An Efficiency Analysis of Augmented Reality Marker Recognition Algorithm

Open access

Abstract

The article reports on the investigation of augmented reality system which is designed for identification and augmentation of 100 different square markers. Marker recognition efficiency was investigated by rotating markers along x and y axis directions in range from −90° to 90°. Virtual simulations of four environments were developed: a) an intense source of light, b) an intense source of light falling from the left side, c) the non-intensive light source falling from the left side, d) equally falling shadows. The graphics were created using the OpenGL graphics computer hardware interface; image processing was programmed in C++ language using OpenCV, while augmented reality was developed in Java programming language using NyARToolKit. The obtained results demonstrate that augmented reality marker recognition algorithm is accurate and reliable in the case of changing lighting conditions and rotational angles - only 4 % markers were unidentified. Assessment of marker recognition efficiency let to propose marker classification strategy in order to use it for grouping various markers into distinct markers’ groups possessing similar recognition properties.

[1] S. Siltanen, Theory and applications of marker-based augmented reality, 2012.

[2] D. Kurpytė, "Papildytos realybės algoritmo efektyvumo tyrimas," Mokslas - Lietuvos ateitis, Vol. 5, Issue 2, pp. 79-83, 2012.

[3] T. Yamabe and T. Nakajima, "Playful training with augmented reality games: case studies towards reality-oriented system design," Multimedia Tools and Applications, Vol. 62, Issue 1, pp. 259-286, 2013.

[4] M. Mahvash and L. Besharati Tabrizi, "A novel augmented reality system of image projection for image-guided neurosurgery," Acta Neurochir, Vol. 155, Issue 5, pp. 943-947, 2013.

[5] S. Martin, G. Diaz, E. Sancristobal, R. Gil, M. Castro and J. Peire, "New technology trends in education: Seven years of forecasts and convergence," Computers & Education, Vol. 57, Issue 3, pp. 1893-1906, 2011.

[6] R. Azuma, M. Billinghurst and G. Klinker, "Special Section on Mobile Augmented Reality," Computers & Graphics, Vol. 35, pp. VII-VIII, 2011.

[7] H.-Y. Chang, H.-K. Wu and Y.-S. Hsu, "Integrating a mobile augmented reality activity to contextualize student learning of a socioscientific issue," British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 44, Issue 3, pp. 95-99, 2013.

[8] M. Bulearca and D. Tamarjan, "Augmented Reality: A Sustainable Marketing Tool?" Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal (GBMR), Vol. 2, Issue 2, pp. 237-252, 2010.

[9] R. Azuma, "A survey of Augmented reality," In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, Vol. 6, Issue 4, pp. 355-385, 1997.

[10] R. Azuma, Y. Balliot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier and B. MacIntyre, "Recent Advances in Augmented Reality," Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE, Vol. 21, Issue 6, pp. 34-47, 2001.

[11] R. Behringer, Registration for Outdoor Augmented Reality Applications Using Computer Vision Techniques and Hybrid Sensors, Virtual Reality, IEEE, pp. 244-251, March 13-17, 1999, Houston, Texas, USA.

[12] T. Langlotz, C. Degendorfer, A. Mulloni, G. Schall, G. Reitmayr and D. Schmalstieg, "Robust Detection and Tracking of Annotations for Outdoor Augmented Reality Browsing," Computers & Graphics, Vol. 35, Issue 4, pp. 831-840, 2011.

[13] A. C. Rice, R. K. Harle and A. R. Beresford, "Analyzing fundamental properties of marker-based vision system designs," Pervasive and Mobile Computing, Vol. 2, Issue 4, pp. 453-471, 2006.

[14] R. ~I. Hartley and A. Zisserman, Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision, Cambridge University Press, 2000.

[15] J. Yeol Lee, D. Woo Seo and G. Won Rhee, "Tangible Authoring of 3D Virtual Scenes in Dynamic Augmented Reality Environment," Computers in Industry, Vol. 62, Issue 1, pp. 107-119, 2011.

[16] H. Kato and M. Billinghurst, Marker Tracking and HMD Calibration for a Video-based Augmented Reality Conferencing System, 2nd IEEE and ACM International Workshop on Augmented Reality, pp. 85-94, October 20-21, 1999. San Francisco, California, USA.

[17] NyARToolKit, " プロジェクト," 2012. [Online]. Available: http://nyatla.jp/nyartoolkit/wp/?page_id=55. [Accessed: Oct. 22, 2013].

[18] University of Utah, "Augmented reality - ARToolKit Patternmaker," July 2002. [Online]. Available: http://www.cs.utah.edu/gdc/projects/augmentedreality/ [Accessed: Oct. 22, 2013].

[19] M. Tahir, A. M. Arshad, A. Hafeez, M. Yazdanie and S. Ziauddin, "Interactive Slide Navigation: An Approach for Manipulating Slides with Augmented Reality Markers," Smart Computing Review, Vol. 2, Issue 2, pp. 138-148, 2012.

[20] X. Zhang, S. Fronz and N. Navab, Visual Marker Detection and Decoding in AR Systems: A Comparative Study, International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, pp. 97-106, 2002.

Electrical, Control and Communication Engineering

The Journal of Riga Technical University

Journal Information

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 149 140 6
PDF Downloads 155 153 13