Considerations regarding the concept of cost-effective power-assist wheelchair subsystems

(Case Study and Initial Evaluation)

Open access

Abstract

The present paper deals with the concept of a cost-effective power-assistant wheelchair. An analysis of the market situation and recent technical achievements is done at the beginning. On its basis, a set of solutions suitable for the development of such wheelchairs has been composed. It is shown that the key features of the considered concept are: segmented electrical motor and drive, sectioned battery pack, modular charger and an ANN matrix that provides easy and intuitive interfacing of sensor networks, pseudo-bionic feedbacks and the decision-making unit. Within the scope of the paper, a 3D model has been developed and 3D modelling has been conducted. As a result, certain drawbacks in the design and placement of elements have been found and a modification of the concept has been proposed

[1] WHO (World Health Organization), “World Report on Disability 2011,” Am. J. Phys. Med. Rehabil. Assoc. Acad. Physiatr., vol. 91, p. 549, 2011.

[2] Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Disability Statistics and Demographics, Disability Statistics Annual Report USA 2017. New Hampshire, 2018.

[3] Disability Statistics. [Online]. Available: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statisticsexplained/index.php/Disability_statistics

[4] R. Lipskin, “An Evaluation Program for Powered Wheelchair Control Systems,” Bull. Prosthet. Res., vol. 10, no. 14, pp. 121-9, 1970.

[5] R. C. Simpson and S. P. Levine, “Voice Control of a Powered Wheelchair,” IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 122-125, Jun. 2002. https://doi.org/10.1109/tnsre.2002.1031981

[6] B. E. Dicianno, D. M. Spaeth, R. A. Cooper, S. G. Fitzgerald, M. L. Boninger, and K. W. Brown, “Force Control Strategies While Driving Electric Powered Wheelchairs With Isometric and Movement- Sensing Joysticks,” IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 144-150, Mar. 2007. https://doi.org/10.1109/tnsre.2007.891394

[7] R. C. Simpson, D. Poirot, and F. Baxter, “The Hephaestus Smart Wheelchair System,” IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 118-122, Jun. 2002. https://doi.org/10.1109/tnsre.2002.1031980

[8] R. C. Simpson, “Smart Wheelchairs: A Literature Review,” J. Rehabil. Res. Dev., vol. 42, no. 4, p. 423, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1682/jrrd.2004.08.0101

[9] T. Felzer and B. Freisleben, “HaWCoS,” in Proceedings of the fifth international ACM conference on Assistive technologies - Assets ’02, 2002, p. 127. https://doi.org/10.1145/638249.638273

[10] Chun Sing Louis Tsui, P. Jia, J. Q. Gan, H. Hu, and K. Yuan, “EMGBased Hands-Free Wheelchair Control With EOG Attention Shift Detection,” in 2007 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO), Dec. 2007, pp. 1266-1271. https://doi.org/10.1109/robio.2007.4522346

[11] P. Jia, H. H. Hu, T. Lu, and K. Yuan, “Head Gesture Recognition for Hands‐Free Control of an Intelligent Wheelchair,” Ind. Robot An Int. J., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 60-68, Jan. 2007. https://doi.org/10.1108/01439910710718469

[12] T. Carlson, R. Leeb, R. Chavarriaga, and J. del R. Millan, “The Birth of the Brain-Controlled Wheelchair,” in 2012 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2012, pp. 5444-5445. https://doi.org/10.1109/iros.2012.6386299

[13] T. Carlson and J. del R. Millan, “Brain-Controlled Wheelchairs: A Robotic Architecture,” IEEE Robot. Autom. Mag., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 65-73, Mar. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/mra.2012.2229936

[14] International Organization for Standardization, Wheelchairs: ISO 7176- x. 2014.

[15] D. C. Hanselman, Brushless Permanent Magnet Motor Design. 2006.

[16] K. Vitols and A. Podgornovs, “Concept of Cost-Effective Power-Assist Wheelchair’s Electrical Subsystem,” in 2017 IEEE 5th Workshop on Advances in Information Electronic and Electrical Engineering (AIEEE), 2017, pp. 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1109/aieee.2017.8270563

[17] P. Salminen, Fractional Slot Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors for Low Speed Applications. Acta Universitatis Lappeenrantaensis, 2004.

[18] V. А. Lifanov, Calculation of Low-Power Electric Machines With Excitation From Permanent Magnets: A Tutorial, 2nd ed. Chelyabinsk: Publishing Center, 2010. 164 p.

[19] 1800wheelchair.com. [Online]. Available: www.1800wheelchair.com [Accessed: 3 Jul. 2018].

[20] Betterlife from Lloyds Pharmacy. [Online]. Available: http://www.betterlifehealthcare.com [Accessed: 3 Jul. 2018].

[21] ALTER AL. [Online]. Available: http://www.alteral.lv/

[22] A. Di Napoli and A. Ndokaj, “Auxiliary Power Buffer Based on Ultracapacitors,” in SPEEDAM 2012 - 21st International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion, 2012, pp. 759-763. https://doi.org/10.1109/speedam.2012.6264503

[23] R. A. Cooper and Changfeng Tai, “Feasibility of Flywheel Batteries for Electric Powered Wheelchairs,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Vol.20 Biomedical Engineering Towards the Year 2000 and Beyond (Cat. No.98CH36286), 1998, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 2261-2263. https://doi.org/10.1109/iembs.1998.744687

[24] J. H. Aylor, A. Thieme, and B. W. Johnson, “A Battery State-of-Charge Indicator for Electric Wheelchairs,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 398-409, 1992. https://doi.org/10.1109/41.161471

[25] P.-C. Chen and Y.-F. Koh, “Residual Traveling Distance Estimation of an Electric Wheelchair,” in 2012 5th International Conference on BioMedical Engineering and Informatics, 2012, pp. 790-794. https://doi.org/10.1109/bmei.2012.6513075

[26] Y.-P. Yang, H.-C. Lin, F.-C. Tsai, C.-T. Lu, and K.-H. Tu, “Design and Integration of Dual Power Wheels With Rim Motors for a Powered Wheelchair,” IET Electr. Power Appl., vol. 6, no. 7, p. 419, Dec. 2012. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-epa.2011.0334

[27] R. Hou, X. Shi, and M. Krishnamurthy, “Design and Implementation of a Novel Power Assisted Drivetrain for a Wheelchair,” in 2012 IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference and Expo (ITEC), 2012, pp. 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1109/itec.2012.6243483

[28] G. Zaleskis, V. Brazis, and L. Latkovskis, “Estimation of Traction Drive Test Bench With Energy Storage System Operation in Regenerative Braking Mode,” Electr. Control Commun. Eng., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 40-45, Jan. 2012. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10314-012-0007-y

[29] R. Rahulanker and V. Ramanarayanan, “Battery Assisted Wheel Chair,” in Proceedings of India International Conference on Power Electronics, IICPE, 2006, no. 3, pp. 167-171. https://doi.org/10.1109/iicpe.2006.4685361

[30] Commission Regulation (EU) No 1300/2014. (18 November 2014). on the technical specifications for interoperability relating to accessibility of the Union’s rail system for persons with disabilities and persons with reduced mobility. [Online]. Available: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legalcontent/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX%3A32014R1300

[31] K. Vitols, “Efficiency of LiFePO4 Battery and Charger With a Mixed Two Level Balancing,” in 2016 57th International Scientific Conference on Power and Electrical Engineering of Riga Technical University (RTUCON), 2016, pp. 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1109/rtucon.2016.7763077

[32] F. Z. Peng, “Speed and Flux Sensorless Field Oriented Control of Induction Motors for Electric Vehicles,” in APEC 2000. Fifteenth Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (Cat. No.00CH37058), vol. 1, pp. 133-139. https://doi.org/10.1109/apec.2000.826095

[33] Y.-H. Wu, C.-C. Wang, T.-S. Chen, and C.-Y. Li, “An Intelligent System for Wheelchair Users Using Data Mining and Sensor Networking Technologies,” in 2011 IEEE Asia-Pacific Services Computing Conference, 2011, pp. 337-344. https://doi.org/10.1109/apscc.2011.18

[34] K. Kojima and J. Kaneko, “Fault Tolerant Calculation Method of Predicting Road Condition for Network-Connected Wheelchair,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Taiwan (ICCE-TW), 2017, pp. 343-344. https://doi.org/10.1109/icce-china.2017.7991136

[35] T. F. Wu, J. C. Hung, J. T. Tsai, C. T. Tsai and Y. M. Chen, “An Active- Clamp Push-Pull Converter for Battery Sourcing Applications,” in IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 196-204, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1109/tia.2007.912748

[36] M. Jain, M. Daniele and P. K. Jain, “A Bidirectional DC-DC Converter Topology for Low Power Application,” in IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 595-606, Jul 2000. https://doi.org/10.1109/63.849029

[37] P. Xuewei and A. K. Rathore, “Naturally Clamped Zero-Current Commutated Soft-Switching Current-Fed Push-Pull DC/DC Converter: Analysis, Design, and Experimental Results,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 1318-1327, Mar. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/tpel.2014.2315834

[38] R. Kosenko, A. Chub and A. Blinov, “Full-Soft-Switching High Step-Up Bidirectional Isolated Current-Fed Push-Pull DC-DC Converter for Battery Energy Storage Applications,” in IECON 2016 - 42nd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Florence, 2016, pp. 6548-6553. https://doi.org/10.1109/iecon.2016.7794014.

Electrical, Control and Communication Engineering

The Journal of Riga Technical University

Journal Information

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 112 112 35
PDF Downloads 97 97 23