This article deals with combined abio-bioreductive methods for in-situ removal of chlorinated ethenes. The method is based on the use of bioremediation supported by lactate and chemical reduction using nZVI. The method is compared with the use of the individual methods alone, mainly with nZVI. In an environment with very low permeability a poor contaminant removal efficiency was achieved during repeated application of nZVI (about 50% of the original content of contamination). Separate application of lactate resulted in conversion of PCE to 1,2-cis-DCE, whose degradation occurred very slowly. When using the combined abio-bioreductive method, based on consecutive application of lactates and nZVI, over 75% of the original content of contamination was removed. This article discusses not only the changes in concentrations of contaminants but also pH and ORP. Both methods are also compared from an economic point of view.
 Mueller NC, Nowack B. Nano zero-valent iron - THE solution for water and soil remediation? Report of the Observatory NANO 2010. [online]. [cit. 25.2.2013]. Available from http://www.observatorynano.eu/project/filesystem/files/nZVI_final_vsObservatory.pdf