Andrzej Kłos 1 , Yulia A. Aleksiayenak 2 , Zbigniew Ziembik 1 , Małgorzata Rajfur 1 , Dominik Jerz 1 , Maria Wacławek 1  and Marina V. Frontasyeva 2
  • 1 Chair of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, Opole University, ul. kard. B. Kominka 6, 45-032 Opole, Poland, phone +48 77 401 60 42, fax +48 77 401 60 50
  • 2 Department of Neutron Activation Analysis and Applied Research, Division of Nuclear Physics, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region, Russian Federation


The neutron activation analysis procedure was used to determine the concentration of 42 elements: Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Mo, I, Ag, Cd, Sb, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th, and U accumulated in mosses sampled for testing in September and October 2011 in the Opole Province (Southern Poland). Samples of different moss species were collected near the intersections of the grid lines marked on the map of the province. The distance between the points was approximately 20 km. The analysis of the results made it possible to identify the places of increased deposition of element-pollutants and to indicate the potential sources of emission. Factor analysis revealed four components, two of which are of definite anthropogenic origin. The possible sources of elements are local industry and farming, and distant heavy industry complexes. The results have demonstrated the increased content of Cr, Cd, Hg, and U in moss samples collected in agricultural areas located in the southern part of the province. It has been concluded that the industrial areas of Rybnik and Ostrava and Karvina Coal Basin may be the potential source of emission of these elements.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • [1] Smodiš B, Pignata ML, Saiki M, Cortés E, Bangfa N, Markert B, et al. Validation and application of plants as biomonitors of trace element atmospheric pollution - A co-ordinated effort in 14 countries. J Atmos Chem. 2004;49:3-13. DOI:10.1007/s10874-004-1210-2.

  • [2] Markert B. Definitions and principles for bioindication and biomonitoring of trace metals in the environment. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2007;21(S1):77-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2007.09.015.

  • [3] Fraenzle S, Markert B. Metals in biomass: from the biological system of elements to reasons of fractionation and element use. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2007;6:404-413. DOI: 10.1065/espr2006.12.372.

  • [4] Markert B, Wuenschmann S, Fraenzle S, Wappelhorst O, Weckert V, Breulmann G, et al. On the road from environmental biomonitoring to human health aspects: monitoring atmospheric heavy metal deposition by epiphytic/epigeic plants: present status and future needs. Int J Environ Pollut. 2008;32:486-498. DOI: 10.1504/IJEP.2008.018412.

  • [5] Harmens H, Mills G, Hayes F, Jones L, Norris D, Cooper D. ICP Vegetation annual report 2008/2009 (, accessed 15.11.2013.

  • [6] Harmens H, Norris D, Mills G. Heavy metals and nitrogen in mosses: spatial patterns in 2010/2011 and long-term temporal trends in Europe. ICP Vegetation Programme Coordination Centre, Bangor, UK: Centre for Ecology and Hydrology; 2013:63.

  • [7] Harmens H, Norris DA, Koerber GR, Buse A, Steinnes E, Rühling A. Temporal trends (1990-2000) in the concentration of cadmium, lead and mercury in mosses across Europe. Environ Pollut. 2008;151:368-376. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2007.06.043.

  • [8] Harmens H, Ilyin I, Mills G, Aboal JR, Alber R, Blum O, et al. Country-specific correlations across Europe between modelled atmospheric cadmium and lead deposition and concentrations in mosses. Environ Pollut. 2012;166:1-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2012.02.013.

  • [9] Holy M, Pesch R, Schröder W, Harmens H, Ilyin I, Alber R, et al. First thorough identification of factors associated with Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations in mosses sampled in the European Surveys 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005. J Atmos Chem. 2012;63:109-124. DOI:10.1007/s10874-010-9160-3.

  • [10] Suchara I, Maňkovská B, Sucharová J, Florek M, Godzik B, Rabnecz G, et al. Mapping of main sources of pollutants and their transport in the Visegrad space. Part II: Fifty three elements. Project 11007-2006-IVF. Zvolen, Slovak Republic: KLEMO spol. s r.o., (Ltd.); 2007.

  • [11] Olendrzyński K, Dębski B, Kargulewicz I, Skośkiewicz J, Fudała J, Hławiczka S, et al. Inwentaryzacja emisji zanieczyszczeń powietrza za rok 2001 na potrzeby statystyki krajowej i zobowiązań międzynarodowych w ramach Konwencji w sprawie transgranicznego zanieczyszczenia powietrza na dalekie odległości. Warszawa: IOŚ, Krajowe Centrum Inwentaryzacji Emisji; 2003.

  • [12] Stan środowiska w województwie śląskim w 2009 r. Biblioteka Monitoringu Środowiska, Katowice: Wojewódzki Inspektorat Ochrony Środowiska w Katowicach; 2010.

  • [13] Stan środowiska w województwie opolskim w latach 2005-2006. Biblioteka Monitoringu Środowiska, Opole: Wojewódzki Inspektorat Ochrony Środowiska w Opolu; 2007.

  • [14] Stan środowiska w województwie opolskim w roku 2011. Biblioteka Monitoringu Środowiska, Opole: Wojewódzki Inspektorat Ochrony Środowiska w Opolu; 2012.

  • [15] Frontasyeva MV. Neutron activation analysis for the Life Sciences. A review. Physics of Particles and Nuclei Letters. 2011;42(2):332-378.

  • [16] Dmitriev AYu, Pavlov SS. Automatization of quantitative determination of element concentrations in samples by neutron activation analysis at the reactor IBR-2 FLNP JINR. Physics of Particles and Nuclei Letters. 2013;10:58-64.

  • [17] Olszowski T, Tomaszewska B, Góralna-Włodarczyk K. Air quality in non-industrialised area in the typical Polish countryside based on measurements of selected pollutants in immission and deposition phase. Atmos Environ. 2012;50:139-147. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.12.049.

  • [18] Harmens H, Norris DA, Steinnes E, Kubin E, Piispanen J, Alber R, et al. Mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metal deposition: Spatial patterns and temporal trends in Europe. Environ Pollut. 2010;158:3144-3156. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2010.06.039.

  • [19] Kłos A, Rajfur M, Wacławek M, Wacławek W, Frontasyeva MV, Pankratova JS. The influence of unidentified pollution sources on the irregularity of biomonitoring tests results. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2008;191:345-352. DOI: 10.1007/s11270-008-9629-8.

  • [20] Kłos A. Porosty w biomonitoringu środowiska (Lichens in environmental biomonitoring). Opole: Wyd. Uniwersytetu Opolskiego; 2009.

  • [21] Kłos A, Rajfur M, Šrámek I, Wacławek M. Use of lichen and moss in assessment of forest contamination with heavy metals in Praded and Glacensis Euroregions (Poland and Czech Republic). Water Air Soil Pollut. 2011;222:367-376. DOI: 10.1007/s11270-011-0830-9.

  • [22] Kłos A, RajfurM, Šrámek I, WacławekM. Mercury concentration in lichen, moss and soil samples collected from the forest areas of Praded and Glacensis Euroregions (Poland and Czech Republic). Environ Monit Assess. 2012;184:6765-6774. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-011-2456-1.


Journal + Issues