V. 2004 Smulkiu ukininku bukle [The Conditions of Small Farmers]. In Vosyliute A. (Ed.) Socialines Grupes: Nepritekliaus Zymes (pp. 77-87) [Social Groups: the Stigmas of Scarcity]. Vilnius: Socialiniu Tyrimu Institutas.
Statistikos Departamentas. 1989 Cultural Centres at the End of the Year Vilnius. http://db1.stat.gov.lt/statbank/SelectVarVal/saveselections.asp
Statistikos Departamentas. 1997 Cultural Centres at the End of the Year Vilnius. http://db1.stat.gov.lt/statbank/SelectVarVal/saveselections.asp
Statistikos Departamentas. 2002 Lietuvos Kaimas. Social Trends in Rural Areas of Lithuania. Vilnius: Statistikos Departamentas prie Lietuvos Respublikos Vyriausybes.
Statistikos Departamentas. 2008 Lietuvos Gyventojai Pagal Amziu 2008. [Lithuanian Population by Age]. Vilnius: Statistikos Departamentas prie Lietuvos Respublikos Vyriausybes.
Statistikos Departamentas. 2010 Population at the Beginning of the Year by Sex Place of Residence and Year. Statistikos Departamentas prie Lietuvos Respublikos Vyriausybes. Vilnius. http://db1.stat.gov.lt/statbank/selectvarval/saveselections.asp?MainTable=M3010201&PLanguage=1&TableStyle=&Buttons=&PXSId=3234&IQY=&TC=&ST=ST&rvar0=&rvar1=&rvar2=&rvar3=&rvar4=&rvar5=&rvar6=&rvar7=&rvar8=&rvar9=&rvar10=&rvar11=&rvar12=&rvar13=&rvar14=
Svendsen G. L. H. 2004 The right to development: Construction of a non-agriculturalist discourse of rurality in Denmark. Journal of Rural Studies. Vol. 20(1): 79-94.
The World Bank. 1999 SPectrum. Social Protection. A Model for the Future. Innovative Social Policy in Lithuania. Washington DC. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/SOCIALPROTECTION/214578-1096473261209/20846266/SPectrumFall1999.pdf
Walsh A. 2007 Community action in post-socialist Lithuania: A comparative case-study of two rural villages. In Heinonen M. Nikula J. Kopoteva I. and Granberg L. (Eds.) Reflecting Transformation in Post-socialist Rural Areas (pp. 185-214). Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
White A. 1990 De-Stalinization and the House of Culture: Declining State Control over Leisure in the USSR Poland and Hungary 1953-89. London: Routledge.