Preservice Teacher Perceptions of Preparedness to Teach in Inclusive Settings as an Indicator of Teacher Preparation Program Effectiveness

Michele L. Stites 1 , Christopher R. Rakes 2 , Amy K. Noggle 3  and Sabrina Shah 1
  • 1 University of Maryland Baltimore County,, Baltimore, USA
  • 2 Rakes University of Maryland Baltimore County,, Baltimore, USA
  • 3 Towson University,, Towson, USA

Abstract

This mixed methods study examined preservice teacher perceptions of their needs related to inclusion. The study examined 120 early childhood and elementary preservice teachers from two universities, from both general and special education programs. Inclusion has been considered best practice in education for many years; however, how to best facilitate inclusive practices to meet the needs of all learners remains an area of uncertainty for preservice teachers. Prior research has connected perceptions of preparedness to effective inclusive practices. A survey was developed and validated about inclusion and perceptions of preparedness to teach in an inclusive setting. The survey included both Likert-scale items and open response questions. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of the survey. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and multiple regression were used to examine the quantitative results. Responses to open-ended questions were coded to identify qualitative themes. The findings indicated that preservice teachers lacked a coherent understanding of inclusion and perceived themselves as needing additional development to be fully prepared to teach in an inclusive setting. The results suggest that teacher preparation programs need to provide a more coherent conceptual framework to guide the enhancement of both course and field work related to inclusion and effective inclusive practices.

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  • Abel, M. B. (2015). Faculty beliefs in early childhood teacher preparation. Dissertation Abstracts International-A, 77/01 (E). UMI No. 3720296.

  • Adedoyin, O. O. (2010). Factor-analytic study of teachers’ perceptions on self-efficacy in Botswana junior secondary schools: Implications for educational quality. European Journal of Educational Studies, 2, 139-155.

  • Allday, R. A., Neilsen-Gatti, S., & Hudson, T. M. (2013). Preparation for inclusion in teacher education pre-service curricula. Teacher Education and Special Education, 36, 298-311. DOI: 10.1177/0888406413497485

  • Ajuwon, P. M., Lechtenberger, D., Griffin-Shirley, N., Sokolosky, S., Zhou, L, & Mullins, F. E. (2012). General education pre-service teachers’ perceptions of including students with disabilities in their classrooms. International Journal of Special Education, 27, 100-107.

  • Alreck, P. L., & Settle, R.B. (2004). The survey research handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill.

  • Alur, M., & Timmons, V. (Eds.) (2009). Inclusive education across cultures: Crossing boundaries, sharing ideas. SAGE Publications India.

  • Andridge, R. R., & Little, R. J. A. (2010). A review of hot deck imputation for survey non-response. International Statistical Review, 73, 40-64. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-5823.2010.00103.x

  • Ashton, P. T. (1985). Motivation and teacher’s sense of efficacy. In C. Ames & R. Ames (Eds.), Research on motivation in education: 2. The classroom milieu (pp. 141-174). Orlando, FL: Academic Pres.

  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.

  • Berry, R. A. W. (2010). Preservice and early career teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion, instructional accommodations, and fairness: Three profiles. The Teacher Educator, 45, 75-95.

  • Bocala, C., Morgan, C., Mundry, S., & Mello, D. (2010). Do states have certification requirements for preparing general education teachers to teach students with disabilities? Experience in the Northeast and Islands Region (Issues & Answers Report, REL 2010-No. 090). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast and Islands. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs

  • Brown v. Board of Education. (1954). 347 U.S. 483.

  • Brown et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka et al. appeal from the United States district court for the district of Kansas. No. 1. Argued December 9, 1952. Reargued December 8, 1953. Decided May 17, 1954.

  • Brownell, M. T., Ross, D. D., ColÛn, E. P., & McCallum, C. L. (2005). Critical features of special education teacher preparation: A comparison with general teacher education. Journal of Special Education, 38(4), 242-252.

  • Byrne, B. M. (2012). Structural equation modeling with Mplus: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. New York, NY: Routledge.

  • Cameron, D. L., & Cook, B. G. (2007). Attitudes of preservice teachers enrolled in an infusion preparation program regarding planning and accommodations for included students with mental retardation. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 42, 353-363.

  • Colson, T., Sparks, K, Berrige, G. Frimming, R., & Willis, C. (2017). Pre-service teachers and self- efficacy: A study in contrast. Discourse and Communication for Sustainable Education, 8, 66-76.

  • Council for the Accreditation of Education Programs. (2013). The CAEP standards. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://caepnet.org/standards/introduction

  • Council of Chief State School Officers. (2011). Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC) model core teaching standards: A resource for state dialogue. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.ccsso.org/documents/2011/intasc_model_core_teaching_standards_2011.pdf

  • Creswell, J. W. (2003). Qualitative inquiry and research design. Choosing among five approaches. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Damasco, J. P. (2013). The relationship between teacher self-efficacy and attitude toward collaboration in an inclusion setting. Dissertation Abstracts International-A, 74/06 (E). UMI No. 3553938.

  • Darling-Hammond, L., Chung, R., & Frelow, F. (2002). Variation in teacher preparation: How well do different pathways prepare teachers to teach? Journal of Teacher Education, 53, 286-302.

  • Driskell, S. O., Bush, S. B., Ronau, R. N., Niess, M. L., Rakes, C. R., & Pugalee, D. (2016). Mathematics education technology professional development: Changes over several decades. In M. L. Niess, S. O. Driskell, & K. F. Hollebrands (Eds.), Handbook of research on transforming mathematics teacher education in the digital age (pp. 107-136). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. http://www.igi-global.com/chapter/mathematics-education-technology-professional-development/150793

  • Education for All Handicapped Children’s Act. (1975). Public Law, 94-142. https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/94/s6

  • Flores, M. A., Santos, P., Fernandes, S., & Pereira, D. (2014). Pre-service teachers’ views of their training: Key issues to sustain quality teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, 16, 39-53. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Fowler, F. J., & Cosenza, C. (2008). Writing effective questions. In E. D. de Leeuw, J. J. Hox, & D. A. Dillman (Eds.), International Handbook of Survey Methodology (pp. 136-160), New York, NY: Psychology Press.

  • Frankel, E. B., Hutchinson, N. L., Burbidge, J., & Minnes, P. (2014). Preservice early childhood educators’ and elementary teachers’ perspectives on including young children with developmental disabilities: A mixed methods analysis. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 35, 373-391 Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10901027.2014.968300

  • Gehrke, R. S., & Cocchiarella, M. (2013). Preservice special and general educators’ knowledge of inclusion. Teacher Education and Special Education, 36, 204-216.

  • Gehrke, R. S., Cocchiarella, M., Harris, P., & Puckett, K. (2014). Field experiences and perceptions of inclusion: Varying contexts, structures, and interpretations. Journal of the International Association of Special Education, 15, 85-93.

  • Gorski, P. C., Davis, S. N., & Reiter, A. (2012). Self-efficacy and multicultural teacher education in the United States: The factors that influence who feels qualified to be a multicultural teacher educator. Multicultural Perspectives, 14, 220-228.

  • Guo, Y., Kopec, J., Cibere, J., Li, L. C., & Goldsmith, C. H. (2016). Population survey features and response rates: A randomized experiment. American Journal of Public Health, 106, 1422-1426. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303198

  • Guskey, & Passaro (1994). Teacher efficacy: A study of construct dimensions. American Educational Research Journal, 31, 627-643.

  • Hardman, M., Drew, C., & Egan, M. (2014). Human exceptionality: Society, school, and family (11th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

  • Jung, W.S. (2007). Preservice teacher training for successful inclusion. Education, 128(1), 106-113.

  • Hadadian, A., & Chiang, L. (2007). Special education and preservice teachers. International Journal of Special Education, 22, 103-106.

  • Hemmings, B., & Woodcock, S. (2011). Preservice teachers’ views of inclusive education: A content analysis. Australian Journal of Special Education, 35, 103-116.

  • Hoy, A. W., & Spero, R. B. (2005). Changes in teacher efficacy during the early years of teaching: A comparison of four measures Teaching and Teacher Education, 21, 343-35.

  • Kiloran, I., Woronko, D., & Zaretsky, H. (2014). Exploring preservice teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 18, 427-442. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Kraukle, S. (2013). Communicative approach to inclusive education in pre-school. Discourse and Communication for Sustainable Education, 4, 50-56.

  • McCray, E. D., & McHatton, P. A. (2011). ìLess afraid to have them in my classroomî: Understanding preservice general educators’ perceptions about inclusion. Teacher Education Quarterly, 38, 1462-1473.

  • Merriam, S. (2009). Qualitative Research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

  • O’Connor, B. P. (2000). SPSS and SAS programs for determining the number of components using parallel analysis and Velicer’s MAP test. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 32, 396-402.

  • Peltier, G. L. (1993). The regular education initiative teacher: The research results and recommended practice. Education, 114(1), 54.

  • Saderholm, J., Ronau, R. N., Rakes, C. R., Bush, S. B., & Mohr-Schroeder, M. (2016). The critical role of a well-articulated conceptual framework to guide professional development: An evaluation of a state-wide two-week program for mathematics and science teachers. Professional Development in Education. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Schunk, D. H., Pintrich, P. R., & Meece, J. L. (2008). Motivation in education: theory, research, and applications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

  • Shade, R., & Stewart, R. (2001). General education and special education preservice teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion. Preventing School Failure, 46, 37-42.

  • Singal, N. (2008). Working towards inclusion: reflections from the classroom. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 1516-1529.

  • Tiwari, A., Das, A., & Sharma, M. (2015). Inclusive education a ìrhetoricî or ‘reality’? Teachers’ perspectives and beliefs. Teaching & Teacher Education, 52,128-136.

  • United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (2003). Overcoming exclusion through inclusive approaches in education: A challenge & a vision. Conceptual paper. Paris, France: Section for Early Childhood and Inclusive Education Basic Education Division, Author. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001347/134785e.pdf

  • Urton, K., Wilbert, J., & Hennemann, T. (2014). Attitudes towards inclusion and selfefficacy of principals and teachers. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 12, 151-168.

  • Vaz, S., Wilson, N., Falkmer, M., Sim, A., Scott, M., Cordier, R., & Falkmer, T. (2015). Factors associated with primary school teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of students with disabilities. Plos One, 10(8), e0137002. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Abel, M. B. (2015). Faculty beliefs in early childhood teacher preparation. Dissertation Abstracts International-A, 77/01 (E). UMI No. 3720296.

  • Adedoyin, O. O. (2010). Factor-analytic study of teachers’ perceptions on self-efficacy in Botswana junior secondary schools: Implications for educational quality. European Journal of Educational Studies, 2, 139-155.

  • Allday, R. A., Neilsen-Gatti, S., & Hudson, T. M. (2013). Preparation for inclusion in teacher education pre-service curricula. Teacher Education and Special Education, 36, 298-311. DOI: 10.1177/0888406413497485

  • Ajuwon, P. M., Lechtenberger, D., Griffin-Shirley, N., Sokolosky, S., Zhou, L, & Mullins, F. E. (2012). General education pre-service teachers’ perceptions of including students with disabilities in their classrooms. International Journal of Special Education, 27, 100-107.

  • Alreck, P. L., & Settle, R.B. (2004). The survey research handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill.

  • Alur, M., & Timmons, V. (Eds.) (2009). Inclusive education across cultures: Crossing boundaries, sharing ideas. SAGE Publications India.

  • Andridge, R. R., & Little, R. J. A. (2010). A review of hot deck imputation for survey non-response. International Statistical Review, 73, 40-64. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-5823.2010.00103.x

  • Ashton, P. T. (1985). Motivation and teacher’s sense of efficacy. In C. Ames & R. Ames (Eds.), Research on motivation in education: 2. The classroom milieu (pp. 141-174). Orlando, FL: Academic Pres.

  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.

  • Berry, R. A. W. (2010). Preservice and early career teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion, instructional accommodations, and fairness: Three profiles. The Teacher Educator, 45, 75-95.

  • Bocala, C., Morgan, C., Mundry, S., & Mello, D. (2010). Do states have certification requirements for preparing general education teachers to teach students with disabilities? Experience in the Northeast and Islands Region (Issues & Answers Report, REL 2010-No. 090). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast and Islands. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs

  • Brown v. Board of Education. (1954). 347 U.S. 483.

  • Brown et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka et al. appeal from the United States district court for the district of Kansas. No. 1. Argued December 9, 1952. Reargued December 8, 1953. Decided May 17, 1954.

  • Brownell, M. T., Ross, D. D., ColÛn, E. P., & McCallum, C. L. (2005). Critical features of special education teacher preparation: A comparison with general teacher education. Journal of Special Education, 38(4), 242-252.

  • Byrne, B. M. (2012). Structural equation modeling with Mplus: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. New York, NY: Routledge.

  • Cameron, D. L., & Cook, B. G. (2007). Attitudes of preservice teachers enrolled in an infusion preparation program regarding planning and accommodations for included students with mental retardation. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 42, 353-363.

  • Colson, T., Sparks, K, Berrige, G. Frimming, R., & Willis, C. (2017). Pre-service teachers and self- efficacy: A study in contrast. Discourse and Communication for Sustainable Education, 8, 66-76.

  • Council for the Accreditation of Education Programs. (2013). The CAEP standards. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://caepnet.org/standards/introduction

  • Council of Chief State School Officers. (2011). Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC) model core teaching standards: A resource for state dialogue. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.ccsso.org/documents/2011/intasc_model_core_teaching_standards_2011.pdf

  • Creswell, J. W. (2003). Qualitative inquiry and research design. Choosing among five approaches. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Damasco, J. P. (2013). The relationship between teacher self-efficacy and attitude toward collaboration in an inclusion setting. Dissertation Abstracts International-A, 74/06 (E). UMI No. 3553938.

  • Darling-Hammond, L., Chung, R., & Frelow, F. (2002). Variation in teacher preparation: How well do different pathways prepare teachers to teach? Journal of Teacher Education, 53, 286-302.

  • Driskell, S. O., Bush, S. B., Ronau, R. N., Niess, M. L., Rakes, C. R., & Pugalee, D. (2016). Mathematics education technology professional development: Changes over several decades. In M. L. Niess, S. O. Driskell, & K. F. Hollebrands (Eds.), Handbook of research on transforming mathematics teacher education in the digital age (pp. 107-136). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. http://www.igi-global.com/chapter/mathematics-education-technology-professional-development/150793

  • Education for All Handicapped Children’s Act. (1975). Public Law, 94-142. https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/94/s6

  • Flores, M. A., Santos, P., Fernandes, S., & Pereira, D. (2014). Pre-service teachers’ views of their training: Key issues to sustain quality teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, 16, 39-53. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Fowler, F. J., & Cosenza, C. (2008). Writing effective questions. In E. D. de Leeuw, J. J. Hox, & D. A. Dillman (Eds.), International Handbook of Survey Methodology (pp. 136-160), New York, NY: Psychology Press.

  • Frankel, E. B., Hutchinson, N. L., Burbidge, J., & Minnes, P. (2014). Preservice early childhood educators’ and elementary teachers’ perspectives on including young children with developmental disabilities: A mixed methods analysis. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 35, 373-391 Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10901027.2014.968300

  • Gehrke, R. S., & Cocchiarella, M. (2013). Preservice special and general educators’ knowledge of inclusion. Teacher Education and Special Education, 36, 204-216.

  • Gehrke, R. S., Cocchiarella, M., Harris, P., & Puckett, K. (2014). Field experiences and perceptions of inclusion: Varying contexts, structures, and interpretations. Journal of the International Association of Special Education, 15, 85-93.

  • Gorski, P. C., Davis, S. N., & Reiter, A. (2012). Self-efficacy and multicultural teacher education in the United States: The factors that influence who feels qualified to be a multicultural teacher educator. Multicultural Perspectives, 14, 220-228.

  • Guo, Y., Kopec, J., Cibere, J., Li, L. C., & Goldsmith, C. H. (2016). Population survey features and response rates: A randomized experiment. American Journal of Public Health, 106, 1422-1426. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303198

  • Guskey, & Passaro (1994). Teacher efficacy: A study of construct dimensions. American Educational Research Journal, 31, 627-643.

  • Hardman, M., Drew, C., & Egan, M. (2014). Human exceptionality: Society, school, and family (11th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

  • Jung, W.S. (2007). Preservice teacher training for successful inclusion. Education, 128(1), 106-113.

  • Hadadian, A., & Chiang, L. (2007). Special education and preservice teachers. International Journal of Special Education, 22, 103-106.

  • Hemmings, B., & Woodcock, S. (2011). Preservice teachers’ views of inclusive education: A content analysis. Australian Journal of Special Education, 35, 103-116.

  • Hoy, A. W., & Spero, R. B. (2005). Changes in teacher efficacy during the early years of teaching: A comparison of four measures Teaching and Teacher Education, 21, 343-35.

  • Kiloran, I., Woronko, D., & Zaretsky, H. (2014). Exploring preservice teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 18, 427-442. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Kraukle, S. (2013). Communicative approach to inclusive education in pre-school. Discourse and Communication for Sustainable Education, 4, 50-56.

  • McCray, E. D., & McHatton, P. A. (2011). ‘Less afraid to have them in my classroom’: Understanding preservice general educators’ perceptions about inclusion. Teacher Education Quarterly, 38, 1462-1473.

  • Merriam, S. (2009). Qualitative Research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

  • O’Connor, B. P. (2000). SPSS and SAS programs for determining the number of components using parallel analysis and Velicer’s MAP test. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 32, 396-402.

  • Peltier, G. L. (1993). The regular education initiative teacher: The research results and recommended practice. Education, 114(1), 54.

  • Saderholm, J., Ronau, R. N., Rakes, C. R., Bush, S. B., & Mohr-Schroeder, M. (2016). The critical role of a well-articulated conceptual framework to guide professional development: An evaluation of a state-wide two-week program for mathematics and science teachers. Professional Development in Education. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Schunk, D. H., Pintrich, P. R., & Meece, J. L. (2008). Motivation in education: theory, research, and applications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

  • Shade, R., & Stewart, R. (2001). General education and special education preservice teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion. Preventing School Failure, 46, 37-42.

  • Singal, N. (2008). Working towards inclusion: reflections from the classroom. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 1516-1529.

  • Tiwari, A., Das, A., & Sharma, M. (2015). Inclusive education a ‘rhetoric’ or ‘reality’? Teachers’ perspectives and beliefs. Teaching & Teacher Education, 52,128-136.

  • United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (2003). Overcoming exclusion through inclusive approaches in education: A challenge & a vision. Conceptual paper. Paris, France: Section for Early Childhood and Inclusive Education Basic Education Division, Author. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001347/134785e.pdf

  • Urton, K., Wilbert, J., & Hennemann, T. (2014). Attitudes towards inclusion and self-efficacy of principals and teachers. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 12, 151-168.

  • Vaz, S., Wilson, N., Falkmer, M., Sim, A., Scott, M., Cordier, R., & Falkmer, T. (2015). Factors associated with primary school teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of students with disabilities. Plos One, 10(8), e0137002. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
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