The aim of this study was to examine the impact of inside temperature and relative humidity, ventilation rate and gas concentrations (NH3, N2O, CO2) on odour emissions from deep-litter piggery. The studied facility had temperature-controlled mechanical ventilation. The measurements were conducted from March to June 2014. During the research, selected microclimate parameters, as well as number and mass of animals were monitored and air samples were collected (two samples of air in each series of measurements). Temperature and relative humidity were measured using Testo 435-4 multifunctional measuring instrument. To measurements of gas concentrations was used the photo-acoustic spectrometer Multi Gas Monitor Model 1312. The concentration of odours in the air samples was determined by dynamic olfactometry with the TO 8 olfactometer, according to PN-EN 13725:2007. The odour concentration ranged from 450 to 2004 ouE · m–3 (mean 1048 ouE · m–3) and the mean odour emission factor was from 5.76 to 46.79 ouE · (s · pig)−1 (mean 20.93 ouE· (s · pig)−1.The statistical analysis showed that the inside temperature explained most of the variability of the odour concentration and the relationship was described by equation: cod = 5634 – 197 Tinside (R2 = 0.82, p ≤ 0.05). For odour emission factor, two parameters: the inside temperature and ventilation rate, explained most of the variability, according to the equation: EFod = 108 + 1939 VR – 5.5 Tinside (R2 = 0.81, p ≤ 0.05).
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
 Scherer LA Verburg PH Schulp CJE. Opportunities for sustainable intensification in European agriculture. Global Environ Change. 2018;48:43-55. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2017.11.009.
 Bais-Moleman AL Schulp CJE Verburg PH. Assessing the environmental impacts of production- and consumption-side measures in sustainable agriculture intensification in the European Union. Geoderma. 2019;338:555-67. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2018.11.042.
 Rivilli S Pettarin N Tonino A Snidar R Del Frate S Pillon A. Odour emissions from intensive pig farms. Environ Eng Manage J. 2013;12:197-200. http://www.eemj.icpm.tuiasi.ro/pdfs/vol12/no11suppl/51_Rivilli1_13.pdf.
 Cantuaria ML Brandt J Løfstrøm P Blanes-Vidal V. Public perception of rural environmental quality: Moving towards a multi-pollutant approach. Atmosph Environ. 2017;170:234-44. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.09.051.
 Wing S Lowman A Keil A Marshall SW. Odors from sewage sludge and livestock: Associations with self-reported health. Public Health Reports. 2014;129:505-15. DOI: 10.1177/003335491412900609.
 Blanes-Vidal V Nadimi ES Ellermann T Andersen HV Løfstrøm P. Perceived annoyance from environmental odors and association with atmospheric ammonia levels in non-urban residential communities: A cross-sectional study. Environ Health Global Access Sci Source. 2012;11. DOI: 10.1186/1476-069X-11-27.
 Hardwick DC. Agricultural problems related to odor prevention and control. In: Nielsen VC Voorburg JH Hermite PL editors. Odour Prevention and Control of Organic Sludge and Livestock Farming. New York: Elsevier Applied Science Publishers. 1985:21-26. ISBN: 9781851660100.
 Ubeda Y Lopez-Jimenez P.A Nicolas J Calvet S. Strategies to control odours in livestock facilities: a critical review. Spanish J Agricult Res. 2013;11(4):1004-15. DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2013114-4180.
 Guffanti P Pifferi V Falciola L Ferrante V. Analyses of odours from concentrated animal feeding operations: A review. Atmosph Environ. 2018;175:100-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.12.007.
 Schauberger G Lim TT Ni JQ Bundy DS Haymore BL Diehl CA et al. Empirical model of odor emission from deep-pit swine finishing barns to derive a standardized odor emission factor. Atmosph Environ. 2013;66:84-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.05.046.
 Hansen MJ Nørgaard JV Adamsen APS Poulsen HD. Effect of reduced crude protein on ammonia methane and chemical odorants emitted from pig houses. Livestock Sci. 2014;169:118-24.
 Mielcarek P Rzeźnik W. Odor emission factors from livestock production. Polish J Environ Stud. 2015;24:27-35. DOI: 10.15244/pjoes/29944.
 Szulejko JE Kim BW Kim KH Lee MH Kim YH Jo SH et al. Estimation of emission factor for odorants released from swine excretion slurries. Sci Total Environ. 2016;548-549:472-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.031.
 Fukumoto M Arima H Ito S Takeuchi N Nakano H. Distorted perception of smell by volatile agents facilitated inhalational induction of anesthesia. Pediatric Anesthesia. 2005;15:98-101. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9592.2005.01408.x.
 Calvet S Gates RS Zhang GQ Estelles F Ogink NWM Pedersen S et al. Measuring gas emissions from livestock buildings: a review on uncertainty analysis and error sources. Biosystems Eng. 2013;116(3):221-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2012.11.004.
 PN-EN 13725:2007: Air Quality - Determination of odour concentration by dynamic olfactometry. Warszawa: PKN; 2007. http://sklep.pkn.pl/pn-en-13725-2007p.html.
 Romaniuk W Overby T. Systemy utrzymania świń. Poradnik (The housing system of pigs. Guide). Warszawa: IBMER; 2005. ISBN 8386264985.
 Wang K Wei B Zhu S Ye Z. Ammonia and odour emitted from deep litter and fully slatted floor systems for growing-finishing pigs. Biosystems Eng. 2011;109:203-10. DOI:10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2011.04.001.
 Rzeźnik W Mielcarek P Rzeźnik I. Limiting odour emission from piggery trough application of heat recovery system. Agricultural Eng. 2016;20:167-76. DOI: 10.1515/agriceng-2016-0017.
 Van Langenhove H De Bruyn G. Development of a procedure to determine odor emissions from animal farming for regulatory purposes in Flanders. Water Sci Technol. 2001;44(9):205-10. DOI: 10.2166/wst.2001.0541.
 Guo H Wang Y Yuan Y. Annual variations of odor concentrations and emissions from swine gestation farrowing and nursery buildings. J Air Waste Manage Assoc. 2011;61(12):1361-8. DOI: 10.1080/10473289.2011.623636.
 Zhou X Zhang Q. Measurement of odour and hydrogen sulfide emissions from swine barns. Canad Biosystems Eng. 2003;45:6.13-6.18. http://csbe-scgab.ca/docs/journal/45/c0218.pdf.
 Guo H Dehod W Agnew J Feddes JR Laguë C Pang S. Daytime odor emission variations from various swine barns. Trans ASABE. 2007;50:1365-72. DOI: 10.13031/2013.23625.
 Choi HL Kim KY Kim H. Correlation of air pollutants and thermal environment factors in a confined pig house in winter. Asian-Australasian J Animal Sci. 2005;18:574-9. DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2005.574.
 Hügle T Andree H. Temperatur und Geruchsemissionen aus Flüssigmist (Temperature and Odour Emissions from Liquid Manure). Landtechnik. 2001;56:36-7. https://www.landtechnik-online.eu/landtechnik/article/view/2001-56-1-036-037/2001-56-1-036-037-de-pdf.
 Sun G Guo H Peterson J. Seasonal odor ammonia hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide concentrations and emissions from swine grower-finisher rooms. J Air Waste Manage Assoc. 2010;60:471-80. DOI: 10.3155/1047-32126.96.36.1991.
 Yao HQ Choi HL Lee JH Suresh A Zhu K. Effect of microclimate on particulate matter airborne bacteria and odorous compounds in swine nursery houses. J Animal Sci. 2011;88:3707-14. DOI: 10.2527/jas.2009-2399.
 Yao HQ Choi HL Zhu K Lee JH. Key volatile organic compounds emitted from swine nursery house. Atmosph Environ. 2011;45:2577-84. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.01.058.
 Guingand N Rugani A. Impact of the Reduction of Straw on Ammonia GHG and Odors Emitted by Fattening Pigs Housed in a Deep-litter System. An ASABE Conference Presentation ILES12-0083. Ninth Int Livestock Environ Symp. Valencia Spain; 2012. DOI: 10.13031/2013.41614.
 Schauberger G Lim TT Ni JQ Bundy DS Haymore BL Diehls CA et al. Empirical model of odor emission from deep-pit swine finishing barns to derive a standardized odor emission factor. Atmosph Environ. 2013;66:84-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.05.046.
 Le PD Aarnink AJA Ogink NWM Verstegen MWA. Effects of environmental factors on odor emission from pig manure. Trans ASAE. 2005;48:757-65. DOI: 10.13031/2013.18318.
 Romain AC Nicolas J Cobut P Delva J Nicks B Philippe FX. Continuous odour measurement from fattening pig units. Atmosph Environ. 2013;77:935-42. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.06.030.
 Miller GY Maghirang RG Riskowski GL Heber AJ Robert MJ Muyot MET. Influences on air quality and odor from mechanically ventilated swine finishing buildings in Illinois. Food Agricult Environ. 2004;2:353-60. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/699a/0d99f68c22ace784b0a7f3c9e7e7e4462efe.pdf.