A set of vertices D of a graph G is a distance 2-dominating set of G if the distance between each vertex u ∊ (V (G) − D) and D is at most two. Let γ2(G) denote the size of a smallest distance 2-dominating set of G. For any permutation π of the vertex set of G, the prism of G with respect to π is the graph πG obtained from G and a copy G′ of G by joining u ∊ V(G) with v′ ∊ V(G′) if and only if v′ = π(u). If γ2(πG) = γ2(G) for any permutation π of V(G), then G is called a universal γ2-fixer. In this work we characterize the cycles and paths that are universal γ2-fixers.
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researchers in the fields of: colourings, partitions (general colourings), hereditary properties, independence and dominating structures (sets, paths, cycles, etc.), cycles, local properties, products of graphs