Quality of Rivers: Comparison of Hydro-Morphological, Physical-Chemical and Biological Methods

Open access

Abstract

The study was performed in five fourth-order tributaries of the Bystrzyca Lubelska River (Eastern Poland, Lublin Upland), differing in the degree of river-bed transformation and level of pollution. Hydro-morphological methods (descriptive method by Ilnicki and Lewandowski - IL, and index method by Oglecki and Pawlat - OP) and biological indices based on the composition of zoobenthos (Diversity - D, and index based on proportions between the density of Oligochaeta and Chironomidae - O/Ch) permitted distinguishing of four classes, from II to V. The distinguishing of only two quality classes (III and IV) was possible by means of physical-chemical methods and by benthic index BMWP_PL. Those two methods seem to show the lowest sensitivity to the spatial variability of the environment quality. The BMWP_PL index was the least sensitive to year-to-year environmental changes, and O/Ch was the most sensitive. Relatively high conformity was obtained between hydro-morphological assessments performed by means of the OP and IL methods. Results obtained by means of these tools weakly corresponded with the physical-chemical assessments. The latter assessments were the most similar to those obtained by means of the BMWP_PL (degree of similarity = 57%) and D (47%) indices, and considerably less in the case of O/Ch (36%). The BMWP_PL and D indices better corresponded with the results of the hydro-morphological assessment performed by means of the IL method than with those performed by means of the OP method while D index showed a reverse pattern. The O/CH index proved useful for the assessment of the degree of organic pollution of the river’s water, but not the sediments.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • [1] Du Plessis A Global Water Scarcity and Possible Conflicts Freshwater Challenges of South Africa and Its Upper Vaal River: Current State and Outlook. Springer Water. 2017; 45-62. http://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783319495019.

  • [2] McDonald RIP Green D Balk BM Fekete C Revenga M Montgomery TM. Urban growth climate change and freshwater availability. P Natl Acad Sci USA. 2011;108(15):6312-6317. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1011615108.

  • [3] Srebotnjak T Carr G de Sherbinin A Rickwood C. A global Water Quality Index and hot-deck imputation of missing data. Ecol Indic. 2012; 17:108-119. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.04.023.

  • [4] Turley MD Bilotta GS Extence CA Brazier RE. Evaluation of a fine sediment biomonitoring tool across a wide range of temperate rivers and streams. Freshwater Biol. 2014;59(11):2268-2277 DOI: 10.1111/fwb.12429.

  • [5] Nichols SJ Barmuta LA Chessman BC Davies PE Dyer FJ Harrison ET et al. The imperative need for nationally coordinated bioassessment of rivers and streams. Mar Freshwater Res. 2017;68(4):599-613. DOI: 10.1071/mf15329.

  • [6] Beavan L Sadler J Pinder L. The invertebrate fauna of a physically modified urban river. Hydrobiologia. 2001;445:97-108. DOI: 10.1023/a:1017584105641.

  • [7] Tavzes B Urbanic G Toman MJ. Biological and hydromorphological integrity of the small urban stream. Phys Chem Earth. 2006;31:1062-1074. DOI:10.1016/j.pce.2006.07.009.

  • [8] Sandin L. The relationship between land-use hydromorphology and river biota at different spatial and temporal scales: a synthesis of seven case studies. Fund Appl Limnol. 2009;174:1-5. DOI: 10.1127/1863-9135/2009/0174-0001.

  • [9] Fan JT Semenzin E Meng W Giubilato E Zhang Y Critto. et al. Ecological status classification of the Taizi River Basin China: a comparison of integrated risk assessment approaches. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2015;22(19):14738-14754. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-4629-x.

  • [10] Miserendino M Kutschker A Brand C La Manna L Di Prinzio C Papazian G et al. Ecological status of a Patagonian mountain river: Usefulness of environmental and biotic metrics for rehabilitation assessment. Environ Manage. 2016;57(6):1166-1187. DOI: 10.1007/s00267-016-0688-0.

  • [11] Directive 2000/60/EC of The European Parliament and of The Council of 23 Oct. 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy (WFD). Official J Europ Communities L 327/1 2000. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-framework/index_en.html.

  • [12] Duffy BT George SD Baldigo BP Smith AJ. Assessing condition of macroinvertebrate communities and bed sediment toxicity in the Rochester Embayment Area of Concern New York USA. J Great Lakes Res. 2017; 43(5):890-898. DOI:10.1016/j.jglr.2017.02.002.

  • [13] Hoekstra AY Chapagain AK van Oel PR. Advancing Water Footprint Assessment research: Challenges in monitoring progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 6. Water-Sui. 2017;9(6). DOI: 10.3390/w9060438.

  • [14] Szoszkiewicz KS Jusik I Lewin I. Czerniawska-Kusza J Kupiec M Szostak M. Macrophyte and macroinvertebrate patterns in unimpacted mountain rivers of two European ecoregions. Hydrobiologia. 2018;808(1):327-342. DOI: 10.1007/s10750-017-3435-5.

  • [15] Heatherly TII Whiles MR Royer TV David MB. Relationships between water quality habitat quality and macroinvertebrate assemblages in Illinois streams. J Environ Qual. 2007;36:1653-1660. DOI: 10.2134/jeq2006.0521.

  • [16] Verdonschot PFM. Impact of hydromorphology and spatial scale on macroinvertebrate assemblage composition in streams. Integr Environ Assess Manage. 2009;5:97-109. DOI: 10.1897/IEAM_2008-028.1.

  • [17] Timm H Kairo K Mols T Virro T. An index to assess hydromorphological quality of Estonian surface waters based on macroinvertebrate taxonomic composition. Limnologica. 2011;41:398-410. DOI: 10.1016/j.limno.2011.09.006.

  • [18] Cortelezzi A Sierra MV Gomez N Marinelli C Capitulo AR. Macrophytes epipelic biofilm and invertebrates as biotic indicators of physical habitat degradation of lowland streams (Argentina). Environ Monit Assess. 2013;185:5801-5815. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-012-2985-2.

  • [19] Urbanic G. Hydromorphological degradation impact on benthic invertebrates in large rivers in Slovenia. Hydrobiologia. 2014;729:191-207. DOI: 10.1007/s10750-012-1430-4.

  • [20] Błachuta J Szoszkiewicz K Gebler D Schneider SC. How do environmental parameters relate to macroinvertebrate metrics? Prospects for river water quality assessment. Pol J Ecol. 2014;62:111-122. DOI: 10.3161/104.062.0111.

  • [21] Rajfur M Kłos A. Use of algae in active biomonitoring of surface waters. Ecol Chem Eng S. 2014;21(4):561-576. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2014-0040.

  • [22] Bis B Zdanowicz A Zalewski M. Effects of catchment properties on hydrochemistry habitat complexity and invertebrate community structure in a lowland river. Hydrobiologia. 2000;422/423:369-387. DOI: 10.1023/A:1017002923173.

  • [23] Pistocchi A Udias A Grizzetti B Gelati E Koundouri P Ludwig R et al. An integrated assessment framework for the analysis of multiple pressures in aquatic ecosystems and the appraisal of management options. Sci Total Environ. 2017;575:1477-1488. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.020.

  • [24] Valero E Alvarez X Picos J. An assessment of river habitat quality as an indicator of conservation status. A case study in the Northwest of Spain. Ecol Indic. 2015;57:131-138. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.04.032.

  • [25] Raport o stanie środowiska województwa lubelskiego w 2003 roku. [Report on the state of the environment of Lublin Voivodship in 2003]. Lublin: Biblioteka Monitoringu Środowiska; 2004. http://www.wios.lublin.pl/srodowisko/raporty-o-stanie-srodowiska/.

  • [26] Hooper FF Kohler SL. Measurement of stream velocity and discharge. Chapter 19. In: Schneider JC editor. Manual of Fisheries Survey Methods II: With Periodic Updates. Michigan Department of Natural Resources Fisheries Special Report 25 Ann Arbor; 2000; 1-5. http://www.michigan.gov/documents/dnr/SMII_Assembled_Doc_2017_final_552610_7.pdf.

  • [27] Oglęcki P Pawłat H. The index method of small lowland river environmental evaluation. Annals of Warsaw Agriculture University. SGGW Land Reclamation 2000;30:37-43.

  • [28] Ilnicki P Lewandowski P. Ekomorfologiczna waloryzacja dróg wodnych Wielkopolski. [Ecomorphological evaluation of waterways in Wielkopolska]. Akademia Rolnicza w Poznaniu; 1997; 128. ISBN: 8390860503 9788390860503.

  • [29] Hermanowicz W Dożańska W Dojlido J Koziorowski B. Fizyczno-chemiczne badanie wody i ścieków. [Physical-chemical investigations of water and sewage]. Warszawa: Arkady Press; 1999; 848. ISBN: 9788321340678.

  • [30] Rozporządzenie Ministra Środowiska z dnia 9 listopada 2011 r. w sprawie sposobu klasyfikacji stanu jednolitych części wód powierzchniowych oraz środowiskowych norm jakości dla substancji priorytetowych. [Regulation of the Polish Ministry of the Environment of 9 November 2011. on the methods of classification of surface waters and environmental quality standards for priority substances]. Dziennik Ustaw Nr 257 poz. 1545. isap.sejm.gov.pl/Download?id=WDU20112571545&type=2.

  • [31] Montusiewicz M Chomczyńska J Malicki J Łagód G. Biofilm sampling for bioindication of municipal wastewater treatment. In: Pawłowski L Dudzińska MR Pawłowski A. editor. Environmental Engineering III. London: CRC Press; 2010; 491-496. ISBN: 9780415548823.

  • [32] Quigley M. Invertebrates of Stream and Rivers. Edward Arnold London 1977. ISBN-13: 978-0713100914.

  • [33] Cranston PS. A key to the larvae of the British Orthocladiinae (Chironomidae). Freshwater Biological Association Scientific Publication; 1982; 152. DOI: 10.1002/iroh.19830680229.

  • [34] Wiederholm T. Chironomidae of the Holarctic region. Keys and diagnoses. Part 1 Larvae. Entomol Scand. Supplement 19;1983.

  • [35] Extence CA Bates AJ Forbes WJ Barham PJ. Biologically based water quality management. Environ Pollut. 1987;45:221-236. DOI: 10.1016/0269-7491(87)90059-5.

  • [36] Kownacki A Soszka H Fleituch T Kudelska D. The ecological assessment of river quality in Poland on the basis of communities of benthic invertebrates In: Kownacki A Soszka H Fleituch T Kudelska D editors. River Biomonitoring and Benthic Invertebrate Communities. Warszawa-Kraków: Institute of Environmental Protection; 2002; 71-88. ISBN: 8385444904.

  • [37] King D Ball RC. A quantitative biological measure of stream pollution. J Water Pollut Control Fed. 1964;36:650-653. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25035074.

  • [38] Goodnight C. Use of aquatic macroinvertebrates as indicators of stream pollution. T Am Microsc Soc. 1973;92:1-13. DOI: 10.2307/3225166.

  • [39] Wiederholm T. Use of benthos in lake monitoring. J Wat Poll Control. 1980;52:537-547. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25040750.

  • [40] Ter Braak CJF Smilauer P. CANOCO reference manual and CanoDraw for Windows User’s Guide: Software for Canonical Community Ordination (version 4.5.). Microcomputer Power Ithaca NY 2002. www. http://edepot.wur.nl/405659.

  • [41] Ter Braak CJF. Canonical community ordination. Part I: Basic theory and linear methods. Ecoscience. 1994;1(2):127-140. DOI: 10.1080/11956860.1994.11682237.

  • [42] Hammer Ř Harper DAT Ryan PD. PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electron. 2001;4(1):9pp. http://palaeo-electronica.org/2001_1/past/issue1_01.htm; 2001.

  • [43] Łagód G Chomczyńska M Montusiewicz A Malicki J Bieganowski A. Proposal of measurement and visualization methods for dominance structures in the saprobe communities. Ecol Chem Eng S. 2009;16(3):369-377. http://tchie.uni.opole.pl/freeECE/S_16_3/LagodChomczynska_16(3).pdf.

  • [44] Łagód G Chomczyńska M Montusiewicz A Malicki J Stransky D. Methods applied for measurement and visualization of changes in biodiversity. Ecol Chem Eng S. 2014;21(4):593-604. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2014-0042.

  • [45] Grzybowski M Endler Z. Hydro-morphological evaluation of the Łyna River along the Kotowo-Ardapy section. Quaest Geograph. 2012;31(1):51-65. DOI: 10.2478/v10117-012-0008-6.

  • [46] Buffagni A Erba S Cazzola M Kemp JL. The AQEM multimetric system for the southern Italian Apennines: assessing the impact of water quality and habitat degradation on pool macroinvertebrates in Mediterranean rivers. Hydrobiologia. 2004;516:313-329. DOI: 10.1023/B:HYDR.0000025273.15958.6a.

  • [47] Hering D Moog O Sandin L Verdonschot PFM. Overview and application of the AQEM assessment system. Hydrobiologia. 2004;516:1-20. DOI: 10.1023/B:HYDR.0000025255.70009.a5.

  • [48] Lorenz A Hering D Feld CK Rolauffs P. A new method for assessing the impact of morphological degradation on the benthic invertebrate fauna for streams in Germany. Hydrobiologia. 2004;516:107-127. DOI: 10.1023/B:HYDR.0000025261.79761.b3.

  • [49] Gorzel M Kornijów R. The response of zoobenthos to “natural channelization” of a small river. Ecohydrol Hydrobiol. 2007;7:261-272. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1642359307701891.

  • [50] Koperski P. Reduced diversity and stability of chironomid assemblages (Chironomidae Diptera) as the effect of moderate stream degradation. Pol J Ecol. 2009;57:125-138. aeu.miiz.waw.pl/pliki/article/ar57_1_10.pdf.

  • [51] Wyżga B Oglęcki P Radecki-Pawlik A Skalski T Zawiejska J. Hydromorphological complexity as a driver of the diversity of benthic invertebrate communities communities in the Czarny Dunajec River Polish Carpathians. Hydrobiologia. 2012;696:29-46. DOI: 10.1007/s10750-012-1180-3.

  • [52] Ji ZG. Hydrodynamics and Water Quality: Modeling Rivers Lakes and Estuaries. 2nd edition. New Jersey: John Wiley Sons; 2017. ISBN: 978-1-118-87715-9.

  • [53] De Pauw N Ghetti PE Manzani P Spaggiari R. Biological assessment methods for running water. In: Newman P Piavaux NA Sweeting RA editors. River Water Quality. Ecological Assessment and Control. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities; 1992:217-248.

  • [54] Rosenberg DM Resh VH. Freshwater Biomonitoring and Benthic Macroinvertebrates. New York: Chapman and Hall 1993. ISBN 0412022516. DOI: 10.2307/1467358.

  • [55] Fleituch T Soszka H Kudelska D Kownacki A. Macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality in rivers: a scientific basis for Polish standard method. Large Rivers. 2002;13:225-239. DOI: 10.1127/lr/13/2002/225.

  • [56] Raczyńska M Żurawska J Chojnacki JC. The problem of quality assessment of surface lotic waters as exemplified by rivers Tywa and Rurzyca. EJPAU. 2000;3:1-17. http://www.ejpau.media.pl/volume3/issue1/fisheries/art-03.html.

  • [57] Hynes HBN. The Biology of Polluted Waters. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press;1960; 202. DOI: 10.1002/iroh.19610460321.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.467
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.226

CiteScore 2018: 1.47

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.352
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.907

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 437 190 3
PDF Downloads 202 125 17