Alternative Energetics DC Microgrid With Hydrogen Energy Storage System

Open access

Abstract

This paper is related to an alternative energetics microgrid with a wind generator and a hydrogen energy storage system. The main aim of this research is the development of solutions for effective use of the wind generators in alternative energetics devices, at the same time providing uninterrupted power supply of the critical loads. In this research, it was accepted that the alternative energetics microgrid operates in an autonomous mode and the connection to the conventional power grid is not used. In the case when wind speed is low, the necessary power is provided by the energy storage system, which includes a fuel cell and a tank with stored hydrogen. The theoretical analysis of the storage system operation is made. The possible usage time of the stored hydrogen depends on the available amount of hydrogen and the consumption of the hydrogen by the fuel cell. The consumption, in turn, depends on used fuel cell power. The experimental results suggest that if the wind generator can provide only a part of the needed power, the abiding power can be provided by the fuel cell. In this case, a load filter is necessary to decrease the fuel cell current pulsations.

References

  • [1] Latvijas Republikas Vides aizsardzības un reģionālās attīstības Ministrija, “Atjaunojamo energoresursu izmantošanas pamatnostādnes 2006.–2013. gadam (informativa dala),” Rīga, 2006.

  • [2] A. Adamovičs, V. Dubrovskis, I. Plūme, Ā. Jansons, D. Lazdiņa and A. Lazdiņš, Biomasas izmantošanas ilgstspējības kritēriju pielietošana un pasākumu izstrāde, Rīga, 2009.

  • [3] K. Bunker, S. Doig, K. Hawley, and J. Morris, “Renewable Microgrids: Profiles From Islands and Remote Communities Across the Globe,” 2015.

  • [4] The Microgrids Group at Berkeley Lab, “About Microgrids.” [Online]. Available: https://building-microgrid.lbl.gov/about-microgrids-0.

  • [5] H. S. Kumar, “Smart microgrid.” 2015.

  • [6] The Microgrids Group at Berkeley Lab, “Microgrid Definitions.” [Online]. Available: https://building-microgrid.lbl.gov/about-microgrids-0.

  • [7] T. Roughan, “Workshop on Microgrid Technologies and Applications,” RPI Cent. Futur. Energy Syst. Overv., p. 11, 2013.

  • [8] R. W. De Doncker, “Future DC Grid Technology for more Decentralized Power Production and Renewable Power Supplies,” IEEE PEDG2012, 2012.

  • [9] A. Graillot, “Hybrid Micro Grids for rural electrification: Developing Appropriate Technology,” presented at AIE Event, Maputo, 2009.

  • [10] A. Suzdalenko, “Research and Development of Control Means for Intelligent Household Electrical Grids,” Ph.D. Thesis, Riga Technical University, 2013.

  • [11] “MED-Solar Training Course. Module 2. Microgrid Elements,” Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, p. 59.

  • [12] R. Villafáfila Robles, “Microgrids and emulation of distribution energy resources,” p. 13.

  • [13] P. Karlsson, “DC Distributed Power Systems,” Ph.D. Thesis, Lund University, 2002.

  • [14] D. Deaconu, A. Chirila, M. Albu and L. Toma, “Studies on a LV DC network,” in 2007 European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, 2007, pp. 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1109/EPE.2007.4417634

  • [15] A. Sannino, G. Postiglione and M. H. J. Bollen, “Feasibility of a DC network for commercial facilities,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 1499–1507, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2003.816517

  • [16] D. J. Hammerstrom, “AC versus DC distribution systems-did we get it right?,” in 2007 IEEE Power Eng. Soc. Gen. Meet. PES, Tampa, FL, pp. 1–5, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1109/PES.2007.386130

  • [17] A. Kwasinski, “Micro-grids architectures, stability and protections,” 2012.

  • [18] S. Rolland and G. Glania, “Hybrid Mini-Grids for Rural Electrification: Lessons Learned”, CA: Renewable Energy House, Brussels, 2011, 72 p.

  • [19] A. Senfelds, M. Vorobjovs, D. Meike and O. Bormanis, “Power Smoothing Approach within Industrial DC Microgrid with Supercapacitor Storage for Robotic Manufacturing Application,” in 2015 IEEE Int. Conf. on Automation Science and Eng. (CASE), Gothenburg, 2015, vol. 1020, pp. 1333–1338. https://doi.org/10.1109/CoASE.2015.7294283

  • [20] National Renewable Energy Laboratory, “Power Purchase Agreement Checklist for State and Local Governments,” Golden, Colorado, 2009.

  • [21] M. A. Maehlum, “What’s the Difference Between Net Metering and Feed-In Tariffs?,” Energy Informative, 2014. [Online]. Available: http://energyinformative.org/net-metering-feed-in-tariffs-difference

  • [22] G. Zaleskis and I. Rankis, “Problem of an Estimation of the Wind Generators Economic Efficiency in Latvia,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Conference ELECTRONICS 2016, Palanga, Lithuania, 2016, pp. 16–21.

  • [23] E. H. Camm, M. R. Behnke, O. Bolado et al., “Characteristics of Wind Turbine Generators for Wind Power Plants,” in 2009 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, Calgary, AB, 2009, pp. 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1109/pes.2009.5275330

  • [24] P. Suskis, “DC/DC Voltage H-Bridge Converter with Fuzzy Logic Control for Autonomous Power Supply,” in 54th Int. Scientific Conf. of Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia, 2013.

  • [25] P. Suskis, A. Andreiciks, I. Steiks, O. Krievs and J. Kleperis, “Microgrid for one side wind-and-hydrogen powered generation,” Latvian Journal of Physics and Technical Sciences, no. 1, pp. 12–20, 2014.

  • [26] I. Galkins and O. Tetervenoks, “Efficiency considerations for non-inverting buck-boost converter operating with direct current control,” in 2014 16th European Conf. on Power Electronics and Applicat., Lappeenranta, 2014, pp. 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1109/EPE.2014.6911032

  • [27] O. Tetervenoks and I. Galkins, “Considerations on practical implementation of control system for switch mode current regulator,” in 2014 14th Biennial Baltic Electronic Conference (BEC), Tallinn, 2014, pp. 225–228. https://doi.org/10.1109/bec.2014.7320597

  • [28] D. Connolly, “A Review of Energy Storage Technologies for the Integration of Fluctuating Renewable Energy,” University of Limerick, 2009, 46 p.

  • [29] I. Steiks, “Ūdeņraža enerģētiskās iekārtas spēka elektronikas pārveidotāju izstrāde.” Promocijas darbs, Rīgas Tehniskā universitāte, Rīga, 2011, 146 p.

  • [30] G. Zaleskis, I. Steiks, A. Pumpurs and O. Krievs, “DC-AC Converter for Load Supply in Autonomous Wind-Hydrogen Power System” in 56th Int. Scientific Conf. on Power and Electrical Engineering of Riga Technical University (RTUCON), Riga, Latvia, 2015, pp. 169–173. https://doi.org/10.1109/RTUCON.2015.7343118

  • [31] HyPM® Fuel Cell Power Modules, Hydrogenics, advanced hydrogen solutions. [Online]. Available: www.hydrogenics.com.

  • [32] Hy PM XR8 Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual, Revision 2, DOC. P/N:1035409-02, Hydrogenics, Aug. 2010.

Electrical, Control and Communication Engineering

The Journal of Riga Technical University

Journal Information

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 51 51 31
PDF Downloads 14 14 5