Designing a Pond and Evaluating its Impact Upon Storm-Water Quality and Flow: A Case Study in Rural Australia

Open access


Storm-water management is a common concern in rural catchments where development-related growth causes increases of storm-water flows. Greater magnitude and frequency of storm-water create greater challenges for mitigating storm-water damage and improving water quality. The concept of Blue-Green Infrastructure (BGI) as a solution incorporates a wide range of applicable components with the aim of minimizing the effect of catchment development on flow regimes without changing the watershed morphology. BGI components manage storm-water by decreasing impermeable cover and expanding natural and semi-natural systems to store water or recharge and filter storm-water into the ground. In this paper, guidelines for designing a pond as a component of BGI are provided and, configuration and size of the pond are determined. Moreover, the impacts of the designed pond on storm-water peak flow and quality are assessed for the Tarwin catchment, State of Victoria, Australia. The results indicate that the introduction of the pond would have reduced outfall inflow by 94 % and would have achieved the reduction of 88.3, 75.5 and 50.7 % for total suspended solids, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen respectively, during the extreme weather event in June 2012.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • [1] Mitsch WJ Bernal B Hernandez ME. Ecosystem services of wetlands. Int J Biodivers Sci Ecosyst Serv Manage. 2015;11(1-4). DOI: 10.1080/21513732.2015.1006250.

  • [2] Mitsch WJ Gosselink JG Zhang L Anderson CJ. Wetland Ecosystems. New York NY USA: John Wiley Sons; 2009. ISBN 047028630X.

  • [3] McKinnon E. Protecting Victorian Wetlands. Technical Report. Environment Defenders Office (Victoria) Ltd Australia; 2012.

  • [4] Jacobs SW Brock MA. Wetlands of Australia: southern (temperate) Australia. In Wetlands of the World: Inventory Ecology and Management. 1993;1(244-304). Dordrecht: Springer; DOI: 10.1007/978-94-015-8212-4_8.

  • [5] Finlayson CM Capon SJ Rissik D Pittock J Fisk G et al. Policy considerations for managing wetlands under a changing climate. Mar Freshwater Res. 2017;68(10):1803-1815. DOI: 10.1071/mf16244.

  • [6] Finlayson CM Mitchell DS. Australian wetlands: the monitoring challenge. Wetlands Ecology Manage. 1999;7(1-2):105-112. DOI: 10.1023/A:1008437529037.

  • [7] Finlayson CM Rea N. Reasons for the loss and degradation of Australian wetlands. Wetlands Ecology Manage. 1999;7(1-2):1-11. DOI: 10.1023/A:1008495619951.

  • [8] Pressey RL Middleton MJ. Impacts of flood mitigation works on coastal wetlands in New South Wales. Wetlands Australia J. 2009;2(1): 27-44. DOI: 10.31646/wa.57.

  • [9] Kazmierczak A Carter J. Adaptation to Climate Change Using Green and Blue Infrastructure. A Database of Case Studies. Manchester: University of Manchester; 2010.

  • [10] Thorne CR Lawson EC Ozawa C Hamlin SL Smith LA. Overcoming uncertainty and barriers to adoption of Blue-Green Infrastructure for urban flood risk management. J Flood Risk Manage. 2015. DOI: 10.1111/jfr3.12218.

  • [11] Ghofrani Z Sposito V Faggian R. Designing resilient regions by applying Blue-Green Infrastructure concepts. WIT Transactions Ecol Environ. 2016;204:493-505. DOI: 10.2495/sc160421.

  • [12] Ghofrani Z Sposito V Faggian R. A comprehensive review of Blue-Green Infrastructure concepts. Int J Environ Sustainability. 2017;6(1):15-36.

  • [13] West Gippsland Catchment Management Authority (WGCMA). West Gippsland Wetlands Plan PART A - Background & Method Technical Report Victoria Australia. 2007.

  • [14] West Gippsland Catchment Management Authority (WGCMA). West Gippsland Native Vegetation Plan Technical Report Victoria Australia. 2003.

  • [15] Water Technology Pty Ltd. Tarwin Lower Flood Study Technical Report Report No. J155/R01 West Gippsland Catchment Management Authority Victoria Australia. 2007.

  • [16] South Gippsland Shire Council (SGSC). Provision of services for the assessment of existing seawalls and coastal levees. Technical Report. Victoria Australia: SCGC; 2017.

  • [17] Edwards M. Resolving Problems with Flood Mitigation Infrastructure - Responding to Community Needs. In Australian National Flood Conference Tweed NSW Australia 2013.

  • [18] South Gippsland Shire Council (SGSC) and Victoria State Emergency Service (VICSES) East Region and Foster & Leongatha Units. South Gippsland Shire Flood Emergency Plan A Sub-Plan of the MEMP Technical Report Version 1.4 Victoria Australia. 2013.

  • [19] The City of Calgary Water Resources. City of Calgary Stormwater Management and Design Manual 2011. Technical Report. Calgary Canada: City of Calgary; 2011.

  • [20] Rossman LA Huber WC. Storm water management model reference manual. Volume I - Hydrology (Revised). Washington DC US: US Environmental Protection Agency; 2016.

  • [21] Wong TH Fletcher TD Duncan HP Coleman JR Jenkins GA. A model for urban stormwater improvement: Conceptualization. In: Global Solutions for Urban Drainage 2002 (pp. 1-14). DOI: 10.1061/40644(2002)115.

  • [22] Melbourne Water. WSUD Engineering Procedure: Stormwater. Collingwood Australia: CSIRO Publishing; 2005. ISBN 0643090924.

Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.467
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.226

CiteScore 2018: 1.47

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.352
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.907

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 55 55 14
PDF Downloads 49 49 23