Application of Fenton's Reagent in the Textile Wastewater Treatment Under Industrial Conditions
Application of reactive dyes is very popular in textile industry as these dyestuffs are characterized by good fastness properties. Constapel et al in 2009 estimated the production of this type of dyes for over 140,000 Mg/year. The reactive dyes are mostly (50%) employed for coloration of cellulosic fibers, however they can also be applied on wool and nylon. Unfortunately, they possess a low degree of fixation (50÷90%), since the functional groups also bond to water, creating hydrolysis and the excess of dyes applied cause a colored pollution of aqueous environment. Moreover, dyeing process requires the use of: electrolytes in the form of aqueous solutions of NaCl or Na2SO4 in the concentration up to 100 g/dm3, alkaline environment (pH > 10) and textile auxiliary agents (including detergents). Therefore, the wastewater generated during the reactive dyeing processes is characterized by high salinity, pH value and color, and due to low value of the BOD5/COD ratio are nonbiodegradable. The successful methods of textile wastewater treatment could be Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs), amongst which the Fenton reagent seems to be most promising as it is the cheapest and easy in use. Based on the newest literature survey it was found that many successful tests with Fenton reaction were performed mainly in decolorization. However, not enough attention was devoted to decolorization of real industrial wastewater containing dyes, detergents and salts NaCl, or Na2SO4. The experiments carried out in a laboratory scale were focused on the impact of NaCl and textile auxiliary agent (liquid dispersing and sequestering agent) on an inhibition of decolorization process by Fenton's reagent. The objects of the investigation were synthetic mixtures simulating the composition of real textile wastewater as well as the real industrial wastewater generated in the reactive dyeing. The inhibition of the Fenton decolorization in the presence of NaCl and liquid dispersing and sequestering agent was demonstrated. Additional experiments using pulse radiolysis were carried out in order to confirm the inhibition of chloride in the decolorization process.