Development case study of the first estonian self-driving car, iseauto

Open access


The rapid development of intelligent control technology has also brought about changes in the automotive industry and led to development of autonomous or self-driving vehicles. To overcome traffic and environment issues, self-driving cars use a number of sensors for vision as well as a navigation system and actuators to control mechanical systems and computers to process the data. All these points make a self-driving car an interdisciplinary project that requires contribution from different fields. In our particular case, four different university departments and two companies are directly involved in the self-driving car project. The main aim of the paper is to discuss the challenges faced in the development of the first Estonian self-driving car. The project implementation time was 20 months and the project included four work packages: preliminary study, software development, body assembly and system tuning/testing of the self-driving car. This paper describes the development process stages and tasks that were distributed between the sub-teams. Moreover, the paper presents the technical and software solutions that were used to achieve the goal and presents a self-driving last mile bus called ISEAUTO. Special attention is paid to the discussion of safety challenges that a self-driving electrical car project can encounter. The main outcomes and future research possibilities are outlined

[1] ISEAUTO - TTÜ & Silberauto AS. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 4 Jul. 2018].

[2] VDI-Fachbereich Produktentwicklung und Mechatronik, VDI 2206 Design Methodology for Mechatronic Systems. Düsseldorf, Germany, p. 118, 2004.

[3] R. Sell, A. Rassõlkin, M. Leier, and J.-P. Ernits, “Self-Driving Car ISEAUTO for Research and Education,” in 19th International Conference on Research and Education in Mechatronics (REM 2018), 2018.

[4] S. Seiler and R. Sell, “Semantics on Mobile Robot Algorithms Development,” in Proc. 7th International Conference Mechatronic Systems and Materials (MSM 2011), Kaunas, Lithuania, 2011, vol. 7.

[5] [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 4 Jul. 2018].

[6] A. Rassolkin, L. Gevorkov, T. Vaimann, A. Kallaste, and R. Sell, “Calculation of the Traction Effort of ISEAUTO Self-Driving Vehicle,” in 2018 25th International Workshop on Electric Drives: Optimization in Control of Electric Drives (IWED), 2018, pp. 1-5.

[7] V. Vodovozov, A. Rassõlkin, N. Lillo, and Z. Raud, “Energy Saving Estimates for Regenerative Braking and Downhill Driving of Battery Electric Vehicles,” in 14th Biennial Baltic Electronics Conference, Oct. 6-8, 2014, pp. 237-240.

[8] MY, Mitsubishi i-MiEV Service Manual, Technical Information Manual & Body Repair Manual, 2013.

[9] FreeRTOS - Market Leading RTOS (Real Time Operating System) for Embedded Systems With Internet of Things extensions. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 5 Jun. 2018].

[10] P. F. Felzenszwalb, R. B. Girshick, D. McAllester, and D. Ramanan, “Object Detection With Discriminatively Trained Part-Based Models,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1627-1645, Sep. 2010.

[11] R. Girshick, “Fast R-CNN,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comput. Vis., 2015, pp. 1440-1448.

[12] W. Liu, D. Anguelov, D. Erhan, C. Szegedy, S. Reed, C.-Y. Fu, and A. C. Berg, “SSD: Single Shot MultiBox Detector,” in Computer Vision - ECCV 2016, B. Leibe, J. Matas, N. Sebe, M. Welling M. (eds.). Springer, Cham, 2016, pp. 21-37, 2016.

[13] J. Redmon and A. Farhadi, “YOLO9000: Better, Faster, Stronger,” in Proc. 30th IEEE Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognition (CVPR), Jul. 2017, pp. 6517-6525.

[14] S. O’Malley, D. Zuby, M. Moore, M. Paine, and D. Paine, “Crashworthiness Testing of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles,” in 24th Enhanc. Saf. Veh. Conf., 2015, no. 15-0318, pp. 1-16.

[15] ISO 26262-1:2011: Road vehicles -- Functional safety, p. 23, 2011.

[16] P. Van den Bossche, “Safety Considerations for Electric Vehicles,” in 12th International Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS-12) and Electric Vehicle Exposition, 1994.

[17] R. Mariani, “An Overview of Autonomous Vehicles Safety,” in 2018 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), 2018, p. 6A.1- 1-6A.1-6.

[18] M. Kocsis, N. Susmann, J. Buyer, and R. Zollner, “Safety Concept for Autonomous Vehicles That Operate in Pedestrian Areas,” in 2017 IEEE/SICE International Symposium on System Integration (SII), 2017, pp. 841-846.

[19] N. Kalra and S. Paddock, “Driving to Safety: How Many Miles of Driving Would It Take to Demonstrate Autonomous Vehicle Reliability?,” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, vol. 94, pp. 182- 193, Dec. 2016.

[20] K. Bian, G. Zhang, and L. Song, “Security in Use Cases of Vehicle-to- Everything Communications,” in 2017 IEEE 86th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC-Fall), Sept. 24-27, 2017, pp. 1-5.

[21] J. Lianghai, A. Weinand, B. Han, and H. D. Schotten, “Applying Multiradio Access Technologies for Reliability Enhancement in Vehicleto- Everything Communication,” IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 23079-23094, 2018.

Electrical, Control and Communication Engineering

The Journal of Riga Technical University

Journal Information


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 96 96 52
PDF Downloads 110 110 50