Effect of Zinc Ammonium Acetate on Characteristics of Timothy Canopy and Seed Yield

Adam Radkowski 1 , Iwona Radkowska 2 , Tadeusz Lemek 3 , and Tomasz Jakubowski 4
  • 1 Department of Agroecology and Crop Production, University of Agriculture in Kraków, 31-120, Kraków, Poland
  • 2 Department of Cattle Breeding, National Research Institute of Animal Production, , 32-083, Balice, Poland
  • 3 Department of Biopolymer Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Agriculture in Kraków, 30-149, Kraków, Poland
  • 4 Department of Machinery, Ergonomics and Production Processes, University of Agriculture in Krakow, 30-149, Kraków, Poland


The purpose of the experiment was to assess the effect of application of zinc ammonium acetate (ZAA) on yielding, morphological features and on selected vegetation indices of timothy cv. ‘Owacja’ cultivated for seeds. Zinc ammonium acetate that has a biostimulatory effect was used foliar in the carried out experiment. The experiment was conducted in the years 2015-2017 at the experimental station in Prusy near Krakow, a part of the Experimental Station of the Institute of Crop Production of the University of Agriculture in Krakow. The field experiment was set up in a randomized block design, in four replications, and the area of experimental plots was 10 m2. Degraded Chernozem formed from loess (classified to the first class quality soil) was present on the experimental area. The experiment consisted in applying ZAA as spray at three doses: 0.214, 0.267 and 0.400 kg(ZnNH4(CH3CO2)3)/ha. Based on the obtained preliminary results, it was found that application of foliar activator in a higher dose (0.400 kg/ha) caused a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in seed yield, 1000-seed weight and in germination capacity in relation to the control. Improvement in morphological properties was also observed. Leaf greenness index (SPAD) was also determined. Its highest value was found in plants from the treatment where the highest dose of the zinc ammonium acetate was applied. Seeds obtained from plants treated with ZAA were riper (ripeness was measured with 1000-seed weight) and had higher germination capacity in relation to control treatments.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • [1] Calvo P, Nelson L, Kloepper JW. Agricultural uses of plant biostimulants. Plant Soil. 2014;383:3-41. DOI: 10.1007/s11104-014-2131-8.

  • [2] Radkowski A, Radkowska I. Effects of silicate fertilizer on seed yield in timothy-grass (Phleum pratense L.). Ecol Chem Eng S. 2018;25(1):169-80. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2018-0012.

  • [3] Radkowski A, Radkowska I. Influence of foliar fertilization with amino acid preparations on morphological traits and seed yield of timothy. Plant Soil Environ. 2018;64(5):209-13. DOI: 10.17221/112/2018-PSE.

  • [4] Vernieri P, Borghesi E, Ferrante A, Magnani G. Application of biostimulants in floating system for improving rocket quality. J Food Agric Environ. 2005;3(3-4):86-8. https://eurekamag.com/research/004/399/004399215.php.

  • [5] Przybysz A, Wrochna M, Słowiński A, Gawrońska H. Stimulatory effect of Asahi SL on selected plant species. Acta Sci Pol. Hortorum Cultus. 2010;9(2):53-64. http://www.acta.media.pl/pl/action/getfull.php?id=2321.

  • [6] Radkowski A, Radkowska I, Lemek T. Effects of foliar application of titanium on seed yield in timothy (Phleum pratense L.). Ecol Chem Eng S. 2015;22(4):691-701. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2015-0042.

  • [7] Radkowski A, Sosin-Bzducha E, Radkowska I. Effects of silicon foliar fertilization of meadow plants on the nutritional value of silage fed to dairy cows. J Elem. 2017;22(4):1311-22. DOI: 10.5601/jelem.2017.22.1.1331.

  • [8] Disante KB, Fuentes D, Cortina J. Response to drought of Zn-stressed Quercus suber L. seedlings. Env Exp Bot. 2010;70:96-103. DOI:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2010.08.008.

  • [9] Hafeez B, Khanif YM, Saleem M. Role of zinc in plant nutrition - A review. Am J Experimental Agricult. 2013;3(2):374-91. DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/2746.

  • [10] Brennan RF, Bolland MDA. Zinc sulfate is more effective at producing wheat shoots than zinc oxide in an alkaline soil but both sources are equally effective in an acid soil. Australian J Experimental Agricult. 2006;46(12):1615-20. DOI: 10.1080/01904160801926228.

  • [11] Wu H, Rao ChV, Rambabu B. Electrochemical performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 prepared by improved solid statemethod as cathode in hybrid supercapacitor. Materials Chem Phys. 2009;116:532-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2009.04.028.

  • [12] International Rules for Seed Testing. International Seed Testing Association, ISTA; 2020. Available from: https://www.seedtest.org/en/international-rules-for-seed-testing-_content---1--1083.html.

  • [13] Andresen E, Peiter E, Küpper H. Trace metal metabolism in plants. J Experim Botany. 2018;69(5):909-54. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx465.

  • [14] Broadley M, Brown P, Cakmak I, Rengel Z, Zhao F. Function of nutrients: micronutrients. In: Marschner P, editor. Marschner’s Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, 3rd ed. Academic Press; 2012; 191-248. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-384905-2.00007-8.

  • [15] Duffner A, Hoffland E, Weng L, Sjoerd EATM van der Zee. Predicting zinc bioavailability to wheat improves by integrating pH dependent nonlinear root surface adsorption. Plant Soil. 2013;373:919-30. DOI: 10.1007/s11104-013-1845-3.

  • [16] Korzeniowska J, Stanislawska-Glubiak E, Kantek K, Lipinski W, Gaj R. Micronutrient status of winter wheat in Poland. J Central Europ Agricult. 2015;16(1):54-64. DOI: 10.5513/JCEA01/16.1.1540.

  • [17] Thasanasongchan A. The influence of acetates on growth and yield of corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Ph.D. Dissertation. Ames, IA: Iowa State University; 1981. DOI: 10.31274/rtd-180813-5947.

  • [18] Ruffo M., Olson R., Daverede I. Maize yield response to zinc sources and effectiveness of diagnostic indicators. J. Comm. Soil Sci Plant Anal. 2016;47(2):137-41. DOI: 10.1080/00103624.2015.1108433.

  • [19] Khosravi G. The effect of hormones and chemical growth regulators on ear development and grain yield of nonprolific corn (Zea mays L.). Ph.D. Thesis. Ames, IA: Iowa State University; 1980. DOI: 10.31274/rtd-180813-11776.

  • [20] Liu A, Jones RJ, Malzer GL, Rehm GW. Fate of zinc ammonia acetate in soils and its uptake by corn. J Plant Nutrition. 2006;29(6):1003-19. DOI: 10.1080/01904160600686080.

  • [21] Liu A, Jones RJ, Malzer GL, Rehm GM. Effect of zinc ammonia acetate on germination and early seedling growth of three maize genotypes. J Plant Nutrition. 2008;20(11):1551-66. DOI: 10.1080/01904169709365356.

  • [22] Pacholczak A, Szydło W. Effect of ammonium zinc acetate on rooting of stem cuttings in Physocarpus opulifolius. Ann Warsaw Univ Life Sci - SGGW, Horticult Landsc Architect. 2008;29:59-64. http://annals-wuls.sggw.pl/files/files/hla/hla2008no29art07.pdf.

  • [23] Bingham IJ, McCabe VB. Commercially available plant growth regulators and promoters modify bulk tissue abscisic acid concentrations in spring barley, but not root growth and yield response to drought. Annals Appl Biol. 2006;149:291-304. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.2006.00093.x.


Journal + Issues