Cigarette Mainstream Smoke: The Evolution of Methods and Devices for Generation, Exposure and Collection

Open access

SUMMARY

The objective of this review is to support tobacco scientists when evaluating information published on smoking machines, and on cigarette mainstream smoke (in vivo and in vitro) exposure systems and collection devices.

The intriguing development of smoking machines (mainly for cigarettes) is followed for more than 170 years - from the first simple set-ups in the 1840s to the sophisticated and fully automated analytical smoking machines available today. Systems for the large-scale production of smoke (condensate) for preparative work are equally considered. The standardization of machine smoking methods and test pieces has solved several technical problems and produced sensible rules but, at the same time, given rise to new controversies like the compatibility of artificial and human smoking, and the implementation of more intense machine smoking regimes.

Adequate space is allotted for the discussion of configurations for in vivo smoke exposure of rodent and non-rodent species and the machines generating the required smoke (condensate). Covered as well is the field of in vitro toxicity testing, including the increasingly informative new techniques of air-liquid interface exposure, which are becoming more and more refined with the use of organotypic cultures and genetic analyses.

The review is completed by the examination of the considerable variety of mainstream smoke collection devices (filters and traps) developed over time - some for very specific purposes - and refers to the perpetual problem of artifact formation by aging.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Zeise W.C.: Untersuchung der Producte von der trockenen Destillation des Tabaks und über die chemische Beschaffenheit des Tabakrauchs [Investigation of the Products Generated by Dry Distillation of Tobacco and on the Chemical Nature of Tobacco Smoke]; Justus Liebigs Ann. Chem. 47 (1843) 212–225.

  • 2. Melsens M.: Note sur la Nicotine [Note Concerning Nicotine]; Ann. Chim. Phys. 3 (1843) 465–472.

  • 3. Zebrowski E.v.: Zur Frage vom Einfluß des Tabakrauches auf Tiere [On the Effects of Tobacco Smoke on Animals]; Centralbl. Allg. Pathol. Pathol. Anat. 19 (1908) 609–617.

  • 4. Bradford J.A. W.R. Harlan and H.R. Hanmer: Nature of Cigaret Smoke. Technic of Experimental Smoking; Ind. Eng. Chem. 28 (1936) 836–839.

  • 5. Campbell A. J.: Carcinogenic Agents Present in the Atmosphere and Incidence of Primary Lung Tumours in Mice; Brit. J. Exp. Path. 20 (1939) 122–132.

  • 6. Wartman Jr W.B. E.C. Cogbill and E.S. Harlow: Determination of Particulate Matter in Concentrated Aerosols. Application to Analysis of Cigarette Smoke; Anal. Chem. 31 (1959) 1705–1709.

  • 7. Clark P.C. and F.G. Bock: Experience with the Large Scale Production of Cigarette Smoke Condensate Using the Process and Instruments Automatic Smoking Machine; presented at the 13th Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference Lexington KY USA Abstract 7 1959.

  • 8. Wiley R.M. and J.A. Ferri: The Design of an Automated Syringe-Type Smoking Machine; Tob. Sci. 11 (1967) 140–143 and Beitr. Tabakforsch. 4 (1967) 59–64. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0168

  • 9. U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC): Cigarettes – Testing for Tar and Nicotine Content; Federal Register 32 (1967) 11178.

  • 10. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 3308:1977 – Tobacco and Tobacco Products -- Routine Analytical Cigarette-Smoking Machine -- Definitions Standard Conditions and Auxiliary Equipment; ISO Geneva Switzerland 1977.

  • 11. Task Force on the Review of Smoking Methods: CORESTA Report 1991-1. The Determination of Repeatability [r] and Reproducibility [R] for the Measurement of Nicotine-Free Dry Particulate Matter (NFDPM) Nicotine Water Using CORESTA Recommended Methods 7 8 21 22 23 and 25; CORESTA 1991. Available at: https://www.coresta.org/determination-repeatability-and-reproducibility-measurement-nicotine-free-dry-particulate-matter

  • 12. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 3308:1991 – Routine Analytical Cigarette-Smoking Machine -- Definitions and Standard Conditions; 3rd edition ISO Geneva Switzerland 1991.

  • 13. Massey E. M. Aufderheide W. Koch H. Lodding G. Pohlmann H. Windt P. Jarck and J.W. Knebel: Micronucleus Induction in V79 Cells after Direct Exposure to Whole Cigarette Smoke; Mutagenesis 13 (1998) 145–149.

  • 14. UCSF Library: Truth Tobacco Industry Documents. Available at https://www.industrydocumentslibrary.ucsf.edu/tobacco/

  • 15. Johnson S.W.: Experiments in Growing Tobacco with Different Fertilizers; in: Annual Report of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station for 1892 State of Connecticut New Haven CT USA 1893 pp. 1–24.

  • 16. Habermann J.: Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Cigarrenrauches [Contributions to the Knowledge of Cigar Smoke]; Z. Physiol. Chem. 33 (1901) 55–125.

  • 17. Pfyl B. R. Kölliker B. Dwilling and M. Obermiller: Zur Bestimmung des Nicotins im Tabakrauch. II. Normung des künstlichen Verrauchens der Tabakerzeugnisse [Contribution to the Determination of Nicotine in Tobacco Smoke. II. Standardization of the Artificial Smoking of Tobacco Products]; Z. Untersuch. Lebensm. 66 (1933) 501–510.

  • 18. Wissenschaftliche Forschungsstelle im Verband der Cigarettenindustrie: Einheitliche Vorschriften für die Analyse von Tabak und Tabakrauch [Standardized Regulations for the Analysis of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 1 (1961) 31–34. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0005

  • 19. Pillsbury H.C. C.C. Bright K.J. O’Connor and F.W. Irish: Tar and Nicotine in Cigarette Smoke; J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 52 (1969) 458–462.

  • 20. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Tobacco Disclosure Act: Cigarette and Smokeless Tobacco Products: Reports of Added Constituents and Nicotine Ratings; General Laws of Massachusetts Chapter 94 Section 307B 105 CMR 660.000 1997.

  • 21. Texas Department of Health: Texas Register 22 No. 79 December 5 1997 pp. 11939–11941. Available at: http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth176720/m1/

  • 22. Government of Canada Minister of Justice: Tobacco Reporting Regulations SOR/2000-273 of June 26 2000 current to June 17 2015. Available at: http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/PDF/SOR-2000-273.pdf

  • 23. Theoi Greek Mythology: Ariadne. Available at: http://www.theoi.com/Georgikos/Ariadne.html

  • 24. Pinner A.: Ueber Nicotin – II. Mitteilung [On Nicotine – Second Communication]; Arch. Pharm. 233 (1895) 572–612.

  • 25. Kißling R.: Der Gehalt des Cigarrenrauches an Nikotin unter gleichzeitiger Berücksichtigung der giftig wirkenden Verbrennungsproducte des Tabakes [On the Nicotine Content of Cigar Smoke with Concurrent Regard to the Toxic Combustion Products of Tobacco]; Dingler’s Polytechn. J. 244 (1882) 64–71 and 234–246.

  • 26. Thoms H.: Über die Rauchprodukte des Tabaks [On Smoke Products of Tobacco]; Ber. Dtsch. Pharm. Ges. 10 (1900) 19–31.

  • 27. Pontag J.J.: Untersuchungen des russischen Rauchtabaks und des Cigarettenrauches [Investigation on the Russian Smoking Tobacco and on Cigarette Smoke]; Z. Untersuch. Nahrung Genussm. 6 (1903) 673–691.

  • 28. Kißling R.: Kurzgefasstes Handbuch der Tabakkunde [Short Compendium on Tobacco Knowledge]; Parey Verlag Berlin 1893.

  • 29. Habermann J.: Ueber den Blausäuregehalt des Cigarrenrauches [On the Hydrogen Cyanide Content of Cigar Smoke]; Z. Physiol. Chem. 37 (1902–03) 1–17.

  • 30. Habermann J.: Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Zigaretten- und des Pfeifenrauches [Contributions to the Knowledge of Cigarette Smoke and Pipe Smoke]; Z. Physiol. Chem. 40 (1903–04) 148–161.

  • 31. Garner W.W.: Methods for Testing the Burning Quality of Cigar Tobacco; U.S. Department of Agriculture Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin 100 Part. IV (1906) 5–14.

  • 32. Garner W.W.: The Relation of Nicotine to the Quality of Tobacco; U.S. Dept. Agric. Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin 141 (1909) 5–16.

  • 33. Preissecker K. H. Brezina and A. Wenusch: Tabakstreckung und Tabakersatz [Thinning of Tobacco and Tobacco Substitution]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 18 (1918) 1–13.

  • 34. German Empire: Bekanntmachung über tabakähnliche Waren [Announcement Concerning Products Similar to Tobacco]; Berlin 27. Oktober 1917 Reichsgesetzblatt (1917) 974.

  • 35. Austrian – Hungarian Department of Finances: Kundmachung des Finanzministeriums vom 1. Mai 1918 betreffend die Erklärung der Tabakersatz- und -zusatzmittel als Gegenstände des Tabakmonopols [Announcement of the Department of Finances of May 1 1918 Concerning Tobacco Substitutes and Tobacco Additives as a Matter of the Tobacco Monopoly]; Reichsgesetzblatt Nr. 167 8. Mai 1918.

  • 36. German Empire: Gesetz über den Verkehr mit Lebensmitteln und Bedarfsgegenständen (Lebensmittelgesetz) vom 5. Juli 1927 [Law Concerning Food-Stuffs and Consumer Goods (Food-Law) July 5 1927]; Reichsgesetzblatt Teil 1 Nr. 26 vom 8. Juli 1927.

  • 37. Frank L.: Nikotinarme Tabakfabrikate und das neue Lebensmittelgesetz [Tobacco Products Low in Nicotine and the New Food Law]; Med. Welt 31 (1928) 1–6.

  • 38. Pfyl B. and O. Schmitt: Zur Bestimmung von Nicotin in Tabak und Tabakrauch [The Determination of Nicotine in Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke]; Z. Untersuch. Lebensm. 54 (1927) 60–78.

  • 39. Winterstein A. and E. Aronson: Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Tabakgenusses; II. Mitteilung. Über den Verbleib des Nicotins beim Tabakrauchen [Contributions to the Understanding of Tobacco Consumption; Part 2 - On the Fate of Nicotine in Tobacco Smoking]; Z. Hyg. Infektionskr. 108 (1928) 530–553.

  • 40. Fühner H.: Die quantitative Bestimmung des Nicotins auf biologischem Wege [The Quantification of Nicotine Using a Biological Method]; Biochem. Z. 92 (1918) 355–363.

  • 41. Wenusch A.: Beitrag zur Bestimmung des Nikotins in Rauchgasen [Contribution to Nicotine Determination in Smoke Gases]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 1 (1931) 1–8.

  • 42. Wenusch A.: Der Tabakrauch [Tobacco Smoke]; Arthur Geist Verlag Bremen Germany 1939 pp. 23–26.

  • 43. Wenusch A.: Beitrag zur Bestimmung des Nikotins in Rauchgasen. II. Teil [Contribution to Nicotine Determination in Smoke Gases. Part 2]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 2 (1931) 1–3.

  • 44. Neurath G. B. Pirmann W. Lüttich and H. Wichern: Zur Frage der N-Nitroso-Verbindungen im Tabakrauch II [On N-Nitroso Compounds in Tobacco Smoke II]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1965) 251–262. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0117

  • 45. Kallianos A.G. R.E. Means and J.D. Mold: Effect of Nitrates in Tobacco on the Catechol Yield in Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 12 (1968) 125–129.

  • 46. Schönherr H. H.J. Klimisch and H.P. Harke: Alterung von Cigarettenrauchkondensat: Quantitative Untersuchungen der Artefaktbildung durch Gas- und Partikelphasenreaktionen [Altering of Cigarette Smoke Condensate: Quantitative Determination of the Formation of Artifact Produced by Gas-Phase and Particulate Phase Reaction]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 7 (1973) 18–23. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0304

  • 47. Wenusch A.: Über den Nicotingehalt des Hauptstromrauches von dicken und dünnen Zigaretten [On the Nicotine Content of Mainstream Smoke of Thick and Thin Cigarettes]; Z. Untersuch. Lebensm. 72 (1936) 213–218.

  • 48. German Empire: Erlaß des Reichsministers des Inneren – II A 1780/8.4. – betr.nicotinarme und nicotinfreie Tabakfabrikate vom 23. April 1929 [Decree of the German Secretary of the Interior Concerning Low-Nicotine and Nicotine-Free Tobacco Products of April 23 1929] Z. Unters. Lebensm. Suppl. (1929) 104–105.

  • 49. Petri J.W.: Zur Beurteilung des Nicotingehaltes von Tabaken [Criteria for Evaluation the Nicotine Content of Tobaccos]; Z. Untersuch. Lebensm. 62 (1931) 126–137.

  • 50. Wissenschaftliche Forschungsstelle im Verband der Cigarettenindustrie: Einheitliche Vorschriften für die Analyse von Tabak und Tabakrauch [Standardized Regulations for the Analysis of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 1 (1962) 307–314. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0038

  • 51. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Standard Method No 10: Machine Smoking of Cigarettes Determination of Crude and Dry Condensate; CORESTA Paris France 1968.

  • 52. German Empire: Gesetz über den Verkehr mit Lebensmitteln und Bedarfsgegenständen (Lebensmittelgesetz) in der Fassung vom 17. Januar 1936 [Law Concerning Food-Stuffs and Consumer Goods (Food-Law) in its Form of January 17 1936]; Reichsgesetzblatt Teil 1 1926 pp. 18–22.

  • 53. German Empire: Verordnung über nikotinarmen und nikotinfreien Tabak vom 12. Mai 1939 [Ordinance Concerning Tobacco with Low or No Nicotine]; Reichsgesetzblatt Teil I (1939) 912.

  • 54. Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Gesetz zur Neuordnung und Bereinigung des Rechts im Verkehr mit Lebensmitteln Tabakerzeugnissen kosmetischen Mitteln und sonstigen Bedarfsgegenständen (Gesetz zur Gesamtreform des Lebensmittelrechts) [Act Concerning the Rearrangement of the Law Concerning Food Tobacco Products Cosmetics and Other Products (Act Concerning the Total Reform of Foodstuff Regulations)]; Bundesgesetzblatt I (1974) 1945–1966. Available at: http://www.bgbl.de/xaver/bgbl/start.xav?startbk=Bundesanzeiger_BGBl&jumpTo=bgbl174095.pdf

  • 55. Bundesrepublik Deutschland Bundesminister der Justiz: Verordnung über Tabakerzeugnisse (Tabakverordnung) vom 20. Dezember 1977 [Federal Republic of Germany: Ordinance on Tobacco Products (Tobacco Ordinance) of Dec. 20 1977]; Bundesgesetzblatt I (1977) 2831–2837. Available at: http://www.bgbl.de/xaver/bgbl/start.xav?startbk=Bundesanzeiger_BGBl&jumpTo=bgbl177089.pdf

  • 56. Wenusch A.: Ueber die Abrauchmethode von B. Pfyl [On the Smoking Method of B. Pfyl]; Pharm. Zentralhalle Dtschl. 78 (1937) 189–191.

  • 57. Preiß W.: Ueber die Abrauchmethode von B. Pfyl [On the Smoking Method of B. Pfyl]; Pharm. Zentralhalle Dtschl. 78 (1937) 331–333.

  • 58. Wenusch A.: Ueber die Abrauchmethode von B. Pfyl [On the Smoking Method of B. Pfyl ]; Pharm. Zentralhalle Dtschl. 78 (1937) 578–581.

  • 59. Preiß W.: Ueber die Abrauchmethode von B. Pfyl [On the Smoking Method of B. Pfyl]; Pharm. Zentralhalle Dtschl. 78 (1937) 581–582.

  • 60. Wenusch A.: Ueber die Abrauchmethode von B. Pfyl [On the Smoking Method of B. Pfyl]; Pharm. Zentralhalle Dtschl. 78 (1937) 703–706.

  • 61. Wahl R. and O. Heil: Die Entwicklung einer neuen Rauchapparatur unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Strömungsverhältnisse [The Development of a New Smoking Device with Special Consideration to Flow Conditions]; Tabak-Forschung Sonderheft (1953) 16–20.

  • 62. Marek J.: Vergleichende Untersuchungen mit der Abrauchapparatur von A. Wenusch und der Apparatur von Wahl und O. Hell [Comparative Studies of the Smoking Device of A. Wenusch and the Device of Wahl and O. Hell]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 1 (1954) 16–18.

  • 63. Staub M. and H. Furrer: Die Nikotin- und Teerbestimmung im Tabakrauch [Determination of Nicotine and Tar in Tobacco Smoke]; Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg. 44 (1953) 371–377.

  • 64. Staub M. and H. Furrer: Die Prüfung von Nikotinfiltern [Testing of Nicotine Filters]; Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg. 44 (1953) 472–474.

  • 65. Staub M. and H. Furrer: Kritische Untersuchungen über die Nikotinbestimmungsmethoden in Tabak [Critical Investigation of the Methods for Determination of Nicotine in Tobacco]; Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg. 43 (1952) 490–498.

  • 66. Cuzin I.L.: The Smoking Machines at the Research Laboratories of S.E.I.T.A.; Deuxième Congres Scientifique International du Tabac Brussels Belgium June 1958 513–520.

  • 67. Waltz P. M. Häusermann and E. Nyari: Untersuchungen zur Rauchmethodik [Studies on Smoking Methodology]; Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg. 50 (1959) 166–185.

  • 68. Waltz P. and M. Häusermann: Untersuchungen zur Rauchmethodik II – Beschreibung der eigenen Methode und Uebersicht der zur Zeit üblichen Methodik der Zigarettenvorbereitung und des künstlichen Abrauchens [Studies on Smoking Methodology II. Description of Proprietary Method and Review of Currently Used Methodology of Cigarette Preparation and Artificial Smoking]; Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg. 51 (1960) 303–320.

  • 69. Jensen C.O. and D.E. Haley: Studies on the Nicotine Content of Cigarette Smoke; J. Agric. Res. 51 (1935) 267–276.

  • 70. Doll R. and A.B. Hill: Smoking and Carcinoma of the Lung. Preliminary Report; Brit. Med. J. 2 (1950) 739–748.

  • 71. Wynder E.L. and E.A. Graham: Tobacco Smoking as a Possible Etiological Factor in Bronchogenic Carcinoma: A Study of Six Hundred and Eighty-Four Proved Cases; J. Am. Med. Assoc. 143 (1950) 329–336.

  • 72. Wynder E.L. E.A. Graham and A.B. Croninger: Experimental Production of Carcinoma with Cigarette Tar; Cancer Res. 13 (1953) 855–864.

  • 73. Wynder E.L. and J.A. Mann: A Study of Tobacco Carcinogenesis III. Filtered Cigarettes; Cancer 10 (1957) 1201–1205.

  • 74. United States. Public Health Service. Office of the Surgeon General: Smoking and Health – Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service; Public Health Service Publication No. 1103 1964.

  • 75. Cigarette Components Ltd.: Simple Smoking Machine; Sept. 1955. Available at: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/nywh0197

  • 76. Cigarette Components Ltd.: Bulletin Ethel Mk. VI Smoking Machine; Cigarette Components London UK 1958.

  • 77. Mumpower II R.C. J.E. Kiefer and G.P. Touey: Effect of the Duration of a Constant-Volume Puff on the Efficiency of Cigarette Filters; Tob. Sci. 5 (1961) 31–35.

  • 78. Johnson J.C.: Development of Machine Smoking Parameters for Measurement of Cigarette Tar Yield in the United Kingdom; J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 69 (1986) 598–600.

  • 79. Baker R.R.: Temperature Variation Within a Cigarette Combustion Coal During the Smoking Cycle; High Temp. Sci. 7 (1975) 236–247.

  • 80. Baker R.R.: Variation of the Gas Formation Regions Within a Cigarette Combustion Coal During the Smoking Cycle; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 11 (1981) 1–17. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0491

  • 81. Seehofer F. and D. Wennberg: Einfluß verschiedener Zugvolumenprofile auf die Ausbeute und Zusammensetzung des Rauches beim maschinellen Abrauchen von Cigaretten [The Effect of Puff Profiles on Yield and Composition of Mainstream Smoke of Cigarettes Smoked on a Smoking Machine]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 6 (1971) 7–11. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0259

  • 82. Klus H. and H. Kuhn: Verteilung verschiedener Tabakrauchbestandteile auf Haupt- und Nebenstromrauch. Eine Übersicht [Distribution of Various Tobacco Smoke Components Among Mainstream and Sidestream Smoke. A Survey]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 11 (1982) 229–267. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0517

  • 83. Procter C.J. C. Martin J.L. Beven and H.F. Dymond: Evaluation of an Apparatus Designed for Collection of Sidestream Smoke; Analyst 113 (1988) 1509–1513.

  • 84. Keith C.H. and J.R. Newsome: Quantitative Studies on Cigarette Smoke. I. An Automatic Smoking Machine; Tob. Sci. 1 (1957) 51–57.

  • 85. O’Keeffe A.E. and R.C. Lieser: An Improved Smoking Machine; Tob. Sci. 2 (1958) 73–76.

  • 86. DeBardeleben M.Z. J.E. Wickham and W.F. Kuhn: The Determination of Tar and Nicotine in Cigarette Smoke from an Historical Perspective; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 17 (1991) 115–148.

  • 87. Staub M. and H. Furrer: Tabakuntersuchungen IV – Eine neue automatische Abrauchapparatur [Studies on Tobacco IV. A New Smoking Apparatus]; Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg. 45 (1954) 473–476.

  • 88. Staub M. and H. Furrer: Tabakuntersuchungen V – Die Reproduzierbarkeit der Rauchuntersuchungen [Studies on Tobacco V. The Reproducibility of Smoke Studies]; Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg. 48 (1957) 94–116.

  • 89. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): About Us – History. Available at: https://www.coresta.org/history-29294.html

  • 90. Iles W.G. and C.F. Sharman: A Versatile Automatic Smoking Machine; J. Appl. Chem. 7 (1957) 384–387.

  • 91. Baumberger J.P.: The Amount of Smoke Produced from Tobacco and its Absorption in Smoking as Deter mined by Electrical Precipitation; J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 21 (1923) 47–57.

  • 92. Bentley H.R. and J.G. Burgan: Polynuclear Hydrocarbons in Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke; Analyst 83 (1958) 442–447.

  • 93. Roe F.J.C. M.H. Salaman and J. Cohen: Incomplete Carcinogens in Cigarette Smoke Condensate: Tumour-Promotion by a Phenolic Fraction. With an appendix by J.G. Burgan; Brit. J. Cancer 13 (1959) 623–633.

  • 94. Williamson J.T. and P.J. Clark: Eine neue automatische Rauchmaschine zur Einstellung auf die verschiedensten Abrauchbedingungen [A New Automated Smoking Machine Allowing to Examine Various Smoking Conditions]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 1 (1962) 187–191. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0029

  • 95. Filtrona Instruments: Filtrona Smoking Machine Model 100; Publication ALP. 170 Filtrona Instruments & Automation Ltd. Milton Keynes UK.

  • 96. British Standards Institution: UK Report on a Comparison of the Performance of the Phipps & Bird CSM 10 CSM 12 and Borgwaldt RM 20 Smoking Machines (1970); Implementation of Draft Resolution 15 of the Meeting of ISO/TC126 The Hague Netherlands September 1969.

  • 97. Rothwell K. and C.A. Grant (Eds.): Standard Methods for the Analysis of Tobacco Smoke; Tobacco Research Council London UK Research Paper 11 1972 2nd edition was published in 1974 and 3rd edition was published in 1986.

  • 98. Cumming E.M.: A Smoking Machine Attachment for the Analysis of Carbon Monoxide Carbon Dioxide and Nitric Oxide in the Vapour Phase of Cigarette Smoke; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 8 (1975) 153–157. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0373

  • 99. Filtrona Instruments & Automation Ltd: Filtrona SM400 Twenty Channel Harmonised Smoking Machine; Data Sheet 1992. Available at: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/rxgv0016

  • 100. Cigarette Components Ltd. - Data Sheet: Filtrona Model 302 Smoking Machine (1974) Bates No. 650333020-650333025. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/bdu08c00/pdf

  • 101. Cigarette Components Ltd.: Automated Carbon Monoxide Measurements; Filtrona Facets April 1980 Bates No. 105158818-105158851. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/kqq25a99/pdf

  • 102. Dymond H.F.D. and A.E. Yallup: Gas Detection; United States Patent 4257777 British American Tobacco Company Ltd. London UK March 24 1981.

  • 103. Filtrona Instruments & Automation Ltd: Filtrona SM342 Eight Channel Harmonised Smoking Machine; Data Sheet 1992. Available at: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/fnjc0054

  • 104. Molins plc: Our History (2016). Available at: http://www.molins.com/about-us/our-history

  • 105. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 3308:2012 – Routine Analytical Cigarette-Smoking Machine -- Definitions and Standard Conditions; 5th edition ISO Geneva Switzerland 2012.

  • 106. Cerulean: Smoking Machines (2016). Available at: http://www.cerulean.com/product-services/tobacco/smoking-machines

  • 107. Cerulean: Comparing Air Flow Stability Between the Cerulean SM450 and the New Generation SM450i (2015). Available at: http://www.cerulean.com/media/412760/Comparison-air-flow-SM450-and-SM450i.pdf

  • 108. Borgwaldt KC: Instruments (2016). Available at: http://borgwaldt.hauni.com/en/instruments/smoking-machines.html

  • 109. Lorton N. and E.M. Cumming: A Multi-Purpose Programmable Smoking Machine; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 14 (1987) 45–51. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0584

  • 110. Decker C. A. Girardet P. Golaz and R. Regamy: Appareil automatique multiple pour le dosage de la nicotine et des goudrons dans la fumée des cigarettes [Multiple Automatic Apparatus for the Determination of Nicotine and Tars in the Smoke of Cigarettes]; Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg. 46 (1955) 178–182.

  • 111. Waltz P. M. Häusermann E. Nyári and G. Montandon: Eine neue Maschine zum gleichzeitigen Abrauchen mehrerer Cigaretten [A New Smoking Machine for Simultaneous Smoking of Several Cigarettes]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 1 (1961) 1–10. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0001

  • 112. Waltz P. M. Häusermann and E. Nyári: Erfahrungen mit einer Maschine zum gleichzeitigen Abrauchen mehrerer Cigaretten [Experiences with an Equipment for Simultaneous Smoking of Several Cigarettes]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 1 (1961) 83–91. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0013

  • 113. Seehofer F.: Abrauchmaschine für Serienanalysen [Smoking Machine for Serial Analyses]; Tabak-Forschung 13 (1959) 100.

  • 114. Seehofer F. H. Barkemeyer and H. Borowski: Automatische Abrauchmaschine für Serienanalysen [An Automatic Smoking Machine for Serial Analyses]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 1 (1961) 11–14. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0002

  • 115. Seehofer F.: Rauchmaschinen für analytische Bestimmungen sowie für chemische und biologische Untersuchungen des Tabakrauches [Smoking Machines for Analytical Determinations and for Chemical and Biological Investigations of Tobacco Smoke]; Technisch-wissenschaftliche Schriftenreihe der Staatlich Anerkannten lngenieurschule Hamburg-Bergedorf Nr. 69 (Oktober 1968) 1–13.

  • 116. Seehofer F. J.E. Miller and H. Elmenhorst: Eine automatische Schnellrauchmaschine für Serienanalysen und für die präparative Gewinnung von Rauchkondensaten [An Automatic High-Speed Smoking Machine for Batch Analyses and the Preparative Collection of Smoke Condensates]; Teil 1: Seehofer F. and J.E. Miller: Automatische Schnellrauchmaschine für Serienanalysen [Automatic High-Speed Smoking Machine for Batch Analyses]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1965) 75–78. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0098

  • 117. Lipp G.: Vergleich der Rauchausbeuten von drei verschiedenen Rauchmaschinen I [Comparison of the Smoke Condensate and Nicotine Yields Obtained from Three Different Smoking Machines I]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 5 (1969) 39–42. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0214

  • 118. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): Draft Report of the Second Plenary Meeting of ISO/TC 126 – Tobacco and Tobacco Products: Resolution 15; The Hague Netherlands September 1969.

  • 119. Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN): DIN 10240 – Tabak und Tabakerzeugnisse-Untersuchung – Maschinelles Abrauchen von Zigaretten; Bestimmung des feuchten und trockenen Rauchkondensats [Tobacco and Tobacco Products-Analysis – Machine Smoking of Cigarettes and Determination of Moist and Dry Smoke Condensate]; DIN Berlin 1969.

  • 120. Lorenz H.-W. H. Kirchner and F. Seehofer: Die RM 20 – eine Rauchmaschine für analytische Untersuchungen [RM 20 – A Smoking Machine for Analytical Investigations]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 6 (1972) 199–204. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0293

  • 121. Seehofer F. and W. Schulz: Zur Kenntnis des Glimmstromes von Cigaretten [On Smoulder Stream from Cigarettes]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1965) 151–156. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0107

  • 122. Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN): DIN 10240 - Teil 1. Untersuchung von Tabak und Tabakerzeugnissen – Maschinelles Abrauchen von Zigaretten und Bestimmung des Rauchkondensats: Anforderungen an eine analytische Rauchmaschine [Analysis of Tobacco and Tobacco Products – Machine Smoking of Cigarettes and Determination of the Smoke Condensate: Specifications of an Analytical Smoking Machine]; DIN Berlin Germany 1978.

  • 123. Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN): DIN 10240 – Untersuchung von Tabak und Tabakerzeugnissen – Maschinelles Abrauchen von Zigaretten und Bestimmung des Rauchkondensats: Abrauchverfahren. Teil 2. [Analysis of Tobacco and Tobacco Products – Machine Smoking of Cigarettes and Determination of the Smoke Condensate: Smoking Method. Part 2]; DIN Berlin Germany 1978.

  • 124. Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN): DIN 10240 – Untersuchung von Tabak und Tabakerzeugnissen – Maschinelles Abrauchen von Zigaretten und Bestimmung des Rauchkondensats: Bestimmung des Rohkondensats und des nikotinfreien trockenen Rauchkondensats. Teil 3 [Analysis of Tobacco and Tobacco Products – Machine Smoking of Cigarettes and Determination of the Smoke Condensate: Determination of the Raw Condensate and of the Nicotine Free Dry Smoke Condensate. Part 3]; DIN Berlin Germany 1978.

  • 125. British Standards Institution (BSI): BS 5668-1:1987. Routine Analytical Cigarette Smoking Machine. Part 1. Specification and Standard Conditions; BSI London UK 1987.

  • 126. Schulz W. and F. Seehofer: Über den Einfluß von Abrauchparametern auf die Rauchausbeuten [The Influences of Different Smoking Conditions on Smoke Yields]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 7 (1973) 105–110. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0317

  • 127. Ayres C.I. and M.G. Ivinson: “Free” and “Restricted” Smoking; Paper No. 17 presented at the 18th Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference Raleigh NC USA 1964.

  • 128. Heinrich Borgwaldt GmbH & Co: Smoking Machine RM 20 CS; Hamburg Germany 1977. Bates No. 103508128-103508146. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/yug13a99/pdf

  • 129. Rose N.: Development of Rotary Smoking Machines in the Mirror of Regulatory Requirements; Paper presented at the 67th Tobacco Science Research Conference September 15–18 2013 Williamsburg VA USA.

  • 130. Health Canada: Official Method T-109 – Determination of Ni Pb Cd Cr As and Se in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke; Health Canada Ottawa Canada 1999.

  • 131. Borgerding M. and H. Klus: Analysis of Complex Mixtures – Cigarette Smoke; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 57 (2005) Suppl. 1 43–73.

  • 132. U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC): News Release – Letters to Each of the Nation's Major Cigarette Manufacturers; FTC Office of Information Washington D.C. USA March 25 1966.

  • 133. Ogg C.L.: Determination of Particulate Matter and Alkaloids (As Nicotine) in Cigarette Smoke; J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 47 (1964) 356–362.

  • 134. U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC): Cigarettes and Related Matters. Methods to be Employed in Determining Tar and Nicotine Content; Notice of Public Hearing; Federal Register 31 No. 215 (November 4 1966) p. 14278.

  • 135. The American Tobacco Company Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company Philip Morris Incorporated and RJ. Reynolds Tobacco Company: Cigarettes and Related Matters – Methods to be Employed in Determining Tar and Nicotine Content; written presentation before the Federal Trade Commission November 28 1966.

  • 136. The American Tobacco Company Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company Philip Morris Incorporated and RJ. Reynolds Tobacco Company: Determination and Reporting of Total Particulate Matter Water in Total Particulate Matter and Nicotine in Cigarette Smoke – Technical Data and Recommendations; Joint technical memorandum before the Federal Trade Commission November 28 1966.

  • 137. Hetsko C.F. A. Yeaman F.P. Haas P.D. Smith and H.H. Ramm: Cigarettes and Related Matters: Methods to Be Employed in Determining Tar and Nicotine Content. Supplementary Observations Following November 30 1966 Hearing Before the Federal Trade Commission Dec. 20 1966. Available at: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/nmmk0172

  • 138. U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC): News Release – FTC to Begin Cigarette Testing; FTC Office of Information Washington DC USA; August 1 1967.

  • 139. U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC): Cigarettes and Related Matters – Carbon Monoxide “Tar” and Nicotine Content of Cigarette Smoke; Description of New Machine and Methods to be Used in Testing; Federal Register 45 (1980) 46483–46487.

  • 140. Merfeld G.L. and H.C. Pillsbury: A 20-Port Sequential Smoking Machine for the Determination of Carbon Monoxide in Cigarette Smoke; Presentation at the 32nd Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference November 1978 Montreal Canada.

  • 141. U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC): “Tar” Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide of the Smoke of 1294 Varieties of Domestic Cigarettes for the Year 1998 (report issued 2000); FTC 2000.

  • 142. Peeler C.L.: Cigarette Testing and the Federal Trade Commission: A Historical Overview; in: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service National Institutes of Health Publication No. 96-4028: The FTC Cigarette Test Method for Determining Tar Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide Yields of U.S. Cigarettes – Report of the NCI Expert Committee; Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 7 (1996) pp. 1–8.

  • 143. Pillsbury Jr H.C.: Review of the Federal Trade Commission Method for Determining Cigarette Tar and Nicotine Yield; in: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service National Institutes of Health Publication No. 96-4028: The FTC Cigarette Test Method for Determining Tar Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide Yields of U.S. Cigarettes – Report of the NCI Expert Committee; Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 7 (1996) pp. 9–11.

  • 144. U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC): FTC Rescinds Guidance from 1966 on Statements Concerning Tar and Nicotine Yields; Press Release November 28 2008. Available at: http://www.ftc.gov/news-events/press-releases/2008/11/ftc-rescinds-guidance-1966-statements-concerning-tar-nicotine

  • 145. U.S. Food and Drug Administration: Tobacco Products – Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents (HPHCs); last updated September 2015. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/Labeling/ProductsIngredientsComponents/ucm20035927.htm

  • 146. Kuhn H.: The CORESTA Smoke Study Group – A Historical Review of its Activities; CORESTA 1956–1981. CORESTA Inform. Bull. Suppl. 1 (1982) 68–86.

  • 147. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Standard Method No 1: Machine Smoking of Cigarettes and Determination of Moist and Anhydrous Smoke Condensate; CORESTA Paris France 1966.

  • 148. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Standard Method No 2: Determination of Total Alkaloids as Nicotine in Tobacco; CORESTA Paris France 1966.

  • 149. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Standard Method No 3: Determination of Total Alkaloids as Nicotine in Tobacco Smoke Condensates; CORESTA Paris France 1966.

  • 150. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Standard Method No 4: Determination of Nicotine Alkaloid Retention by Cigarette Filters; CORESTA Paris France 1966.

  • 151. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Standard Method No 12: Determination of Alkaloids in Cigarette Smoke Condensates; CORESTA Paris France 1968.

  • 152. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Standard Method No 13: Determination of Alkaloid Retention by Cigarette Filters; CORESTA Paris France 1968.

  • 153. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Standard Method No 20: Determination of Alkaloids in Manufactured Tobacco; CORESTA Paris France 1968.

  • 154. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 3400:1976. Tobacco and Tobacco Products – Determination of Alkaloids in Cigarette Smoke Condensates – Spectrophotometric Method; 1st edition ISO Geneva Switzerland 1976.

  • 155. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 3401:1977. Tobacco and Tobacco Products – Determination of Alkaloid Retention by Filters of Cigarettes; 1st edition ISO Geneva Switzerland 1977.

  • 156. International Organization for Standardization ISO: International Standard ISO 2881:1977. Tobacco and Tobacco Products – Determination of Alkaloids in Tobacco – Spectrophotometric Method; 1st edition ISO Geneva Switzerland 1977.

  • 157. Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN): DIN 10240 – Untersuchung von Tabak und Tabakerzeugnissen – Maschinelles Abrauchen von Zigaretten und Bestimmung des Rauchkondensats: Zusätzliche Bedingungen für kanalspezifisch ventilierte Zigaretten. Teil 4 [Analysis of Tobacco and Tobacco Products – Machine Smoking of Cigarettes and Determination of the Smoke Condensate: Additional Requirements for Channel-Ventilated Cigarettes. Part 4]; DIN Berlin Germany 1985.

  • 158. CORESTA: Minutes of the Meeting of the Scientific Commission in Paris on May 18–19 1972.

  • 159. N.N.: Reference Products Used in Tobacco and Smoke Analyses; Tob. J. Int. (2013) 150–154. Available at: https://www.coresta.org/sites/default/files/pages/tji0213-p150-154-refproducts.pdf

  • 160. Morgareidge K.: Evaluation of Variables in Cigarette Smoke Collection and Analysis; I. The Use of a Monitor Sample; 13th Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference October 1959 Lexington KY USA Paper No. 21.

  • 161. Diana J.N. and A. Vaught: The Reference Cigarette; Tobacco and Health Research Institute The University of Kentucky Printing Services Lexington KY USA1990.

  • 162. Benner J.F.: Tentative Summary of Leaf and Smoke Analysis of the University of Kentucky Reference and Alkaloid Series Cigarettes; Proceedings of the Tobacco and Health Conference University of Kentucky Tobacco and Health Research Institute Lexington KY USA February 24–25 1970. Conference Report 2 (1970) 30–34.

  • 163. Chambers O. H. Ji and J. Geary: Information on the Cooperative Agreement Between the Center for Tobacco Products and the University of Kentucky to Develop a “Cigarette Tobacco Reference Products Program”; Presentation at the CORESTA Congress of the Smoke Science/Product Technology Groups October 2014 Québec City Canada.

  • 164. University of Kentucky College of Agriculture Reference Cigarette Program: The Reference Cigarette. Available at: http://www.ca.uky.edu/refcig/1R5F%20Brochure%20New.pdf (accessed August 2015).

  • 165. University of Kentucky Kentucky Tobacco Research & Development Center: 3R4F Preliminary Analysis. Available at: https://ctrp.uky.edu

  • 166. Shelton B.J. S.J.P. Cañete and O.D. Chambers: Certificate of Analysis – 1R6F Certified Reference Cigarette; University of Kentucky Center for Tobacco Reference Products Lexington KY USA 2016. Available at: https://ctrp.uky.edu

  • 167. University of Kentucky Center for Tobacco Reference Products: Product Category Proficiency Studies. Available at: https://ctrp.uky.edu

  • 168. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Board: Minutes of the Meeting in Madrid Spain 20 January 1994. Available at: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/ntyv0079

  • 169. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 16055:2003. Tobacco and Tobacco Products – Monitor Test Piece – Requirements and Use; 1st edition February 1 2003 ISO Geneva Switzerland 2003.

  • 170. CORESTA Guide No. 8 – CORESTA Monitor Test Piece Production and Evaluation Requirements (April 2009). Available at: https://www.coresta.org/coresta-monitor-test-piece-production-and-evaluation-requirements-29477.html

  • 171. CORESTA Routine Analytical Chemistry Sub-Group: Technical Report 2013 Collaborative Study of CORESTA Monitor =7 (CM7) for the Determination of Test Piece Weight TPM Water Nicotine NFDPM Carbon Monoxide and Puff Count Obtained Under Mainstream ‘ISO’ and ‘Intense’ Smoking Regimes; February 2015. Available at: https://www.coresta.org/2012-collaborative-study-coresta-monitor-7-cm7-determination-test-piece-weight-tpm-water-nicotine

  • 172. CORESTA Routine Analytical Chemistry Sub-Group: Technical Report - 2014–2015 Collaborative Study of CORESTA Monitor Test Pieces CM 7 and CM 8 for the Determination of Test Piece Weight TPM Water Nicotine NFDPM Carbon Monoxide and Puff Count Obtained under Mainstream ‘ISO’ Smoking Regime (August 2015). Available at: https://www.coresta.org/2014-2015-collaborative-study-coresta-monitor-test-pieces-cm-7-and-cm-8-determination-test-piece

  • 173. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 4387:1987 – Cigarettes -- Determination of Total and Dry Particulate Matter Using a Routine Analytical Cigarette-Smoking Machine -- Glass Fibre Filter Smoke Trap Method; ISO Geneva Switzerland 1987.

  • 174. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 8453:1987 – Cigarettes -- Determination of Total and Dry Particulate Matter Using a Routine Analytical Cigarette-Smoking Machine. Electrostatic Smoke Trap Method; ISO Geneva Switzerland 1987.

  • 175. Baker R.R.: The Development and Significance of Standards for Smoking-Machine Methodology; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 20 (2002) 23–41. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0728

  • 176. Council of the European Union: Council Directive 90/239 EEC 17 May 1990 on the Approximation of the Laws Regulations and Administrative Provisions of the Member States Concerning the Maximum Tar Yield of Cigarettes; Off. J. L 137 (1990) 36–37.

  • 177. European Parliament Council of the European Union: Directive 2001/37/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 June 2001 on the Approximation of the Laws Regulations and Administrative Provisions of the Member States Concerning the Manufacture Presentation and Sale of Tobacco Products - Commission Statement; Off. J. L194 (2001) 26–35.

  • 178. Bourlas M.C. and H.F.D. Dymond: Report of the Chairmen of the Review of Methods Task Force to the Smoke Study Group; CORESTA Symposium Thessaloniki Greece October 7–11 1990.

  • 179. Thomsen H.V.: International Reference Method for the Smoking of Cigarettes; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 18 (1992) 69–94.

  • 180. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Recommended Method No. 70 – Determination of Selected Volatile Organic Compounds in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke by GC-MS (July 2014); CORESTA Paris France 2014. Available at: https://www.coresta.org/determination-selected-volatile-organic-compounds-mainstream-smoke-cigarettes-gas-chromatography

  • 181. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Recommended Method No. 74 – Determination of Selected Carbonyls in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke by HPLC) (July 2014); CORESTA Paris France 2014. Available at: https://www.coresta.org/determination-selected-carbonyls-mainstream-cigarette-smoke-high-performance-liquid-chromatography

  • 182. Brunnemann K.D. L. Yu. and D. Hoffmann: Chemical Studies on Tobacco Smoke XVII. Assessment of Carcinogenic Volatile N-Nitrosamines in Tobacco and in Mainstream and Sidestream Smoke from Cigarettes; Cancer Res. 37 (1977) 3218–3222.

  • 183. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): Technology Moves On – What About ISO Standards?. Available at: http://www.iso.org/iso/home/faqs/faqs_standards.htm

  • 184. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 3308:2000 – Routine Analytical Cigarette-Smoking Machine -- Definitions and Standard Conditions; 4th edition ISO Geneva Switzerland 2000.

  • 185. Cahours X. T. Verron and R. Julien: Collaborative Studies – Definitions Concepts & Outcomes; presented at the CORESTA Congress in Québec City Canada October 12–16 2014.

  • 186. Verron T. M. Czechowicz W.D. Heller X. Cahours and S.W. Purkis: Aspects of the Design Protocol and the Statistical Methods for Analysis of Tar Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide Yields in Cigarette Smoke That Can Affect the Measurement Variability within Collaborative Studies; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 67 (2013) 252–265.

  • 187. Sakaki T.: The Twenty Years Activities of Asia Collaborative Study; presented at the CORESTA Congress Sapporo Japan September 2012.

  • 188. Intorp M. S. Purkis and W. Wagstaff: Determination of Selected Volatiles in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke. The CORESTA 2009 Collaborative Study and Recommended Method; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 24 (2011) 243–251. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0904

  • 189. Intorp M. S. Purkis and W. Wagstaff: Determination of Carbonyl Compounds in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke. The CORESTA 2010 Collaborative Study and Recommended Method; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 25 (2012) 361–374. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0915

  • 190. Intorp M. S. Purkis and W. Wagstaff: Determination of Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke: The CORESTA 2011 Collaborative Study; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 25 (2012) 507–519. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0926

  • 191. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Recommended Method No. 75: Determination of Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke by LC-MS/MS; CORESTA Paris France. Available at: https://www.coresta.org/determination-tobacco-specific-nitrosamines-mainstream-cigarette-smoke-lc-msms-29198.html

  • 192. CORESTA Task Force Alterative Smoking Regimes: Final Report (July 12 2006). Available at: https://www.coresta.org/task-force-alternative-smoking-regimes-29284.html

  • 193. Mariner D. W.-D. Heller J. Sarabia S.W. Purkis M. Meger H.J. Eberhardt and M. Czechowicz: The 2010 ISO TC 126 Working Group 10 Collaborative Study on Intense Machine Smoking; CORESTA Joint Study Group Meeting Presentation ST 05 Graz Austria 2011 CORESTA 2011 Abstracts (2001) 30.

  • 194. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Environmental Health: Global Collaborative Study – Method Validation of TNCO in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Intense Smoking Regime; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta GA USA 2010.

  • 195. Parrish M.E. and C.N. Harward: Measurement of Formaldehyde in a Single Puff of Cigarette Smoke Using Tunable Diode Laser Infrared Spectroscopy; Appl. Spectrosc. 54 (2000) 1665–1677.

  • 196. Li S. J.L. Banyasz M.E. Parrish J. Lyons-Hart and K.H. Shafer: Formaldehyde in the Gas Phase of Mainstream Cigarette Smoke; J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol. 65 (2002) 137–145.

  • 197. Li S. J.L. Banyasz R.M. Olegario C.B. Huang E.A. Lambert and K.H. Shafer: Brief Communication: The Flame Effect on Benzo[a]pyrene in Cigarette Smoke; Combust. Flame 128 (2002) 314–319.

  • 198. Li S. R.M. Olegario J.L. Banyasz and K.H. Shafer: Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Single Puff of Cigarette Smoke; J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol. 66 (2003) 155–163.

  • 199. Adam T. R.R. Baker and R. Zimmermann: Investigation by Single Photon Ionization (SPI)-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOFMS) of the Effect of Different Cigarette-Lighting Devices on the Chemical Composition of the First Cigarette Puff; Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387 (2007) 575–584.

  • 200. World Health Organization (WHO): WHO TobLabNet Official Method SOP 01: Standard Operating Procedure for Intense Smoking of Cigarettes; WHO Geneva Switzerland 2012.

  • 201. Tindall I. L. Crumpler and P. Jordan: Air Flow Turbulences and Smoke Yields. The Unexpected Consequences of Machine Design; Paper presented at the CORESTA Smoke Science and Product Technology Study Groups’ Meeting Sept. 29 – Oct. 3 2013 Seville Spain.

  • 202. Darrall K.G.: Smoking Machine Parameters and Cigarette Smoke Yields; Sci Total Environ. 74 (1988) 263–278.

  • 203. Scherer G. J. Engl M. Urban G. Gilch D. Janket and K. Riedel: Relationship Between Machine-Derived Smoke Yields and Biomarkers in Cigarette Smokers in Germany; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 47 (2007) 171–183.

  • 204. The State of Texas: Disclosure of Ingredients in Cigarettes and Tobacco Products; Texas 75th Legislature - Regular Session Chapter 1216 House Bill 119 Section 1 Chapter 161 Health and Safety Code Subchapter N 1997 Bates-No. 471323781–3. Available at: https://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/=id=nnxm0054

  • 205. Rickert W.S.: Smoking Under Realistic Conditions: Develpoment of Minimum and Maximum Values for Toxic Costituents in Tobacco Smoke; Labstat Inc. Tobacco Characterization Program Project Report DSS File No 35SS.H4078-5-C105 September 30 1996. Available at: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/pllx0091

  • 206. Province of British Columbia: Tobacco Testing and Disclosure Regulation; Order of the Lieutenant Governor in Council B.C. Reg. 282/98 Section 1 to 6 1998. Available at: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/stxv0063

  • 207. Province of British Columbia: Tobacco Testing and Disclosure Regulation; Order of the Lieutenant Governor in Council No. 423 of April 2 2001 amending B.C. Reg. 282/98 2001. Available at: http://www.bclaws.ca/civix/content/oic/arc_oic/2000___2009/oic2001/2001_0400___0499/?xsl=/templates/browse.xsl

  • 208. Health Canada: Proposed Tobacco (Reporting) Regulations; Health Protection Branch Information Letter No. 819 1998 Bates-No. TA67945-70. Available at: https://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/=id=syxx0149

  • 209. Health Canada: Official Method T-115 – Determination of “Tar” Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke; Health Canada Ottawa Canada 1999.

  • 210. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 4387:1991. Cigarettes – Determination of Total and Nicotine-Free Dry Particulate Matter Using a Routine Analytical Smoking Machine; Second Edition ISO Geneva Switzerland 1991.

  • 211. Word Health Organization (WHO): WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg). Available at: http://www.who.int/tobacco/global_interaction/tobreg/en/

  • 212. WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg): Recommendation 1: Guiding Principles for the Development of Tobacco Product Research and Testing Capacity and Proposed Protocols for the Initiation of Tobacco Product Testing; WHO Geneva Switzerland 2004.

  • 213. Pickworth W. P. Houlgate M. Schorp M. Dixon M. Borgerding and G. Zaatari: Report of the ad hoc WG9 Smoking Behaviour Review Team to ISO/TC 126 WG9: A Review of Human Smoking Behaviour Data and Recommendations for a New ISO Standard for the Machine Smoking of Cigarettes (2005). Available at: https://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/=id=kkgm0006 This document was subsequently released as: International Organization for Standardardization (ISO): ISO/TR 17219:2013 – Review of Human Smoking Behaviour and Recommendations for a New ISO Standard for the Machine Smoking of Cigarettes; ISO Geneva Switzerland 2013.

  • 214. Purkis S.W. V. Troude G. Duputié and C. Tessier: Limitations in the Characterisation of Cigarette Products Using Different Machine Smoking Regimes; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 58 (2010) 501–515.

  • 215. Dixon M. and M.F. Borgerding: Recent Advances in the Application and Understanding of Alternative Smoking Regimes; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 32 (2006) 3–83.

  • 216. Purkis S.W.: Issues Paradigms and Paradoxes That Need to Be Addressed by Both Manufacturers and Regulators in the Measurement and Interpretation of Cigarette Smoke Yields of Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents (HPHPCs); Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 39 (2013) 3–58.

  • 217. Purkis; S.W. X. Cahours M. Rey B. Teillet V. Troude and T. Verron: Some Consequences of Using Cigarette Machine Smoking Regimes with Different Intensities on Smoke Yields and Their Variability; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 59 (2011) 293–309.

  • 218. Counts M.E. M.J. Morton S.W. Laffon R.H. Cox and P.J. Lipowicz: Smoke Composition and Predicting Relationships for Internal Commercial Cigarettes Smoked with Three Machine-Smoking Conditions; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 41 (2005) 185–227.

  • 219. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): ISO 4387:2000/Amd.1:2008 – Cigarettes -- Determination of Total and Nicotine-Free Dry Particulate Matter Using a Routine Analytical Smoking Machine; 3rd edition ISO Geneva Switzerland 2008.

  • 220. Blackley R.L. J.L. Nelson R.A. Vernon W.D. Brown D.W. Bowman J.M. Gwyn and D.D. Henry: Development of a Holder Designed to Block 50% of Cigarette Filter Ventilation; ACD Test Memorandum R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company 1999.

  • 221. Rickert W.S.: A New More “Intense” ISO Smoking Regime: Observations and Implications; Paper presented at the 13th Asian Collaborative Study (ACS) Meeting Taipei Taiwan 2006.

  • 222. Marian C. R.J. O'Connor M.V. Djordjevic V.W. Rees D.K. Hatsukami and P.G. Shields: Reconciling Human Smoking Behavior and Machine Smoking Patterns: Implications for Understanding Smoking Behavior and the Impact on Laboratory Studies; Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 18 (2009) 3305–3320.

  • 223. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Recommended Method No. 58: Determination of Benzo[a]pyrene in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke by GC-MS (July 2014); CORESTA Paris France. Available at: https://www.coresta.org/determination-benzoapyrene-cigarette--mainstream-smoke-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-29181

  • 224. Purkis S.W. M. Intorp and A. Hauleithner: Updates of CORESTA Recommended Methods after Further Collaborative Studies Carried out Under Both ISO and Health Canada Intense Smoking Regimes; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 25 (2013) 700–707. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0946

  • 225. Tindall I.F. L.P. Crumpler and T.J.P. Mason: Smoking Machine Design and Yield Errors under Intense Smoke Regimes. Part 1: The Influence of Dead Volume on Yield; presented at the CORESTA Smoke Science and Product Technology Study Groups’ Meeting Sapporo Japan 2012 Abstract SSPT06.

  • 226. Tindall I.: The Impact of Smoking Machine Design on Yield During Canadian Intense Smoking; Presentation at ISO/TC 126 WG 10 Ad hoc Group Meeting London UK April 2012.

  • 227. Tindall I.F. L.P. Crumpler and T.J.P. Mason: Smoking Machine Design and Yield Errors under Intense Smoke Regimes. Part 2: The Influence of Puff Volume on Desorption of Volatile Smoke Components; Paper presented at the CORESTA Smoke Science and Product Technology Study Groups’ Meeting Sapporo Japan 2012 Abstract SSPT07.

  • 228. Tindall I.F. A. Cole and L. Crumpler: Dead Volume and Impinger Capture: Will Machine Design Change Puffing Conditions?; Paper presented at the CORESTA Smoke Science & Product Technology Meeting 4–8 October 2015 Jeju Korea; Abstract ST 39.

  • 229. Purkis S: A Caution Note: Reference to ISO Standards is Not a Sufficient Means of Providing Validation for Non ISO Methods; Poster STPOST 05 presented at the CORESTA Congress 12–16 October 2014 Quebec Canada.

  • 230. Herdt D.: The Influence of Smoke Path Geometry on TNCO Results Using Smoking Machines Complying with ISO 3308; Poster STPOST 04 presented at the CORESTA Congress 12–16 October 2014 Quebec Canada.

  • 231. Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN): DIN ISO 4387:2011-01 – Zigaretten – Bestimmung des Rohkondensats und des nikotinfreien Trockenkondensats unter Verwendung einer Zigaretten-Abrauchmaschine für Routineanalysen (ISO 4387:2000 + Amd.1:2008) [DIN ISO 4387:2011-01 – Cigarettes – Determination of Total and Nicotine-Free Dry Particulate Matter Using a Routine Analytical Smoking Machine (ISO 4387:2000 + Amd.1:2008)]; DIN Berlin Germany 2011.

  • 232. European Parliament Council of the European Union: Directive 2014/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3rd April 2014 on the Approximation of the Laws Regulations and Administrative Provisions of the Member States Concerning the Manufacture Presentation and Sale of Tobacco and Related Products and Repealing Directive 2001/37/EC; Official Journal European Union L127 (2014) 1–38.

  • 233. Brosch A.: Theoretische und Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Pathogenesis und Histogenesis der malignen Geschwülste [Theoretical and Experimental Investigations on Pathogenesis and Histogenesis of Malignant Tumors]; Virchows Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med.162 (1900) 32–84.

  • 234. Tillmanns H.: Ueber Theer- Russ- und Tabakkrebs [On Cancer Caused by “Tar” Soot and Tobacco]; Dtsch. Z. Chir. 13 (1880) 519–535.

  • 235. Ludwig E.: Ueber einige Bestandtheile des Tabakrauches [On Several Components of Tobacco Smoke]; Arch. Klin. Chir. 20 (1876).

  • 236. Wacker L. and A. Schmincke: Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur kausalen Genese atypischer Epithelwucherungen [Experimental Investigations on the Causal Generation of Atypic Epithelial Tumours]; Münch. Med. Wochenschr. 58 (1911) 1607–1613 and 1680–1682.

  • 237. Hoffmann E. H.T. Schreus and E. Zurhelle: Beobachtungen zur experimentellen Geschwulsterzeugung durch Teer verschiedener Herkunft und Paraffin [Observations on the Experimental Formation of Tumors by Tars of Different Origins and Paraffin]; Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 49 (1923) 633–634.

  • 238. Helwig F.C.: The Growth-Producing Effects of Extracts of Tobacco on Mice; J.A.M.A. 91 (1928) 150–151.

  • 239. Roffo A.H.: Desarrollo de un carcinoma en el conejo por el tabaco [Tobacco-Induced Carcinoma in Rabbits]; Boletin del Instituto de Medicina Experimental para el Estudio y Tratamiento del Cancer Buenos Aires University Press 7 (1930) 501–538.

  • 240. Roffo A.H.: Durch Tabak beim Kaninchen entwickeltes Carcinom [Carcinoma Initiated by Tobacco in Rabbits]; Z. Krebsforsch. 33 (1931) 321–332.

  • 241. Roffo A.H.: Der Tabak als krebserzeugendes Agens [Tobacco as Carcinogenic Agent]; Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 63 (1937) 1267–1271.

  • 242. Roffo A.H.: Carcinome développé chez un lapin après trois ans par l’effet du tabac [Carcinoma Developed in a Rabbit After Three Years by the Action of Tobacco]; Les Neoplasmes 11 (1932) 77–89.

  • 243. Roffo A.H.: Krebserzeugendes Benzpyren gewonnen aus Tabakteer [Cancer Causing Benzpyrene Obtained from Tobacco Tar]; Z. Krebsforsch. 49 (1939) 588–597.

  • 244. Kosak A.I.: The Composition of Tobacco Smoke; Experientia 10 (1954) 69–71.

  • 245. Lü-Fu-hua: Über die Erzeugung von Krebs durch Tabakteerpinselung beim Kaninchen [On the Production of Carcinomas by Skin Painting Rabbits with Tobacco Tar]; Frankf. Z. Pathol. 46 (1934) 513–522.

  • 246. Sugiura K.: Observations on Animals Painted with Tobacco Tars; Am. J. Cancer 38 (1940) 41–49.

  • 247. Flory C.M.: The Production of Tumors by Tobacco Tars; Cancer Res. 1 (1941) 252–276.

  • 248. Wynder E.L. and G. Wright: A Study of Tobacco Carcinogenesis. I. The Primary Fractions; Cancer 10 (1957) 255–271.

  • 249. Wynder E.L. and D. Hoffmann: Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke. Studies in Experimental Carcinogenesis; Academic Press New York USA 1967.

  • 250. Kosak A.I. J.S. Swinehart and D. Taber: The Components of Cigarette Smoke. I. Preliminary Studies; J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 17 (1956) 375–389.

  • 251. Engelbreth-Holm J. and J. Ahlmann: Production of Carcinoma in ST/Eh Mice with Cigarette Tar; Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 41 (1957) 267–272.

  • 252. Schur M.O. and J.C. Rickards: Design and Operation of a Multiple Cigarette Smoking Machine; Tob. Sci. 1 (1957) 13–20.

  • 253. Haag H.B. and P.S. Larson: Some Basic Facts of Medical Interest Concerning Cigarettes and Their Smoke; Interne 14 (1948) 110–112 and 119.

  • 254. Wolman W.: A Study of Cigarettes Cigarette Smoke and Filters. 4. Regular Cigarettes King-Size Cigarettes and Additional Filter-Tip Cigarettes; J. Am. Med. Assoc. 157 (1955) 1309–1312.

  • 255. Consumers Union of U.S. Inc.: Cigarettes. What CU’s Tests Showed. The Industry and its Advertising … and: How Harmful Are They?; Consumer Reports 18 (1953) 58–74.

  • 256. Waser E. and M. Stähli: Untersuchungen am Tabakrauch. I. [Investigations on Tobacco Smoke. I.]; Z. Untersuch. Lebensm. 64 (1932) 470–485.

  • 257. Pyriki C.: Untersuchungen über den Rauch von Zigaretten [Investigations on the Smoke from Cigarettes]; Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. 88 (1948) 254–269.

  • 258. Hackney E.J. W.R. Weidlich and J.B. Williams: A Large Capacity Smoking Machine; Tob. Sci. 9 (1965) 112–115.

  • 259. Bock F.G. and G.E. Moore: Carcinogenic Activity of Cigarette-Smoke Condensate. I. Effect of Trauma and X Irradiation; J. Nat.Cancer Inst. 22 (1959) 401–411.

  • 260. Bock F.G. G.E. Moore J.E. Dowd and P.C. Clark: Carcinogenic Activity of Cigarette Smoke Condensate. Biological Activity of Refined Tar from Certain Brands of Cigarettes; JAMA 181 (1962) 668–673.

  • 261. Lang R.E. and R.J. Moshy: An Improved Automatic Smoking Machine for the Large Scale Collection of Cigarette Smoke Condensate; presented at the 19th Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference Lexington KY USA 1965.

  • 262. National Cancer Institute Smoking and Health Program: Report No. 1 – Toward Less Hazardous Cigarettes. The First Set of Experimental Cigarettes; edited by G.E. Gori U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare Publication No. (NIH) 76–905 National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute 1976.

  • 263. National Cancer Institute Smoking and Health Program: Report No. 2 – Toward Less Hazardous Cigarettes. The Second Set of Experimental Cigarettes; edited by G.E. Gori U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare Publication No. (NIH) 76–1111 National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute 1976.

  • 264. National Cancer Institute Smoking and Health Program: Report No. 3 – Toward Less Hazardous Cigarettes. The Third Set of Experimental Cigarettes; edited by G.E. Gori U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare Publication No. (NIH) 77–1280 National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute 1977.

  • 265. National Cancer Institute Smoking and Health Program: Report No. 4 – Toward Less Hazardous Cigarettes. The Fourth Set of Experimental Cigarettes; edited by G.E. Gori U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute 1980.

  • 266. National Cancer Institute Smoking and Health Program: Report No. 5 – Toward Less Hazardous Cigarettes. Summary: Four Skin Painting Bioassays Using Condensate from Experimental Cigarettes; edited by G.E. Gori U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare 1980.

  • 267. Bombick D.W. P.H. Ayres and D.J. Doolittle: Cytotoxicity Assessment of Whole Smoke and Vapor Phase of Mainstream and Sidestream Cigarette Smoke from Three Kentucky Reference Cigarettes; Toxicol. Methods 7 (1997) 177–190.

  • 268. Seehofer F J.E. Miller and H. Elmenhorst.: Eine automatische Schnellrauchmaschine für Serienanalysen und für die präparative Gewinnung von Rauchkondensaten [An Automatic High-Speed Smoking Machine for Batch Analyses and the Preparative Collection of Smoke Condensates]; Teil 2: Elmenhorst H.: Automatische Schnellrauchmaschine zur präparativen Gewinnung von Tabakrauchkondensaten [Automatic High-Speed Smoking Machine for the Preparative Collection of Smoke Condensates]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1965) 78–82. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0098

  • 269. Barkemeyer H. and F. Seehofer: Über eine neue Methode zur Niederschlagung von Tabakrauch in Flüssigkeiten [A New Method for the Collection of the Particle Phase of Tobacco Smoke in Liquids]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 1 (1961) 93–96. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0014

  • 270. Elmenhorst H.: Eine neue Kältefalle zur Gewinnung großer Mengen von Tabakrauchkondensat [A New Cold Trap for the Collection of Large Amounts of Tobacco Smoke Condensate]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1965) 101–107. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0103

  • 271. Elmenhorst H.: Eine vollautomatische Rauchmaschine für die Herstellung großer Mengen von Cigarettenrauch Kondensat [An Automatic Smoking Machine for the Collection of Large Quantities of Cigarette Smoke Condensate]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1966) 545–553. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0152

  • 272. Elmenhorst H. and W. Hennig: Eine vollautomatische Rauchmaschine. II. Mitteilung: Automatische Kontrolle der Stummellänge und ihre Verwendung als Steuerprinzip [An Automatic Smoking Machine. 2nd Report: The Automatic Control of Butt Lengths and its Use as Control Device]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 5 (1969) 25–27. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0211

  • 273. Dontenwill W. H. Elmenhorst H.-P. Harke G. Reckzeh and K.H. Weber: Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die tumorenerzeugende Wirkung von Zigarettenrauch-Kondensaten an der Mäusehaut. I. Mitteilung: Gesamtversuch [Experimental Studies on Tumorigenic Activity of Cigarette Smoke Condensates on the Skin of Mice. 1st Communication: Total Experiment]; Z. Krebsforsch. 73 (1970) 265–284.

  • 274. Neurath G. and R. Kröger: Druckverrauchen – Eine neue Abrauchmethode und Möglichkeiten ihrer Anwendung [Mechanical Smoking Using a Pressure Procedure - A New Smoking Procedure and its Application Conditions]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 2 (1963) 81–88. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0058

  • 275. Food Protection Committee Food and Nutrition Board: Problems in the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Hazard from Use of Food Additives; U.S. Natl. Acad. Sci. Natl. Res. Council Publ. 749 Washington DC USA 1959.

  • 276. Neurath G. and H. Ehmke: Apparatur zur Untersuchung des Nebenstromrauches [An Apparatus for Sidestream Studies]; Beitr. Tabakforschung 2 (1964) 117–121. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0064

  • 277. Brunnemann K.D. and D. Hoffmann: The pH of Tobacco Smoke; Food Cosmetics Toxicol. 12 (1974) 115–124.

  • 278. Brunnemann K.D. L. Yu and D. Hoffmann: Assessment of Carcinogenic N-Nitrosamines in Mainstream and Sidestream Smoke from Cigarettes; Cancer Res. 37 (1977) 3218–3222.

  • 279. Brunnemann K.D. J.D. Adams D.P.S. Ho and D. Hoffmann: The Influence of Tobacco Smoke on Indoor Atmospheres II. Volatile and Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines in Main- and Sidestream Smoke and Their Contribution to Indoor Pollution; Proceed. 4th Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants 1977 pp. 876–880 published by the Am. Chem. Soc. Washington D.C. USA 1978.

  • 280. Adams J.D. K.D. Brunnemann and D. Hoffmann: Determination of Nitric Oxide in Unaged Smoke by GSC-TEA; Paper presented at the 32nd Tobacco Chemists Research Conference 1978 Montreal Canada.

  • 281. Brunnemann K.D. H. Lee and D. Hoffmann: Chemical Studies on Tobacco Smoke XLVII. On the Quantitative Analysis of Catechols and Their Reduction; Anal. Letters 9 (1976) 934–955.

  • 282. Brunnemann K.D. S. Stanke and D. Hoffmannn: Chemical Studies on Tobacco Smoke LXI. Volatile Pyridines: Quantitative Analysis in Mainstream and Sidestream Smoke of Cigarettes and Cigars; Anal. Letters A11 (1978) 545–560.

  • 283. Brunnemann K.D. and D. Hoffmann: Chemical Studies on Tobacco Smoke XXXIV. Gaschromatographic Determination of Ammonia in Cigarette and Cigar Smoke; J Chrom. Sci. 13 (1975) 159–163.

  • 284. Morrell F.A. and C. Varsel: A Total Combustion Product Cigarette Smoking Machine – Analyses of Radioactive Labeled Cigarette Paper; Tob. Sci. 10 (1966) 45–50.

  • 285. O’Keefe A.E. and G.T. Smith: A Proximity Cigarette Lighter; Paper presented at the 13th Tobacco Chemists Research Conference October 1959 Lexington KY USA.

  • 286. Jenkins R.W. Jr M.K. Chavis R.H. Newman and F.A. Morrell: The Quantitative Recovery of Smoke from Radioactively Labeled Cigarettes; Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isotopes 22 (1971) 691–697.

  • 287. Jenkins Jr R.W. C. Goldey and T.G. Williamson: Neutron Activation Analysis in Tobacco and Cigarette Smoke Studies: 2R1 Cigarette Composition Smoke Transference and Butt Filtration; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 13 (1985) 59–65. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0556

  • 288. Seehofer F. and D. Hanßen: Die Kapillarpresse eine Rauchmaschine zur Gewinnung von nativem Rauchkondensat. 1. Mitteilung [The Capillary Press a Smoking Machine for Collecting Native Smoke Condensate. 1st Report]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 2 (1964) 303–310. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0083

  • 289. Seehofer F. and D. Hanßen: Die Kapillarpresse eine Rauchmaschine zur Gewinnung von nativem Rauchkondensat. 2. Mitteilung; Die automatische Kapillarpresse [The Capillary Press a Smoking Machine for Collecting Native Smoke Condensate. 2nd report. The Automatic Capillary Press]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1965) 291–300. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0121

  • 290. Seehofer F. and D. Hanßen: Die Kapillarpresse eine Rauchmaschine zur Gewinnung von nativem Rauchkondensat. 3. Mitteilung. Die automatische Kapillarpresse mit einem Rauchkopf für offenes und geschlossenes Abrauchen [The Capillary Press a Smoking Machine for Collecting Native Smoke Condensate. 3rd Report. An Automatic Smoking Machine Equipped with a Supplementary Appliance for Free and Restricted Smoking]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1966) 358–370. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0128

  • 291. Mathewson H.D.: The Direct Preparation of Cigarette Smoke Condensate by High Velocity Impaction; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1966) 430–437. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0137

  • 292. Walaszek Z. M. Hanausek and T.J. Slaga: The Role of Skin Painting in Predicting Lung Cancer; Int. J. Toxicol. 26 (2007) 345–351.

  • 293. Lickint F.: Tabak und Tabakrauch als ätiologischer Faktor des Carcinoms [Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke as Etiologic Factor of Carcinoma]; Z. Krebsforsch. 30 (1929) 349–365.

  • 294. Mertens V.E.: Zigarettenrauch eine Ursache des Lungenkrebses? (Eine Anregung.) [Cigarette Smoke a Cause of Lung Cancer? (A Suggestion)]; Z. Krebsforsch. 32 (1930) 82–91.

  • 295. Mertens V.E.: Noch einmal Zigarettenrauch und Lungenkrebs [Once More: Cigarette Smoke and Lung Cancer]; Z. Krebsforsch. 51 (1941) 183–192.

  • 296. Campbell J.A.: The Effect of Exhaust Gases from Internal Combustion Engines and Tobacco Smoke Upon Mice with Special Reference to Incidence of Tumours of the Lung; Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 17 (1936) 146–158.

  • 297. Lorenz E. H.L. Stewart J.H. Daniel and C.V. Nelson: The Effects of Breathing Tobacco Smoke on Strain A Mice; Cancer Res. 3 (1943) 123.

  • 298. Essenberg J.M.: Cigarette Smoke and the Incidence of Primary Neoplasm of the Lung in the Albino Mouse; Science 116 (1952) 561–562.

  • 299. Leuchtenberger C. R. Leuchtenberger P.F. Doolin and P. Shaffer: A Correlated Histological Cytological and Cytochemical Study of the Tracheobronchial Tree and Lungs of Mice Exposed to Cigarette Smoke. I. Bronchitis with Atypical Epithelial Changes in Mice Exposed to Cigarette Smoke; Cancer 11 (1958) 490–506.

  • 300. Leuchtenberger C. R. Leuchtenberger F. Ruch K. Tanaka and T. Tanaka: Cytological and Cytochemical Alterations in the Respiratory Tract of Mice after Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Influence Virus and Both; Cancer Res. 23 (1963) 555–565.

  • 301. Leuchtenberger C. R. Leuchtenberger and S. Weiss: Increase of Carbon Monoxide (CO) in Blood of Mice Exposed to Inhalation of Cigarette Smoke; Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 6 (1965) 39.

  • 302. Leuchtenberger C. and R. Leuchtenberger: Einfluss von frischem Zigarettenrauch auf die Entwicklung von Lungentumoren und auf Lungenkulturen bei der Snell-Maus [Influence of Fresh Cigarette Smoke on the Development of Lung Tumors and on Lung Explant Cultures Using the Snell Mouse]; Schweiz. med. Wschr. 101 (1971) 1374–1381.

  • 303. Holland R.H. R.H. Wilson D. Morris M.S. McCall and H. Lanz: The Effect of Cigarette Smoke on the Respiratory System of the Rabbit - A Preliminary Report; Cancer 11 (1958) 709–712.

  • 304. Holland R.H. E.J. Kozlowski and L. Booker: The Effect of Cigarette Smoke on the Respiratory System of the Rabbit – A Final Report; Cancer 16 (1963) 612–615.

  • 305. Haag H.B. P.S. Larson and J.H. Weatherby: The Effect on Rats of Chronic Exposure to Cigarette Smoke; Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 90 (1960) 227–238.

  • 306. Otto H.: Experimentelle Untersuchungen an Mäusen mit passiver Zigarettenrauchbeatmung [Experimental Studies of Passive Inhalation of Cigarette Smoke by Mice]; Frankfurter Z. Patholog. 73 (1963) 10–23.

  • 307. Wynder E.L. K.T. Taguchi V. Baden and D. Hoffmann: Tobacco Carcinogenesis. IX. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Respiratory Tract of Mice after Passive Inhalation; Cancer 21 (1968) 134–153.

  • 308. Dontenwill W. and U. Mohr: Experimentelle Untersuchungen zum Problem der Carcinomentstehung im Respirationstrakt. II. Die Wirkung von Tabakrauchkondensaten und Zigarettenrauch auf die Lunge des Goldhamsters [Experimental Investigation to the Problem of the Generation of Carcinomas in the Respiatory Tract. II. The Effect of Tobacco Smoke Condensates and Cigarette Smoke in the Lung of Golden Hamsters]; Z. Krebsforsch. 65 (1962) 62–68.

  • 309. Dontenwill W.: Inhalationsversuche mit Tabakrauch [Inhalation Experiments With Tobacco Smoke]; in: Alkylierend wirkende Verbindungen Tagungsbericht zur 1. Konferenz über N-Nitroso-Verbindungen und Lactone [Alkylating Compounds Report of the 1st Conference on N-Nitroso Compounds and Lactones] Hamburg Sept. 1963 Wissenschaftliche Forschungsstelle im Verband der Cigarettenindustrie 1964 pp. 133–137.

  • 310. Dontenwill W. and B. Wiebecke: Tracheal and Pulmonary Alterations Following the Inhalation of Cigarette Smoke by the Golden Hamster; in: Lung Tumours in Animals - Proceedings of the Third Quadrennial Conference on Cancer University of Perugia June 24-29 1965 edited by L. Severi Perugia Division of Cancer Research 1966 pp. 519–526.

  • 311. Dontenwill W. G. Reckzeh and L. Stadler: Inhalationsexperimente mit Cigarettenrauch [Inhalation Experiments with Cigarette Smoke]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1966) 438–448. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0138

  • 312. Harris R.J.C. and G. Negroni: Cigarette Smoking and the Induction of Lung Cancer in Mice; in: Lung Tumours in Animals - Proceedings of the Third Quadrennial Conference on Cancer University of Perugia June 24-29 1965 edited by L. Severi Perugia Division of Cancer Research 1966 pp. 497–512.

  • 313. Harris R.J.C. and G. Negroni: Production of Lung Carcinomas in C57BL Mice Exposed to a Cigarette Smoke and Air Mixture; Brit. Med. J. 4 (1967) 637–641.

  • 314. Dontenwill W. G. Reckzeh and L. Stadler: Berauchungsapparatur für Laboratoriumstiere [An Inhalation Apparatus Designed for Laboratory Animals]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 4 (1967) 45–49. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0166

  • 315. Heinr. Borgwaldt GmbH: Smoking Machines – Inhalation Apparatus Type “Hamburg II”; Bulletin Borgwaldt Hamburg Germany. Available at: https://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/=id=hmmm0075

  • 316. Rücker K. and W. Dontenwill: Tierexperimentelle Untersuchungen über die Beeinflussung der Atmung während der Inhalation von Cigarettenrauch [Animal Experiments on the Influence of Cigarette Smoke Inhalation on the Respiratory Frequency]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 4 (1967) 40–44. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0165

  • 317. Reckzeh G. K. Rücker H.-P. Harke and W. Dontenwill: Untersuchungen zur Bestimmung der akuten und chronischen Toxizität von Cigarettenrauch bei passiver Berauchung von Versuchstieren [Studies to Determine the Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Cigarette Smoke in Experimental Animals after Passive Smoking]; Arzneimittelforschung 19 (1969) 237–241.

  • 318. Dontenwill W.: Experimental Investigations on the Effect of Cigarette Smoke Inhalation on Small Laboratory Animals; Inhalation Carcinogenesis U.S. AEC Symposium Series 18 (1970) 389–412.

  • 319. Houseman T.H. and E. Heneage: Studies of Cigarette Smoke Transfer Using Radioisotopically Labelled Tobacco Constituents; Part I: The Preparation of Radioisotopically Labelled Cigarettes; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 7 (1973) 138–141. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0321

  • 320. Reznik G. N. Kmoch and U. Mohr: Inhalation Experiments with 14C-Labelled Cigarette Smoke. I. Determination of the Effectiveness of Two Different Smoking Systems with Labelled Cigarettes; Toxicology 4 (1975) 363–371.

  • 321. Reznik G. and U. Mohr: A Modified Method for Locating Labeled Smoke Particles in Organs of Syrian Golden and European Hamsters; in: Experimental Lung Cancer; edited by E. Karbe and J.F. Park Springer Berlin Germany (1974) 300–308.

  • 322. Carruthers W. and R.A.W. Johnston: Composition of a Paraffin Wax Fraction from Tobacco Leaf and Tobacco Smoke; Nature 184 (1959) 1131–1132.

  • 323. Carugno N.: Determination of Paraffin Waxes of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke by Gas-Liquid Chormatography; Natl. Cancer Inst. Monograph 9 (1962) 171–178.

  • 324. Davis B.R. T.H. Houseman and H.R. Roderick: Studies of Cigarette Smoke Transfer Using Radioisotopically Labelled Tobacco Constituents; Part III: The Use of Dotriacontane-16 17-14C as a Marker for the Deposition of Cigarette Smoke in the Respiratory System of Experimental Animals; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 7 (1973)148–153. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0323

  • 325. Kmoch N. G. Reznik and U. Mohr: Inhalation Experiments with 14C-Labelled Cigarette Smoke; II. The Distribution of Cigarette Smoke Particles in the Hamster Respiratory Tract after Exposure in Two Different Smoking Systems; Toxicology 4 (1975) 373–381.

  • 326. Dontenwill W.P. H.J. Chevalier H.P. Harke U. Lafrenz G. Reckzeh and B. Schneider: Investigations on the Effects of Chronic Cigarette-Smoke Inhalation in Syrian Golden Hamsters; J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 51 (1973) 1781–1832.

  • 327. Wehner A.P. R.H. Busch R.J. Olson and D.K. Craig: Chronic Inhalation of Asbestos and Cigarette Smoke by Hamsters; Environ. Res. 10 (1975) 368–383.

  • 328. Davis B.R. E.R. Harris and E. Heneage: A New Device for Exposing Experimental Animals to Cigarette Smoke; Bates-No. 105439902-9919 Available at: http://beta.industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/mmdb0208 (accessed February 2015).

  • 329. Bättig K. and V. Hrubes: The Effect of Filtrate Fractions of Tobacco Smoke on Swimming Endurance in the Rat; Z. Präventivmed. 16 (1971) 205–210.

  • 330. Driscoll P. and K. Bättig: The Effect of Filtrate Fractions of Tobacco Smoke on the Avoidance Behavior of Rats Under Extinction Procedure; Z. Präventivmed. 16 (1971) 197–203.

  • 331. Walton R.R.: Smoking Machine; U.S. Patent 3476119 Nov. 4 1969.

  • 332. Morrissey C.A.: Cigarette Smoking Machine; U.S. Patent 3528435 Sept. 15 1968.

  • 333. Stokely J.R. J.H. Moneyhun M.R. Guerin L. Florant and J. Greenspan: Description and Characteristics of the Walton Horizontal Inhalation Exposure Smoking Machine; in: Tobacco Smoke Inhalation Bioassay Chemistry edited by M.R. Guerin J.R. Stokely C.E. Higgins and G.W. Griffith Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN USA 1979 pp. 1–17.

  • 334. Guerin M.R. J.R. Stokely C.E. Higgins J.H. Moneyhun and R.W. Holmberg: Inhalation Bioassay Chemistry - Walton Horizontal Smoking Machine for Inhalation Exposure of Rodents to Cigarette Smoke; J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 63 (1979) 441–448.

  • 335. Chen B.T. J. Namenyi H.C. Yeh J.L. Mauderly and R.G. Cuddihy: Physical Characterization of Cigarette Smoke Aerosol Generated from a Walton Smoke Machine; Aerosol Sci. Technol. 12 (1990) 364–375.

  • 336. Maddox W.L. W.E. Dalbey M.R. Guerin J.R. Stokely D.A. Creasia and J. Kendrick: A Tobacco Smoke Inhalation Exposure Device for Rodents; Arch. Environm. Health 33 (1978) 64–71.

  • 337. Moneyhun J.H. J.R. Stokely and L. Florant: Process and Instruments Corporation Automatic Smoke Exposure Machine - SEM II; in: Tobacco Smoke Inhalation Bioassay Chemistry edited by M.R. Guerin J.R. Stokely C.E. Higgins and G.W. Griffith Report ORNL-5424 pp. 19–33 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN USA 1979.

  • 338. Henry C.J. J.E. Caton J.R. Stokely M.R. Guerin A. Lopez M.D. Avery D.R. Dansie G.M. Henderson T. Gayle C.E. Whitmire and R.E. Kouri: Deposition and Distribution of the Total Particulate Matter of Cigarette Smoke in Mice Using a Large-Capacity Smoke Exposure System; Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 58 (1981) 399–409.

  • 339. Henry C.J. C.E. Whitmire A. Lopez D.R. Dansie. M.D. Avery J.E. Caton J.R. Stokely R.W. Holmberg M.R. Guerin and R.E. Kouri: The Dosimetry and Distribution of Whole Cigarette Smoke Particulates in Inbred Strains of Mice: Comparison of a Large Smoke Exposure Machine (SEM) with a Small-Capacity Smoke-Exposure Machine (Walton); Pulonary Toxicology of Respirable Particles; edited by G.E. Dage and J.A. Mahafley U.S. Technical Information Center Department of Energy 1980 pp. 177–192.

  • 340. Henry C.J. D.R. Dansie K.K. Kanagalingam R.E. Kouri T. Gayle M. Guerin R. Holmberg L. Florant and J. Greenspan: Chronic Inhalation Studies in Mice. I. Facilities and Equipment for “Nose-Only” Exposure to Cigarette Smoke; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 13 (1985) 37–53. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0554

  • 341. Henry C.J. and R.E. Kouri: Chronic Inhaltation Studies in Mice. II. Effects of Long-Term Exposure to 2R1 Cigarette Smoke on (C57BL/Cum x C3H/AnfCum)F1 Mice; J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 77 (1986) 203–212.

  • 342. Gori G.B. (ed.): Proceedings of the Tobacco Smoke Inhalation Workshop on Experimental Methods in Smoking and Health Research; DHEW Publ. No. (NIH) 75-906 Washington D.C. U.S. Gov. Print. Office 1975.

  • 343. Guerin M. W.L. Maddox and J.R. Stokely: Tobacco Smoke Inhalation Exposure: Concepts and Devices; in: Proceedings of the Tobacco Smoke Inhalation Workshop on Experimental Methods in Smoking and Health Research edited by G.B. Gori Bethesda ML USA June 19–21 1974 DHEW Publ. No. (NIH) 75-906 1975 pp. 31–48.

  • 344. Schultz F.J. and J.R. Wagner: A Thirty-Port Smoking Machine for Continuous Smoke Generation; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 8 (1975) 53–59. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0355

  • 345. Beven J.L.: Inhalation Toxicity Studies on Cigarette Smoke. I. A Versatile Exposure System for Inhalation Toxicity Studies on Cigarette Smoke; Toxicology 6 (1976) 189–196.

  • 346. Binns R. J.L. Beven L.V. Wilton and W.G.D. Lugton: Inhalation Toxicity Studies on Cigarette Smoke. II. Tobacco Smoke Inhalation Dosimetry Studies on Small Laboratory Animals; Toxicology 6 (1976) 197–206.

  • 347. Binns R. J.L. Beven L.V. Wilton and W.G.D. Lugton: Inhalation Toxicity Studies on Cigarette Smoke. III. Tobacco Smoke Inhalation Dosimetry Study on Rats; Toxicology 6 (1976) 207–217.

  • 348. Bilimoria M.H. and D.J. Ecobichon: Responses of Rodent Hepatic Renal and Pulmonary Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase Following Exposure to Cigarette Smoke; Toxicology 15 (1980) 83–89.

  • 349. Bilimoria M.H. and D.J. Ecobichon: The Induction of Rat Lung Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase by Diluted Smoke from Commercial Cigarettes; Toxicology 22 (1981) 205–210.

  • 350. Bilimoria M.H. and D.J. Ecobichon: Protective Antioxidant Mechanisms in Rat and Guinea Pig Tissues Challenged by Acute Exposure to Cigarette Smoke; Toxicology 72 (1992) 131–144.

  • 351. Celanese Fibers Marketing Company: CytrelTM Smoking Material Manual; Charlotte NC USA 1969.

  • 352. Baumgartner H. and C.R.E. Coggins: Description of a Continuous-Smoking Inhalation Machine for Exposing Small Animals to Tobacco Smoke; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 10 (1980) 169–174. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0487

  • 353. Coggins C.R.E. R. Lam and K.T. Morgan: Chronic Inhalation Study in Rats Using Cigarettes Containing Different Amounts of Cytrel Tobacco Supplement; Toxicology 22 (1982) 287–296.

  • 354. Coggins C.R.E. X.L.M. Fouillet R. Lam and K.T. Morgan: Cigarette Smoke Induced Pathology of the Rat Respiratory Tract: A Comparison of the Effects of the Particulate and Vapour Phases; Toxicology 16 (1980) 83–101.

  • 355. Chen B.T. W.E. Bechtold E.B. Barr Y.-S. Cheng J.L. Mauderly and R.G. Cuddihy: Comparison of Cigarette Exposure Atmospheres in Different Exposure and Puffing Modes; Inhal. Toxicol. 1 (1989) 331–347.

  • 356. Chen B.T. W.E. Bechtold and J.L. Mauderly: Description and Evaluation of a Cigarette Smoke Generation System for Inhalation Studies; J. Aerosol Med. 5 (1992) 19–30.

  • 357. Briggs C.D. J. McCready and A. Schweitzer: The Chemical Evaluation of a Continuous-smoking Inhalation Machine; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 10 (1980) 175–184. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0488

  • 358. New Smoking Materials Ltd.: An Introduction to NSM Tobacco Substitute; NSM Ltd. Wilmslow UK 1977. Bates-No. 500538417-500538423. Available at: https://www.industrydocumentslibrary.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/=id=ghlf0099

  • 359. Coggins C.R.E. R.K. Haroz R. Lam and K.T. Morgan: The Tumourigenicity of Smoke Condensates From Cigarettes Containing Different Amounts of Cytrel as Assessed by Mouse Skin Painting; Toxicology 23 (1982) 177–185.

  • 360. Ayres P.H. A.T. Mosberg and C.R.E. Coggins: Modernization of Nose-Only Smoking Machines for Use in Animal Inhalation Studies; J. Am. College Toxicol. 9 (1990) 441–446.

  • 361. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co.: Chemical and Biological Studies on New Cigarette Prototypes That Heat Instead of Burn Tobacco; R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. Winston-Salem NC USA 1988 Bates No. 533436276-533436657. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/brt81b00

  • 362. CH Technologies (USA): Catalog 2015. Available at: http://chtechusa.com (accessed May 2016)

  • 363. Reininghaus W. and U. Hackenberg: Anlage zur Langzeit-Inhalation mit Zigarettenrauch für kleine Labortiere [System for Long-Term Inhalation with Cigarette Smoke by Small Laboratory Animals]; Med. Technik 97 (1977) 5–6.

  • 364. Vanscheeuwijck P.M. A. Teredesai P.M. Terpstra J. Verbeeck P. Kuhl B. Gerstenberg S. Gebel and E.L. Carmines: Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Ingredients Added to Cigarettes. Part 4: Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity; Food Chem. Toxicol. 40 (2002) 113–131.

  • 365. Haussmann H.J. E. Anskeit D. Becker P. Kuhl W. Stinn A. Teredesai P. Voncken and R.A. Walk: Comparison of Fresh and Room-Aged Cigarette Sidestream Smoke in a Chronic Inhalation Study on Rats; Toxicol. Sci. 41 (1998) 100–116.

  • 366. INBIFO Institut für biologische Forschung GmbH: Description and Design of the 30-Port INBIFO Smoking Machine (SM-85) August 1999. Available at: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/gyfc0062

  • 367. Carmines E.L. C.L. Gaworski A.S. Faqi and N. Rajendran: In Utero Exposure to 1R4F Reference Cigarette Smoke: Evaluation of Developmental Toxicity; Toxicol. Sci. 75 (2003) 134–147.

  • 368. Gavorski C.L. E.L. Carmines A.S. Faqi and N. Rajendran: In Utero and Lactation Exposure of Rats to 1R4F Reference Cigarette Mainstream Smoke: Effect on Prenatal and Postnatal Development; Toxicol. Sci. 79 (2004) 157–169.

  • 369. Appleton S. G.R. Krautter J.H. Lauterbach and N. Rajendran: Validation of a New Smoking Machine for Rodent Inhalation Studies; Paper presented at the 55th Tobacco Science Research Conference Greensboro NC USA 2001 Abstract 66.

  • 370. Appleton S. G.R. Krautter J.H. Lauterbach R. Morrissey and N. Rajendran: Validation of a Nose-Only Rodent Inhalation Smoking Protocol; Paper presented a the 55th Tobacco Science Research Conference Greensboro NC USA 2001 Abstract 67.

  • 371. Adams S.M. S. Appleton J.H. Lauterbach and N.E. Takenaka.: Design and Performance of a New Reference Cigarette for Biological Studies on Cigarette Smoke; Paper presented at the 55th Tobacco Science Research Conference Greensboro NC USA 2001 Abstract 65.

  • 372. Obot C.J. K.M. Lee A.F. Fuciarelli R.A. Renne and W.J. McKinney: Characterization of Mainstream Cigarette Smoke-Induced Biomarker Responses in ICR and C57Bl/6 Mice; Inhal. Toxicol. 16 (2004) 701–719.

  • 373. Coggins C.R.E.: A Review of Chronic Inhalation Studies with Mainstream Cigarette Smoke in Rats and Mice; Toxicol. Pathol. 26 (1998) 307–314.

  • 374. Coggins C.R.E.: A Review of Chronic Inhalation Studies with Mainstream Cigarette Smoke in Hamsters Dogs and Nonhuman Primates; Toxicol. Pathol. 29 (2001) 550–557.

  • 375. Coggins C.R.E.: An Updated Review of Inhalation Studies with Cigarette Smoke in Laboratory Animals; Int. J. Toxicol. 26 (2007) 331–338.

  • 376. Coggins C.R.E.: Letter to the Editor; Toxicol. Pathol. 28 (2000) 754.

  • 377. Hahn F.F. A.P. Gigliotti J.A. Hutt T.H. March and J.L. Mauderly: A Review of the Histopathology of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Lung Cancer in Rats and Mice; Int. J. Toxicol. 26 (2007) 307–313.

  • 378. Mauderly J.L. A.P. Gigliotti E.B. Barr W.E. Bechtold S.A. Belinsky F.F. Hahn C.A. Hobbs T.H. March S.K. Seilkop and G.L. Finch: Chronic Inhalation Exposure to Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Increases Lung and Nasal Tumor Incidence in Rats; Toxicol. Sci. 81 (2004) 280–292.

  • 379. Hutt J.A. B.R. Vuillemenot E.B. Barr M.J. Grimes F.F. Hahn C.H. Hobbs T.H. March A.P. Gigliotti S.K. Seilkop G.L. Finch J.L. Mauderly and S.A. Belinsky: Life-Span Inhalation Exposure to Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Induces Lung Cancer in B6C3F1 Mice Through Genetic and Epigenetic Pathways; Carcinogenesis 26 (2005) 1999–2009

  • 380. Teague S.V. K.E. Pinkerton M. Goldsmith A. Gebremichael and S. Chang: Sidestream Cigarette Smoke Generation and Exposure System for Environmental Tobacco Smoke Studies; Inhal. Toxicol. 6 (1994) 79–93.

  • 381. Sun W. R. Wu and J.A. Last: Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke on a Human Tracheobronchial Epithelial Cell Line; Toxicology 100 (1995) 163–174.

  • 382. Aufderheide M. D. Ritter J.W. Knebel and G. Scherer: A Method for In Vitro Analysis of the Biological Activity of Complex Mixtures Such as Sidestream Cigarette Smoke; Exp. Toxic. Pathol. 53 (2001) 141–152.

  • 383. Wolz L. G. Krause G. Scherer M. Aufderheide and U. Mohr: In Vitro Genotoxic Assay of Sidestream Smoke Using a Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Line; Food Chem. Toxicol. 40 (2002) 845–850.

  • 384. Bair W.J. N.S. Porter D.P. Brown and A.P. Wehner: Apparatus for Direct Inhalation of Cigarette Smoke by Dogs; J. Appl. Physiol. 26 (1969) 847–850.

  • 385. Cross F.T. R.F. Palmer R.E. Filipy G.E. Dagle and B.O. Stuart: Carcinogenic Effects of Radon Daughters Uranium Ore Dust and Cigarette Smoke in Beagle Dogs; Health Phys. 42 (1982) 33–52.

  • 386. Park S.S. Y. Kikkawa Y. Goldring M.M. Daly M. Zeiefsky C. Shim M. Spierer and T. Morita: An Animal Model of Cigarette Smoking in Beagle Dogs. Correlative Evaluation of the Effects on Pulmonary Function Defense and Morphology; Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 115 (1977) 971–979.

  • 387. Cahan W.G. and D. Kirman: An Effective System and Procedure for Cigarette Smoking by Dogs; J. Surg. Res. 8 (1968) 567–575.

  • 388. Hammond E.C. O. Auerbach D. Kirman and L. Garfinkel: Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Dogs. I. Design of Experiment Mortality and Findings in Lung Parenchyma; Arch. Environm. Health 21 (1970) 740–753.

  • 389. Auerbach O. E.C. Hammond D. Kirman and L. Garfinkel: Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Dogs. II. Pulmonary Neoplasms; Arch. Environm. Health 21 (1970) 754–768.

  • 390. Battista S.P. M.R. Guerin G.B. Gori and C.J. Kensler: A New System for Quantitatively Exposing Laboratory Animals by Direct Inhalation; Arch. Environm. Health 27 (1973) 376–382.

  • 391. Hazleton Laboratories America Inc.: Inhalation Bioassay of Cigarette Smoke in Dogs. Effects of Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide on Atherogenesis; Report submitted to the National Cancer Institute Division of Cancer Cause and Prevention Smoking and Health Program 1981 Vienna VA USA pp. 1–291.

  • 392. Piccirillo V.J.: Inhalation Bioassay of Cigarette Smoke in Dogs: Nicotine and PMO effects; Report submitted to the National Cancer Institute Smoking and Health Program Borriston Laboratories Temple Hills MD USA 1981.

  • 393. Brazell R.S. A.C. Stiff G.M. Henderson R.A. Jenkins P.L. Röming and O. Auerbach: Plasma Nicotine and Cotinine in Tobacco Smoke Exposed Beagle Dogs; Toxicol. Appl. Pharamcol. 73 (1984) 152–158.

  • 394. Darwin C.: The Descent of Man; John Murray London 1871 Vol. 1 Chapter 1 p. 12.

  • 395. Jarvik M.E.: Tobacco Smoking in Monkeys; Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 142 (1967) Art. 1 280–294.

  • 396. Ando K. and T. Yanagita: Cigarette Smoking in Rhesus Monkeys; Psychopharmacology 72 (1981) 117–127.

  • 397. McGill H.C. Jr W.R. Rogers R.L. Wilbur and D.E. Johnson: Cigarette Smoking Baboon Model: Demonstration of Feasibility; Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 157 (1978) 672–676.

  • 398. Rogers W.R. R.L. Bass 3rd D.E. Johnson A.W. Kruski C.A. McMahan M.M. Montiel G.E. Mott R.L. Wilbur and H.C. McGill Jr: Atherosclerosis-Related Responses to Cigarette Smoking in the Baboon; Circulation 61 (1980) 1188–1193.

  • 399. Rogers W.R. K.D. Carey C.A. McMahan M.M. Montiel G.E. Mott H.S. Wigodsky and H.C. McGill: Cigarette Smoking Dietary Hyperlipidemia and Experimental Atherosclerosis in the Baboon; Exp. Mol. Pathol. 48 (1988) 135–141.

  • 400. Rogers W.R. B. McCullough and J.E. Caton: Cigarette Smoking by Baboons: In Vivo Assessment of Particulate Inhalation Using Bronchoalveolar Lavage to Recover [14C]Dotriacontane; Toxicology 20 (1981) 309–321.

  • 401. Raymond T.L. A.J. Delucia and L.R. Bryant: Failure of Chronic Cigarette Smoke Exposure to Alter Plasma Lipoproteins of Stumptailed Macaques (Macaca arcoides); Atherosclerosis 41 (1982) 27–33.

  • 402. Sopori M.L. C.C. Gairola A.J. Delucia L.R. Bryant and S. Cherian: Immune Responsiveness of Monkeys Exposed Chronically to Cigarette Smoke; Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 36 (1985) 338–344.

  • 403. Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Tierschutzgesetz in der Neufassung vom 25. Mai 1998 [Animal Protection Law Revised Version of 25 May 1998]; Bundesgesetzblatt I (1998) 1105–1120. Available at: http://www.bgbl.de/xaver/bgbl/start.xav?startbk=Bundesanzeiger_BGBl&jumpTo=bgbl198030.pdf

  • 404. Peta Deutschland: Tierversuche für die Tabakindustrie [Animal Experiments in the Tobacco Industry]; Stuttgart Germany. Available at: http://www.peta.de/tierversuche-fuer-die-tabakindustrie=.V8mDG6UkprR

  • 405. European Parliament Council of the European Union: Regulation (EC) 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 Concerning the Registration Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) Establishing a European Chemicals Agency; Off. J. L 396 (2006) 1–849.

  • 406. FRAME - Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments. Available at: http://www.frame.org.uk/

  • 407. BéruBé K. M. Aufderheide D. Breheny R. Clothier R. Combes R. Duffin B. Forbes M. Gaça A. Gray I. Hall M. Kelly M. Lethem M. Liebsch L. Merolla J.-P. Morin J.C. Seagrave M.A. Swartz T.D. Tetley and M. Umachandran: In Vitro Models of Inhalation Toxicity and Disease - The Report of a FRAME Workshop; Altern. Lab. Anim. 37 (2009) 89–141.

  • 408. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals Section 4: Health Effects. Available at: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/oecd-guidelines-for-the-testing-of-chemicals-section-4-health-effects_20745788

  • 409. Putnam K.P. D.W. Bombick and D.J. Doolittle: Evaluation of Eight In Vitro Assays for Assessing the Cytotoxicity of Cigarette Smoke Condensate; Toxicol. In Vitro 16 (2002) 599–607.

  • 410. Borenfreund E. and J.A. Puerner: A Simple Quantitative Procedure Using Monolayer Cultures for Cytotoxicity Assays (HTD/NR-90); J. Tissue Cult. Methods 9 (1984) 7–9.

  • 411. Babich H. and E. Borenfreund: Applications of the Neutral Red Cytotoxicity Assay to In Vitro Toxicology; ATLA 18 (1990) 129–144.

  • 412. Repetto G. A. del Peso and J. L. Zurita: Neutral Red Uptake Assay for the Estimation of Cell Viability/Cytotoxicity; Nat. Protoc. 3 (2008) 1125–1131.

  • 413. Ames B.N. F.D. Lee and W.E. Durston: An Improved Bacterial Test System for the Detection and Classification of Mutagens and Carcinogens; Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 70 (1973) 782–786.

  • 414. Ames B.N. W.E. Durston E. Yamasaki and F.D. Lee: Carcinogens are Mutagens: A Simple Test System Combining Liver Homogenates for Activation and Bacteria for Detection; Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 70 (1973) 2281–2285.

  • 415. Mortelmans K. and E. Zeiger: The Ames Salmonella/Microsome Mutagenicity Assay; Mutat. Res. 455 (2000) 29–60.

  • 416. Crooks I. D.M. Dillon J.K. Scott M. Ballantyne and C. Meredith: The Effect of Long Term Storage on Tobacco Smoke Particulate Matter in In Vitro Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity Assays; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 65 (2013) 196–200.

  • 417. Rickert W.S. A.H. Trivedi R.A. Momin W.G. Wright and J.H. Lauterbach: Effect of Smoking Conditions and Methods of Collection on the Mutagenicity and Cytotoxicity of Cigarette Mainstream Smoke; Toxicol. Sci. 96 (2007) 285–293.

  • 418. Mumpower R.C. and G.P. Touey: Selective Removal of Phenol from Cigarette Smoke with Filters; Technical Report January1967 Tennessee Eastman Company (now Tennessee Eastman Division of Eastman Chemical Company). Available at: https://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/qhxl0207

  • 419. Hopkin J.M. V.S. Tomlinson and R.M. Jenkins: Variation in Response to Cytotoxicity of Cigarette Smoke; Brit. Med. J. 283 (1981) 1209–1211.

  • 420. Kaltenbach J.P. M.H. Kaltenbach and W.B. Lyons: Nigrosin as a Dye for Differentiating Live and Dead Ascites Cells; Exp. Cell. Res. 15 (1958) 112–7.

  • 421. Bombick D.W. and D.J. Doolittle: The Role of Chemical Structure and Cell Type in the Cytotoxicity of Low-Molecular-Weight Aldehydes and Pyridines; In Vitro Toxicol. 8 (1995) 349–356.

  • 422. Kier L. E. Yamasaki and B.N. Ames: Detection of Mutagenic Activity in Cigarette Smoke Condensates; Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 71 (1974) 4159–4163.

  • 423. Wynder E.L. and D. Hoffmann: Experimental Tobacco Carcinogenesis; Science 162 (1968) 862–871.

  • 424. Hutton J. and C. Hackney: Metabolism of Cigarette Smoke Condensates by Human and Rat Homogenates to Form Mutagens Detectable by Salmonella Typhimurium TA1538; Cancer Res. 35 (1975) 2461–2468.

  • 425. De Raat W.K.: Comparison of the Induction by Cigarette Smoke Condensates of Sister-Chromatid Exchanges in Chinese Hamster Cells and of Mutations in Salmonella Typhimurium; Mutat. Res. 66 (1979) 253–259.

  • 426. Hopkin J.M. and H.J. Evans: Cigarette Smoke Condensates Damage DNA in Human Lymphocytes; Nature 279 (1979) 241–242.

  • 427. Hopkin J.M. and H.J. Evans: Cigarette Smoke-Induced DNA Damage and Lung Cancer Risks; Nature 283 (1980) 388–390.

  • 428. Andreoli C. D. Gigante and A. Nunziata: A Review of In Vitro Methods to Assess the Biological Activity of Tobacco Smoke with the Aim of Reducing the Toxicity of Smoke; Toxicol. in Vitro 17 (2003) 587–594.

  • 429. ICH – International Council for Harmonization. Available at: http://www.ich.org/home.html

  • 430. Johnson M.D. J. Schilz M.V. Djordjevic J.R. Rice and P.G. Shields: Evaluation of In Vitro Assays for Assessing the Toxicity of Cigarette Smoke and Smokeless Tobacco; Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 12 (2009) 3263–3304.

  • 431. CORESTA In Vitro Toxicology Task Force: The Rationale and Strategy for Conducting In Vitro Toxicology Testing of Tobacco Smoke (May 2004). Available at: https://www.coresta.org/rationale-and-strategy-conducting-vitro-toxicology-testing-tobacco-smoke-29237.html

  • 432. Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN): Toxikologische Bewertung von Zusatzstoffen für Tabakprodukte – Ein Leitfaden [Toxicological Assessment of Additives for Tobacco Products – A Guidance]; DIN SPEC 10133:2014-09; DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. Berlin Germany 2014.

  • 433. European Parliament Council of the European Union: Directive 2014/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3rd April 2014 on the Approximation of the Laws Regulations and Administrative Provisions of the Member States Concerning the Manufacture Presentation and Sale of Tobacco and Related Products and Repealing Directive 2001/37/EC; Official Journal European Union L127 (2014) 1–38. AUCH 232

  • 434. Voisin C. C. Aerts A.B. Tonnel J.-L. Houdret and P. Ramon: Mise en survie en phase gazeuse et reconstitution “in vitro” du microenvironnement naturel des macrophages alvéolaires [Survival in Gaseous Phase and Reconstitution “In Vitro” of the Natural Micro-Enviroment of Alveolar Macrophages]; Path. Biol. 23 (1975) 453–459.

  • 435. Voisin C. C. Aerts E. Jakubczak and A.B. Tonnel: La culture cellulaire en phase gazeuse – Un nouveau modèle expérimental d'étude in vitro des activités des macrophages alvéolaires [Cell Culture in the Gas Phase – A New Experimental Model for the In Vitro Study of Alveolar Macrophages]; Bull. Europ. Physiopath. Resp. 13 (1977) 69–82.

  • 436. Voisin C. C. Aerts E. Jakubczak J.L. Houdret and A.B. Tonnel: Effects du bioxyde d’azote sur les macrophages alvéolaires en survie en phase gazeuse – Un nouveau modèle expérimental pour l'étude in vitro de la cytotoxicité des gaz nocifs [Effects of Nitrogen Dioxide on Alveolar Macrophages Surviving in the Gas Phase – A New Experimental Model for the Study of In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Toxic Gases]; Bull. Europ. Physiopath. Resp. 13 (1977) 137–144.

  • 437. Tarkington B.K. R. Wu W.-M. Sun K.J. Nikula D.W. Wilson and J.A. Last: In Vitro Exposure of Tracheobronchial Epithelial Cells and of Tracheal Explants to Ozone; Toxicology 88 (1994) 51–68.

  • 438. Aufderheide M. and U. Mohr: CULTEX – A New System and Technique for the Cultivation and Exposure of Cells at the Air/Liquid Interface; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 51 (1999) 489–490.

  • 439. Mohr U. and M. Aufderheide: Kulturvorrichtung und Verfahren zur Kultivierung von Zellen oder Gewebekomponenten; German Patent DE 19801763 C2 publication date: July 22 1999.

  • 440. Aufderheide M. and U. Mohr: CULTEX –An Alternative Technique or Cultivation and Exposure of Cells of the Respiratory Tract to Airborne Pollutants at the Air/Liquid Interface; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 52 (2000) 265–270.

  • 441. Ritter D. J.W. Knebel and M. Aufderheide: In Vitro Exposure of Isolated Cells to Native Gaseous Compounds – Development and Validation of an Optimized System for Human Lung Cells; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 53 (2001) 373–386.

  • 442. Aufderheide M. J.W. Knebel and D. Ritter: A Method for the In Vitro Exposure of Human Cells to Environmental and Complex Gaseous Mixtures: Application to Various Types of Atmosphere; ATLA 30 (2002) 433–441.

  • 443. Aufderheide M. J.W. Knebel and D. Ritter: Novel Approaches for Studying Pulmonary Toxicity In Vitro; Toxicol. Lett. 140–141 (2003) 205–211.

  • 444. Ritter D. J.W. Knebel and M. Aufderheide: Exposure of Human Lung Cells to Inhalable Substances: A Novel Test Strategy Involving Clean Air Exposure Periods Using Whole Diluted Cigarette Mainstream Smoke; Inhal. Toxicol. 15 (2003) 67–84.

  • 445. Aufderheide M. J.W. Knebel and D. Ritter: An Improved In Vitro model for Testing the Pulmonary Toxicity of Complex Mixtures Such as Cigarette Smoke; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 55 (2003) 51–57.

  • 446. Ritter D. J.W. Knebel and M. Aufderheide: Comparative Assessment of Toxicities of Mainstream Smoke from Commercial Cigarettes; Inhal. Toxicol. 16 (2004) 691–700.

  • 447. CORESTA In vitro Toxicology Task Force: In Vitro Exposure of Cells to Smoke at the Air Liquid Interface (2007). Available at: https://www.coresta.org/vitro-exposure-cells-smoke-air-liquid-interface-29235.html

  • 448. Aufderheide M.: Direct Exposure Methods for Testing Native Atmospheres; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 57 (2005) 213–226.

  • 449. Aufderheide M.: An Efficient Approach to Study the Toxicological Effects of Complex Mixtures; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 60 (2008) 163–180.

  • 450. VITROCELL® Systems GmbH: Advanced In Vitro Exposure Systems – VITROCELL® VC 10® SMOKING ROBOT; Catalogue edition 03/2016 pp. 70–77.

  • 451. Okuwa K. M. Tanaka Y. Fukano H. Nara Y. Nishijima and T. Nishino: In Vitro Micronucleus Assay for Cigarette Smoke Using a Whole Smoke Exposure System: A Comparison of Smoking Regimens; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 62 (2010) 433–440.

  • 452. Nara H. Y. Fukano T. Nishino and M. Aufderheide: Detection of the Cytotoxicity of Water-Insoluble Fraction of Cigarette Smoke by Direct Exposure to Cultured Cells at an Air-Liquid Interface; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 65 (2013) 683–688.

  • 453. Aufderheide M. and U. Mohr: A Modified CULTEX® System for the Direct Exposure of Bacteria to Inhalable Substances; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 55 (2004) 451–454.

  • 454. Aufderheide M. and H. Gressmann: A Modified Ames Assay Reveals the Mutagenicity of Native Cigarette Mainstream Smoke and its Gas Vapour Phase; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 58 (2007) 383–392.

  • 455. Aufderheide M. and H. Gressmann: Mutagenicity of Native Cigarette Mainstream Smoke and its Gas/Vapour Phase by Use of Different Tester Strains and Cigarettes in a Modified Ames Assay; Mut. Res. 656 (2008) 82–87.

  • 456. Paur H.R. F.R. Cassee J. Teeguarden H. Fissan S. Diabate M. Aufderheide W.G. Kreyling O. Hänninen G. Kasper M. Riediker B. Rothen-Rutishauser and O. Schmid: In-Vitro Cell Exposure Studies for the Assessment of Nanoparticle Toxicity in the Lung - A Dialog Between Aerosol Science and Biology; J. Aerosol Sci. 42 (2011) 668–692.

  • 457. Bakand S. and A. Hayes: Troubleshooting Methods for Toxicity Testing of Airborne Chemicals In Vitro; J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Methods 61 (2010) 76–85.

  • 458. Aufderheide M. S. Scheffler N. Möhle B. Halter and D. Hochrainer: Analytical In Vitro Approach for Studying Cyto- and Genotoxic Effects of Particular Airborne Material; Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 401 (2011) 3213–3220.

  • 459. Aufderheide M. B. Halter N. Möhle and D. Hochrainer: The CULTEX RFS: A Comprehensive Technical Approach for the In Vitro Exposure of Airway Cells to Particulate Matter at the Air-Liquid Interface; BioMed Res. Int. (2013) 734137. DOI: 10.1155/2013/734137

  • 460. Rach J. J. Budde N. Möhle and M. Aufderheide: Direct Exposure at the Air-Liquid Interface: Evaluation of an In Vitro Approach for Simulating Inhalation of Airborne Substances; J. Appl. Toxicol. 34 (2014) 506–515.

  • 461. Ishikawa S. T. Suzuki and Y. Nagata: Analysis of Cigarette Smoke Deposition Within an In Vitro Exposure System for Simulating Exposure in the Human Respiratory Tract; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 27 (2016) 20–29. DOI: 10.1515/cttr-2016-0004

  • 462. Steinritz D. N. Möhle C. Pohl M. Papritz B. Stenger A. Schmidt C.J. Kirkpatrick H. Thiermann R. Vogel S. Hoffmann and M. Aufderheide: Use of the CULTEX® Radial Flow System as an In Vitro Exposure Method to Assess Acute Pulmonary Toxicity of Fine Dusts and Nanoparticles with Special Focus on the Intra- and Inter-Laboratory Reproducibility; Chem. Biol. Interact. 206 (2013) 479–490.

  • 463. Hartung T. S. Bremer S. Casati S. Coecke R. Corvi S. Fortaner L. Gribaldo M. Halder S. Hoffmann A. Janusch Roi P. Prieto E. Sabbioni L. Scott A. Worth and V. Zuang: A Modular Approach to the ECVAM Principles on Test Validity; ATLA 32 (2004) 467–472.

  • 464. European Commisson - Joint Research Centre: European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM). Available at: https://eurl-ecvam.jrc.ec.europa.eu/

  • 465. Aufderheide M. S. Scheffler S. Ito S. Ishikawa and M. Emura: Ciliatoxicity in Human Primary Bronchiolar Epithelial Cells after Repeated Exposure at the Air-Liquid Interface with Native Mainstream Smoke of K3R4F Cigarettes With and Without Charcoal Filter; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 67 (2015) 407–411.

  • 466. Walker T.R. and J.E. Kiefer: Ciliastatic Components in the Gas Phase of Cigarette Smoke; Science 15 (1966) 1248–1250.

  • 467. Scheffler S. H. Dieken O. Krischenowsk C. Förster D. Branscheid and M. Aufderheide: Evaluation of E-Cigarette Liquid Vapor and Mainstream Cigarette Smoke After Direct Exposure of Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells; Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12 (2015) 3915–3925. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph120403915

  • 468. Scheffler S. H. Dieken N. Moehle M. Aufderheide and T. Schmidt: A New In Vitro Testing Module for the Cytotoxic Evaluation of E-Cigarette Vapor; Poster presented at the CORESTA Smoke Science & Product Technology Meeting 4–8 October 2015 Jeju Korea Poster STPOST 10.

  • 469. Aufderheide M. C. Förster M. Beschay D. Branscheid and M. Emura: A New Computer-Controlled Air-Liquid Interface Cultivation System for the Generation of Differentiated Cell Cultures of the Airway Epithelium; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. (2015). DOI: 10.1016/j.etp.2015.10.001.

  • 470. Phillips J. J. Williamson and E.D. Massey: A Method to Expose Mammalian Cells In Vitro to Whole Smoke at the Air-Liquid Interface; Mutagenesis 17 (2002) 566.

  • 471. Massey E.D. J. Williamson and J.F.N. Phillips: An Exposure Device; International Patent WO 03/100417 A1 (publication date: December 4 2003).

  • 472. Phillips J. B. Kluss A. Richter and E.D. Massey: Exposure of Bronchial Epithelial Cells to Whole Cigarette Smoke: Assessment of Cellular Responses; Altern. Lab. Anim. 33 (2005) 239–248.

  • 473. Maunders H. S. Patwardhan J. Phillips A. Clack and A. Richter: Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Transcriptome: Gene Expression Changes Following Acute Exposure to Whole Cigarette Smoke In Vitro; Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 292 (2007) L1248–L1256.

  • 474. Adamson J. D. Azzopardi G. Errington C. Dickens J. McAughey and M.D. Gaça: Assessment of an In Vitro Whole Cigarette Smoke Exposure System: The Borgwaldt RM20S 8-Syringe Smoking Machine; Chem. Cent. J. 5 (2011) 50.

  • 475. Adamson J. S. Hughes D. Azzopardi J. McAughey and M.D. Gaça: Real-Time Assessment of Cigarette Smoke Particle Deposition In Vitro; Chem. Cent. J. 6:98 (2012). Available at: https://ccj.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/1752-153X-6-98

  • 476. Adamson J. D. Thorne J. McAughey D. Dillon and C. Meredith: Quantification of Cigarette Smoke Particle Deposition In Vitro Using a Triplicate Quartz Crystal Microbalance Exposure Chamber; BioMed Res. Int. (2013) 685074. DOI:10.1155/2013/685074

  • 477. Garcia-Canton C. G. Errington A. Anadon and C. Meredith: Characterisation of an Aerosol Exposure System to Evaluate the Genotoxicity of Whole Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Using the In Vitro γH2AX Assay by High Content Screening; BMC Pharmacol. Toxicol. 15 (2014) 41. DOI: 10.1186/2050-6511-15-41

  • 478. Kaur N. M. Lacasse J.-P. Roy J.-L. Cabral J. Adamson G. Errington K.C. Waldron M. Gaça and A. Morin: Evaluation of Precision and Accuracy of the Borgwaldt RM20S® Smoking Machine Designed for In Vitro Exposure; J. Inhal. Toxicol. 22 (2010) 1174–1183.

  • 479. Thorne D. J. Wilson T.S. Kumaravel E.D. Massey and M. McEwan: Measurement of Oxidative DNA Damage Induced by Mainstream Cigarette Smoke in Cultured NCI-H292 Human Pulmonary Carcinoma Cells; Mutat. Res. 673 (2009) 3–8.

  • 480. McAughey J. T. Adam C. McGrath C. Mocker and R. Zimmermann: Simultaneous On-Line Size and Chemical Analysis of Gas Phase and Particulate Phase of Mainstream Tobacco Smoke; J. Physics: Conference Series 151 (2009) 012017. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/151/1/012017

  • 481. Sauerbrey G.: Verwendung von Schwingquarzen zur Wägung dünner Schichten und zur Mikrowägung [The Use of Oscillator Quartz Crystals for Weight Determination of Thin Layers and for Micro-weighing]; Z. Physik 155 (1959) 206–22.

  • 482. Thorne D. and J. Adamson: A Review of In Vitro Cigarette Smoking Systems; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 65 (2013) 1183–1193.

  • 483. St-Laurent J. L.-I. Proulx L.-P. Boulet and E. Bissonnette: Comparison of Two In Vitro Models of Cigarette Smoke Exposure; Inhal. Toxicol. 21 (2009) 1148–1153.

  • 484. Gualerzi A. M. Sciarabba G. Tartaglia C. Sforza and E. Donetti: Acute Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Three-Dimensional Cultures of Normal Human Oral Mucosa; Inhal. Toxicol. 24 (2012) 382–389.

  • 485. Garcia-Canton C. A. Anadon and C. Meredith: γH2AX as a Novel Endpoint to Detect DNA Damage: Application of the Assessment of the In Vitro Genotoxicity of Cigarette Smoke; Toxicol. In Vitro 26 (2012) 1075–1086.

  • 486. Garcia-Canton C. A. Anadon and C. Meredith: Assessment of the In Vitro γH2AX Assay by High Content Screening as a Novel Genotoxicity Test; Mutat. Res. 757 (2013) 158–166.

  • 487. World Health Organization - International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs Volumes 1–113; last update: June 26 2015. Available at: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/

  • 488. Li X. C. Nie P. Shang F. Xie H. Liu and J. Xie: Evaluation Method for the Cytotoxicity of Cigarette Smoke by In Vitro Whole Smoke Exposure; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 66 (2014) 27–33.

  • 489. Fields W.R. K.W. Fowler K.H. Hargreaves L.D. Walker and B.D. Bombick: Validation of the Vitro Cell VT 10 Smoke Exposure System for in Vitro Assays; Poster presented at the CORESTA Smoke Science & Product Technology Study Groups Meeting Sept. 29 – Oct. 3 2013 Seville Spain.

  • 490. Thorne D. J. Kilford R. Payne J. Adamson K. Scott A. Dalrymple C. Meredith and D. Dillon: Characterisation of a Vitrocell® VC 10 In Vitro Smoke Exposure System Using Dose Tools and Biological Analysis; Chem. Cent. J. 7 (2013) 146–155.

  • 491. Thorne D. J. Kilford R. Payne L. Haswell A. Dalrymple C. Meredith and D. Dillon: Development of a BALB/c 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake Cytotoxicity Test Using a Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Exposure System; BMC Research Notes 7 (2014) 367.

  • 492. Adamson J. D. Thorne A. Dalrymple D. Dillon and C. Meredith: Assessment of Cigarette Smoke Particle Deposition Within the Vitrocell® Exposure Module Using Quartz Crystal Microbalances; Chem. Cent. J. 7 (2013) 50.

  • 493. Adamson J. D. Thorne G. Errington W. Fields X. Li R. Payne T. Krebs A. Dalrymple K. Fowler D. Dillon F. Xie and C. Meredith: An Inter-Machine Comparison of Tobacco Smoke Particle Deposition In Vitro from Six Independent Smoke Exposure Systems; Toxicol. In Vitro 28 (2014) 1320–1328

  • 494. Kilford J. D. Thorne R. Payne A. Dalrymple J. Clements C. Meredith and D. Dillon: A Method for Assessment of the Genotoxicity of Mainstream Cigarette-Smoke by Use of the Bacterial Reverse-Mutation Assay and an Aerosol-Based Exposure System; Mutat. Res. 769 (2014) 20–28.

  • 495. Thorne D. J. Kilford M. Hollings A. Dalrymple M. Ballantyne C. Meredith and D. Dillon: The Mutagenic Assessment of Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Using the Ames Assay: A Multi-Strain Approach; Mutat. Res. Genet. Toxicol. Environ. Mutagen 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2015.03.006

  • 496. Breheny D. F. Cunningham J. Kilford R. Payne D. Dillon and C. Meredith: Application of a Modified Gaseous Exposure System to the In Vitro Toxicological Assessment of Tobacco Smoke Toxicants; Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 55 (2014) 662–672.

  • 497. Binder H. and W. Lindner: Bestimmung von Äthylenoxid im Rauch garantiert unbegaster Zigaretten [The Determination of Ethylene Oxide in the Smoke of Definitely Unfumigated Cigarettes]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 13 (1972) 215–220.

  • 498. Bach B. H. Kuhn and F. Kuffner: Über die Verminderung des Nicotingehalts von Tabaken mittels Äthylenoxides [On the Reduction of the Nicotine Content of Tobaccos with Ethylene Oxide]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 4 (1963) 53–60.

  • 499. Pailer M. and W. Hübsch: Über die Umsetzung von Äthylenoxid mit Tabakinhaltsstoffen ausgenommen Nikotin bei extremen Begasungsverhältnissen [On the Reaction of Ethylene Oxide with Tobacco Components – Except Nicotine – by Intensive Fumigation]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 8 (1967) 140–142.

  • 500. Gross P.M. and L.F. Dixon: Method of Reducing the Nicotine Content of Tobacco; United States Patent 1962145 June 12 1934.

  • 501. Samfield M.M. E.E. Locklair and B.A. Brock: Reducing the Nicotine Content of Tobacco Smoke; United States Patent 2760495 August 28 1956.

  • 502. Weber S. M. Hebestreit T. Wilms L.L. Conroy and G. Rodrigo: Comet Assay and Air–Liquid Interface Exposure System: A New Combination to Evaluate Genotoxic Effects of Cigarette Whole Smoke in Human Lung Cell Lines; Toxicol. in Vitro 27 (2013) 1987–1991.

  • 503. Vitrocell® Systems GmbH: Advanced in Vitro Exposure Systems. VITROCELL® Dilution Systems; Edition 03/2014 p. 68.

  • 504. Vitrocell® Systems GmbH: Advanced in Vitro Exposure Systems. VITROCELL® 24/24 Cultivation and Exposure Module; Edition 03/2014 pp. 30–31.

  • 505. Vitrocell® Systems GmbH: Advanced in Vitro Exposure Systems. VITROCELL® 24/48 Cultivation and Exposure Module; Edition 03/2014 pp. 32–34.

  • 506. Majeed S. S. Frentzel S. Wagner D. Kuehn P. Leroy P.A. Guy A. Knorr J. Hoeng and M.C. Peitsch: Characterization of the Vitrocell® 24/48 In Vitro Aerosol Exposure System Using Mainstream Cigarette Smoke; Chem. Cent. J. 8 (2014) 62–72.

  • 507. Burghart Messtechnik GmbH: Instructions – Automated Smoking Machine SM2000 – 8589 2010.

  • 508. Karp P.M. T.O. Moninger S.P. Weber T.S. Nesselhauf J.L. Launspach J. Zabner and M.J. Welsch: An In Vitro Model of Differentiated Human Airway Epithelia. Methods for Establishing Primary Cultures; Methods Mol. Biol. 188 (2002) 115–137.

  • 509. Baxter A. and E. Minet: Primary Human Airway Epithelial Cells (MucilAir™) Express Key Tobacco Toxicant Metabolizing Enzymes in Short Term Air Liquid Interface Cultures; Poster presented at the International Meeting of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco POS4-47 March 13–16 2013 Boston MA USA.

  • 510. Mathis C. C. Poussin D. Weisensee S. Gebel A. Hengstermann A. Sewer V. Belcastro Y. Xiang S. Ansari S. Wagner J. Hoeng and M.C. Peitsch: Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Exposed In Vitro to Cigarette Smoke at the Air-Liquid Interface Resemble Bronchial Epithelium from Human Smokers; Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 304 (2013) L489–L503.

  • 511. Pezzulo A.A. T.D. Starner T.E. Scheetz G.L. Traver A.E. Tilley B.G. Harvey R.G. Crystal P.B. McCray Jr and J. Zaber: The Air Liquid Interface and Use of Primary Cell Cultures Are Important to Recapitulate the Transcriptional Profile of In Vivo Airway Epithelia; Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 300 (2011) L25–L31.

  • 512. Subramanian A. P. Tamayo V.K. Mootha S. Mukherjee B.L. Ebert M.A. Gillette A. Paulovich S.L. Pomeroy T.R. Golub E.S. Lander and J.P. Mesirov: Gene Set Enrichment Analysis: A Knowledge-Based Approach for Interpreting Genome-Wide Expression Profiles; PNAS 102 (2005) 15545–15550.

  • 513. Iskandar A.R. F. Martin M. Talikka W.K. Schlage R. Kostadinova C. Mathis J. Hoeng and M.C. Peitsch: Systems Approaches Evaluating the Perturbation of Xenobiotic Metabolism in Response to Cigarette Smoke Exposure in Nasal and Bronchial Tissues; Biomed Res. Int. (2013) 512086. DOI: 10.1155/2013/512086

  • 514. Schlage W.K. A.R. Iskandar R. Kostadinova Y. Xiang A. Sewer S. Majeed D. Kuehn S. Frentzel M. Talikka M. Geertz C. Mathis N. Ivanov J. Hoeng and M.C. Peitsch: In Vitro Systems Toxicology Approach to Investigate the Effects of Repeated Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Human Buccal and Gingival Organotypic Epithelial Tissue Cultures; Toxicol. Mech. Meth. 24 (2014) 470–487.

  • 515. Röper W. and R. Wieczoreck: In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Cigarette Mainstream Smoke. Evaluation of Different Cell Exposure Methods Including “Native” Smoke Aerosol Exposure; Paper presented at CORESTA Congress 22–27 September 2002 New Orleans LA USA.

  • 516. Riss T.L. and R.A. Moravec: Comparison of MTT XTT and a Novel Tetrazolium Compound MTS for In Vitro Proliferation and Chemosensitivity Assays; Mol. Biol. Cell. 3 (1992) Suppl. 184a.

  • 517. Wieczorek R. W. Röper and H. Burghart: Validation of a New Smoking Machine for the Exposure of 96 Well Cell Culture Plates to “Native” Cigarette Mainstream Smoke Aerosol. Course of Action and Some In Vitro Toxicological Data; Paper presented at CORESTA Congress 4–8 September 2005 Stratford U.K.

  • 518. Heinrich Burghart GmbH: Bedienungsanleitung und Technische Dokumentation für die MSB-01 Mimic Smoker Burghart [Operating Instructions and Technical Documentation for the MSB-01 Mimic Smoker Burghart]; Burghart Hamburg Germany 2007.

  • 519. Scian M.J. M.J. Oldham D.B. Kane J.S. Edmiston and W.J. McKinney: Characterization of a Whole Smoke In Vitro Exposure System (Burghart Mimic Smoker – 01); Inhal. Toxicol. 21 (2009) 234–243.

  • 520. Berner A. and J. Marek: Untersuchungen über die Verteilung einzelner Rauchinhaltsstoffe in Rauchpartikeln verschiedener Größe [Investigation on the Distribution of Individual Smoke Constituents in Smoke Particles of Different Size]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 7 (1967) 118–127.

  • 521. Jones R.T. W.G.D. Lugton S.R. Massey and R.B. Richardson: The Distribution with Respect to Smoke Particle Size of Dotriacontane Hexadecane and Decachlorobiphenyl Added to Cigarettes; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 8 (1975) 89–82. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0361

  • 522. Morie G.P. and M.S. Baggett: Observations on the Distribution of Certain Tobacco Smoke Components with Respect to Particle Size; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 9 (1977) 72–78. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0430

  • 523. Jenkins R.W. R.W. Francis H. Flachsbart and W. Stöber: Chemical Variability of Mainstream Cigarette Smoke as a Function of Aerodynamic Particle Size; J. Aerosol Sci. 10 (1979) 355–362.

  • 524. Scian M.J. M.J. Oldham J.H. Miller D.B. Kane J.S. Edmiston and W.J. McKinney: Chemical Analysis of Cigarette Smoke Particulate Generated in the MSB-01 In Vitro Whole Smoke Exposure System; Inhal. Toxicol. 21 (2009) 1040–1052. DOI: 10.1080/08958370802712705

  • 525. The Institute for In Vitro Sciences Inc.: In Vitro Exposure Systems and Dosimetry Assessment Tools for Inhaled Tobacco Products; Conference on April 4–6 2016 in Bethesda MD USA Report 2016. Available at: http://www.w2ww.iivs.org/home/resources/documents

  • 526. Sibata Scientific Technology Ltd. Available at: https://www.sibata.co.jp/english/company-profile

  • 527. Fukano Y. M. Ogura K. Eguchi M. Shibagaki and M. Suzuki: Modified Procedure of a Direct In Vitro Exposure System for Mammalian Cells to Whole Cigarette Smoke; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 55 (2004) 317–323.

  • 528. Fukano Y. H. Yoshimura and T. Yoshida: Heme Oxigenase-1 Gene Expression in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells (A549) Following to Whole Cigarette Smoke in a Direct In Vitro Exposure System; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 57 (2006) 411–418.

  • 529. Kasagi S. K. Seyama H. Mori S. Souma T. Sato T. Akiyoshi H. Suganuma and Y. Fukuchi: Tomato Juice Prevents Senescence-Accelerated Mouse P1 Strain from Developing Emphysema Induced by Chronic Exposure to Tobacco Smoke; Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 290 (2006) L396–L404. DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00483.2004

  • 530. Hoshino Y. T. Nakamura M. Mishima J. Yodoi and H. Nakamura: Neurotropin Demonstrates Cytoprotective Effects in Lung Cells Through the Induction of Thioredoxin-1; Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 37 (2007) 438–446.

  • 531. Mori H. N. Takashi K. Ishitani S. Kasagi S. Souma T. Akiyoshi Y. Kodama T. Mori M. Kondo S. Sasaki A. Iwase K. Takahashi Y. Fukuchi and K. Seyama: Phoshodiesterase 4 Inhibitior GPD-1116 Markedly Attenuates the Development of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Senescence-Accelerated Mice P1 Strain; Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 294 (2008) L196–L204.

  • 532. Sato A. Y. Hoshino T. Hara S. Muro H. Nakamura M. Mishima and J. Yodoi: Thioredoxin-1 Ameliorates Cigarette Smoke-Induced Lung Inflammation and Emphysema in Mice; J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 325 (2008) 380–388.

  • 533. Nakajima Y. Y. Nakamura W. Shigeeda M. Tomoyasu H. Deguchi T. Tanita and K. Yamauchi: The Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Interferon-γ in Regulating Angiomotin-Like Protein 1 Expression in Lung Microvascular Endothelial Cells; Allergol. Int. 62 (2013) 309–322.

  • 534. Benner J.F. and C.K. Keene: Condensate Preparation and Fractionation; Proc. Univ. Kentucky Tobacco and Health Res. Inst. – Tobacco and Health Workshop Conference Report 3 (1972) pp. 185–190.

  • 535. Dube M.F. and C.R. Green: Methods of Collection of Smoke for Analytical Purposes; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 8 (1982) 42–102.

  • 536. Rochus W.: Grundsätzliche Überlegungen zur chemischen Zusammensetzung des Tabakrauches und seiner Abscheidungsprodukte [Fundamental Reflections on the Chemical Composition of Tobacco Smoke and its Deposition Products]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 1 (1962) 155–164. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0024

  • 537. Day T.D.: Carcinogenic Action of Cigarette Smoke Condensate on Mouse Skin. An Attempt of a Quantitative Study; Brit. J. Cancer 21 (1967) 56–81.

  • 538. Schüller D. C.J. Drews and H.P. Harke: Analytische Untersuchungen am Gasphasenkondensat des Cigarettenrauches [Analytical Examination of Gas Phase Condensate of Cigarette Smoke]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 6 (1971) 84–88. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0272

  • 539. Elmenhorst H. and H.P. Harke: Die präparative Gewinnung eines Gasphasen-Kondensates [The Preparative Production of a Gas Phase Condensate]; Z. Naturforsch. 23b (1968) 1271–1272.

  • 540. Diels O. and K. Alder: Synthesen in der hydroaromatischen Reihe. III Mitteilung. Synthese von Terpenen Camphern hydroaromatischen und heterocyclischen Systemen [Synthesis of Hydroaromatics. III Report. Synthesis of Terpenes Camphor Hydroaromatic and Heterocyclic Systems]; Ann. Chem. 470 (1929) 62.

  • 541. Harke H.P. C.J. Drews and D. Schüller: Über das Vorkommen von Norbornenderivaten in Tabakrauchkondensaten [About the Presence of Norbornene Derivatives in Tobacco Smoke Condensates]; Tetrahedron Lett. 43 (1970) 3789–3790.

  • 542. Einolf W.N. R.N. Ferguson J.F. Whidby and J.F. DeBardeleben: Isolation and Indentification of 26-Dimethyl- and 226-Trimethyl-4-piperidone Artifacts Produced by the Reaction of Cigarette Smoke Condensate and Acetone; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 9 (1978) 208–213. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0449

  • 543. Nall J.F.: Complexed Cyanide in Collected Cigarette Smoke; 20th Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference November 1–3 1966 Winston-Salem NC USA.

  • 544. Norman V. and C.H. Keith: Nitrogen Oxides in Tobacco Smoke; Nature 205 (1965) 915–916.

  • 545. Barkemeyer H. and F. Seehofer: Zur Untersuchung der Gas-Dampfphase des Cigarettenrauches: 2. Mitteilung. Zur Bestimmung des Stickstoffmonoxides (NO) aus der Gasphase des Cigarettenrauches [On the Gas-Vapour Phase of Cigarette Smoke: 2. Report. On the Determination of the Nitric Oxide Content in the Gaseous Phase of Cigarette Smoke]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 4 (1968) 278–282. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0197

  • 546. Greig J.O. and P.G. Hall: Thermal Oxidations of Nitric Oxide at Low Concentrations; Trans. Faraday Soc. 63 (1967) 655.

  • 547. Sloan C.H. and J.E. Kiefer: Determination of NO and NO2 in Cigarette Smoke from Kinetic Data; Tob. Sci. 13 (1969) 180–182.

  • 548. Cooper P.H. and R.B. Hege Jr: The Oxidation of NO to NO2 in Cigarette Smoke; 32nd Tobacco Chemists Research Conference Montreal Canada 30th October –1st November 1978.

  • 549. British American Tobacco Group Research & Development: Method – Determination of Nitric Oxide in Mainstream Smoke; edited March 31 2008. Available at: http://www.bat-science.com/groupms/sites/bat_9gvjxs.nsf/vwPagesWebLive/DO7AXGCL/$FILE/medMD7DAEA9.pdf?openelement

  • 550. Philippe R.J. and E.J. Hackney: The Presence of Nitrous Oxide and Methyl Nitrite in Cigarette Smoke and Tobacco Pyrolysis Gases; Tob. Sci. 3 (1959) 139–143.

  • 551. Vilcins G. and J.P. Lephardt: Ageing Processes of Cigarette Smoke: Formation of Methyl Nitrite; Chem. Ind. (London) 22 (1975) 974–975.

  • 552. Klus H. and H. Kuhn: Die Bestimmung von Nitrophenolen im Tabakrauchkondensat (Vorläufige Ergebnisse) [The Determination of Nitrophenols in Tobacco Smoke Condensate (Preliminary Results)]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 15 (1974) 276–288.

  • 553. Neurath G. B. Pirmann and H. Wichern: Zur Frage der N-Nitrosoverbindungen im Tabakrauch [On the N-Nitroso Compounds in Tobacco Smoke]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 2 (1964) 311–319. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0084

  • 554. Neurath G. B. Pirmann and M. Dünger: Identifizierung von N-Nitroso-Verbindungen and asymmetrischen Hydrazinen als 5-Nitro-2-Hydroxy-Benzal-Derivate and Anwendung im Mikromaßstab [Identification of N-Nitroso Compounds and Asymmetric Hydrazines as 5-Nitro-2-Hydroxy-Benzal Derivatives and Use on a Micro Scale]; Chem. Ber. 97 (1964) 1631–1638.

  • 555. Neurath G. M. Dünger and F.G. Pein: Interaction of Nitrogen Oxides Oxygen and Amines in Gaseous Mixtures; in: Environmental N-Nitroso Compounds Analysis and Formation edited by E.A. Walker P. Bogovskii and L. Griciute IARC Scientific Publ. No. 14 International Agency for Research on Cancer Lyon France 1976 pp. 215–225.

  • 556. Mirvish S.S. L. Wellcave M. Eagen and P. Shubik: Ascorbate-Nitrite Reaction: Possible Means of Blocking the Formation of Carcinogenic N-Nitroso Compounds; Science 177 (1972) 65–68.

  • 557. Hoffmann D. S.S. Hecht I. Schmeltz K.D. Brunnemann and E.L. Wynder: New Separation Techniques for Classes of Smoke Compounds; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 1 (1976) 97–122.

  • 558. Grob K.: Zur Gewinnung und Behandlung frischer Gasphase aus Cigarettenrauch [Isolation and Treatment of Fresh Gas Phase from Cigarette Smoke]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1965) 243–250. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0116

  • 559. Mori G. and C.H. Sloan: The Use of Cryogenic Temperature Gas Chromatography for the Determination of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide in Cigarette Smoke; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 6 (1972) 178–181. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0289

  • 560. Newsome J.R. V. Norman and C.H. Keith: Vapor Phase Analysis of Tobacco Smoke; Tob. Sci. 9 (1965) 102–110.

  • 561. Norman V. J.R. Newsome and C.H. Keith: Smoking Machines for the Analysis of the Vapor Phase of Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 10 (1966) 216–221.

  • 562. Koller K.B. C.E. Thomas M.E. Parrish and D.E. Leyden: Puff by Puff Determination of Gas Phase Acetaldehyde HCN NO and CO Using FT-IR Spectroscopy; Philip Morris (1990). Available at: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/yymf0131

  • 563. Thomas C.E. and K.B. Koller: Puff-by-Puff Mainstream Smoke Analysis by Multiplex Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 19 (2001) 345–351. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0722

  • 564. Vilcins G.: Determination of Ethylene and Isoprene in the Gas Phase of Cigarette Smoke by Infrared Spectroscopy; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 8 (1975) 181–185. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0377

  • 565. Collins P.F. and J.F. Williams: An Automated Procedure for CO in Cigarette Smoke Using a 20-Port Syringe Smoking Machine; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 7 (1973) 67–72 594). September 20 2016. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0311

  • 566. Williams T.B.: The Determination of Nitric Oxide in Gas Phase Cigarette Smoke by Non-Dispersive Infrared Analysis; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 10 (1980) 91–99. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0474

  • 567. Sloan C.H. J.S. Lewis and G.P. Morie: Computerization of the Gas Phase Analysis of Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 21 (1977) 57.

  • 568. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Recommended Method No. 5: Determination of Carbon Monoxide in the Mainstream Smoke of Cigarettes by Non-Dispersive Infrared Analysis; CORESTA Paris France 1993. Available at: https://www.coresta.org/determination-carbon-monoxide-mainstream-smoke-cigarettes-non-dispersive-infrared-analysis-29139

  • 569. Bates W.W. R.B. Griffith E.S. Harlow M. Senkus and H. Wakeham: Determination and Reporting of Total Particulate Matter Water in Total Particulate Matter and Nicotine in Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 12 (1968) 192–196.

  • 570. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 10362 – 1:2011. Cigarettes – Determination of Water in Smoke Condensates. Part 1. Gas Chromatographic Method; ISO Geneva Switzerland 2011. Available at: http:www.iso.org

  • 571. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 10362-2:2011. Cigarettes – Determination of Water in Smoke Condensates. Part 2. Karl Fischer Method; ISO Geneva Switzerland 2011. Available at: http:www.iso.org

  • 572. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 10315:2008. Cigarettes – Determination of Nicotine in Smoke Condensates – Gas-Chromtographic Method; ISO Geneva Switzerland 2008. Available at: http:www.iso.org

  • 573. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA): CORESTA Recommended Method No. 63: Determination of Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke – GC-TEA Method; CORESTA Paris France 2005. Available at: https://www.coresta.org/determination-tobacco-specific-nitrosamines-cigarette-mainstream-smoke-gc-tea-method-29186.html

  • 574. Health Canada: Official Method T-103 – Determination of Benzo[a]pyrene in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke; Health Canada Ottawa Canada 1999.

  • 575. McConnell W.V. R.C. Mumpower II and G.P. Touey: Evaluation of Cigarette Filter Efficiency by Photofluorometry; Tob. Sci. 4 (1960) 56–62.

  • 576. Burton F.G. J.T. Veal and D.W. Phelps: Quantitative Analysis of Cigarette Tars Using Fluorescent Spectroscopy; Paper presented at the American Chemical Society (ACS) Spring National Meeting New Orleans LA USA March 20–25 1977.

  • 577. Sloan C.H. and J.G. Curran: Spectrophotometric Determination of Filtration Efficiency of Cigarette Filters; 33rd Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference 1979 Lexington KY USA.

  • 578. Thomas C.E.: Automated Method for FTC Tar for Low Delivery Cigarettes Based Upon Fluorescence of TPM Extracts; Tob. Sci. 24 (1980) 64–68.

  • 579. Borgerding M.F. R.D. Hicks J.E. Bodnar D.M. Riggs E.J. Nanni G.W. Fulp Jr W.C. Hamling Jr and J.A. Giles: Cigarette Smoke Composition. Part 1. Limitations of FTC Method When Applied to Cigarettes That Heat Instead of Burn Tobacco; J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 73 (1990) 605–609.

  • 580. Irby R.M. Jr and E.S. Harlow: Cigarette Smoke I. Determination of Certain Vapor Phase Constituents; Tob. Sci. 3 (1959) 52–56.

  • 581. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): International Standard ISO 8454:2009. Cigarettes — Determination of Carbon Monoxide in the Vapour Phase of Cigarette Smoke — NDIR Method; ISO Geneva Switzerland 2009. Available at: http:www.iso.org

  • 582. Williamson J.T. J.F. Graham and D.R. Allman: The Modification of Cigarette Smoke by Filter Tips; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1965) 233–242. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0115

  • 583. Grob K.: Gas Chromatography of Cigarette Smoke. Part III. Separation of the Overlap Region of Gas and Particulate Phase by Capillary Columns; J. Gas Chrom. 3 (1965) 52–65.

  • 584. Grob K.: Zur Gaschromatographie des Cigarettenrauches 2. Teil: Verfeinerte Trennung mit Hilfe von Kapillarkolonnen [Gas Chromatography of Cigarette Smoke Part II: Refined Separation Using Golay Columns]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 1 (1962) 315–323. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0039

  • 585. Sakuma H. M. Kusama N. Shimojima and S. Sugawara: Gas Chromatographic Analysis of the p-Nitrophenylhydrazones of Low Boiling Carbonyl Compounds in Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 22 (1976) 156–158.

  • 586. Borgerding M.F. L.A. Milhous Jr R.D. Hicks and J.A. Giles: Cigarette Smoke Composition. Part 2. Method for Determining Major Components in Smoke of Cigarettes that Heat Instead of Burn Tobacco; J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 73 (1990) 610–615.

  • 587. Côté F. J. Verreault and F.K. St.Charles: Accuracy of Tar Yield Determination and Intense Smoking Regimes; 63rd Tobacco Science Research Conference 27–30 September 2009 Amelia Island FL USA.

  • 588. Côté F. and J. Verreault: Overestimation of Tar Yields at Canadian Intense Smoking Regime: Factors Affecting the Accuracy; Paper presented at CORESTA Congress 12–16 September 2010 Edinburgh Scotland Abstr. SSPT38.

  • 589. Ghosh D. and C. Jeannet: An Improved Cambridge Filter Pad Extraction Methodology to Obtain More Accurate Water and “Tar” Values: In Situ Cambridge Filter Pad Extraction Methodology; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 26 (2014) 38–49. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2014-0008

  • 590. Tolman R.C. L.H. Reyerson A.P. Brooks and H.D. Smyth: An Electrical Precipitator for Analyzing Smokes; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 41 (1919) 587–589.

  • 591. Eschle K.: Beitrag zur vergleichenden Analyse der Wirkung von Zigarettenfiltern [Analytical Contribution to the Comparison of Effects of Cigarette Filters]; Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg. 49 (1958) 275–289.

  • 592. Golaz P. A. Girardet and R. Regamey: Considérations sur la récupération des constituants de la fumée de cigarettes [Considerations on the Recovery of the Constituents of Cigarette Smoke]; Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg. 50 (1959) 18–39.

  • 593. Kuhn H. and J. Marek: Beitrag zur Bestimmung des Rauchkondensates von Filterzigaretten [Contribution to the Determination of Smoke Condensate of Filter Cigarettes]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 1 (1961) 1–6.

  • 594. Williamson J.T. and D.R. Allman: The Distribution of Tobacco Smoke Constituents Between the Vapour and Particulate Phases; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1966) 590–596. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0158

  • 595. Bentley H.R. and J.G. Burgan: Cigarette Condensate: Preparation and Routine Laboratory Estimation; Tobacco Manufacturers’ Standing Comm. Research Paper No 4 2nd ed. 1961.

  • 596. Verband der Cigarettenindustrie (VdC): Vergleichende Untersuchung der Rauchfallensysteme – Cambridge Filter (CF) = Glasfaserfilter und Elektrostatische Rauchfalle (EL) – für die analytische Erfassung der Tabakrauchdaten Kondensat und Rauchnikotin [Comparison of Two Smoke-Trapping Systems – Cambridge Filter (CF) = Glass-Fiber Filter and Electrostatic Smoke Trap (EL) – for the Analytical Determination of Two Tobacco Smoke Constituents Condensate and Smoke Nicotine]; Internal Document VdC Hamburg Germany 1979. Bates-No. 104577784-104577845. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/bar25a99

  • 597. Kalcher K. A. Nitsch R. Pietsch and C. Jorde: Schwermetalle in Tabaken und Tabakrauch. I. Eine kompakte Laborrauchmaschine zum Abrauchen von Zigaretten und Zigarren [Heavy Metals in Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke. I. A Compact Laboratory Smoking Machine for Cigarettes and Cigars]; Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 332 (1988) 17–21.

  • 598. Rhoades C.B. Jr and R.T. White Jr: Mainstream Smoke Collection by Electrostatic Precipitation for Acid Dissolution in a Microwave Digestion System Prior to Trace Metal Determination; J. AOAC Int. 80 (1997) 1320–1331.

  • 599. Perinelli M.A. and N. Carugno: Determination of Trace Metals in Cigarette Smoke by Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 9 (1978) 214–217. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0450

  • 600. Ivičić N. L. Tomić and V.I Simeon: Cadmium and Lead in Cigarettes and Smoke Condensate ; Arh. Hig. Rada. Toksikol. 36 (1985) 157–164.

  • 601. Schneider G. and V. Krivan: Multi-Element Analysis of Tobacco Smoke Condensate by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 53 (1993) 87–100.

  • 602. Krivan V. G. Schneider H. Baumann and U. Reus: Multi-Element Characterization of Tobacco Smoke Condensate; Fres. J. Anal. Chem. 348 (1994) 218–225.

  • 603. Pailer M. and H. Kuhn: Kurzer Bericht über das Vorkommen von Nickel im Zigarettenrauch [Short Report on the Presence of Nickel in Cigarette Smoke]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 4 (1963) 61–63.

  • 604. McDaniel R.L. K.M. Torrence D.A. Self and M.J. Chang: Determination of Mercury in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke by Conventional and Amalgamation Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 19 (2001) 267–276. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0713

  • 605. Sneddon J.: Electrostatic Precipitation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; Appl. Spectrosc. 44 (1990) 1562–1565.

  • 606. Sneddon J.: Direct and Near-Real-Time Determination of Lead Manganese and Mercury in Laboratory Air by Electrostatic Precipitation-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; Anal. Chim. Acta 245 (1991) 203–206.

  • 607. Mathewson H.D.: The Jet Impaction Trap. Some Applications in the Collection and Fractionation of Tobacco Smoke Aerosols; Tob. Sci. 12 (1968) 41–49.

  • 608. Osborne J. S.S. Adamek and M.E. Hobbs: Some Components of Gas Phase of Cigarette Smoke; Anal. Chem. 28 (1956) 211–215.

  • 609. Philippe R.J. and M.E. Hobbs: Some Components of Gas Phase of Cigarette Smoke; Anal. Chem. 28 (1956) 2002–2006.

  • 610. Philippe R.J. H. Moore G. Honeycutt and J.M. Ruth: Some Hydrocarbons of the Gas Phase of Cigarette Smoke; Anal. Chem. 36 (1964) 859–865.

  • 611. Le Roy D.J.: An Apparatus for the Low Temperature Fractionation of Small Gas Samples; Can. J. Research 28R (1950) 492–499.

  • 612. Laurene A.H. L.A. Lyerly and G.W. Young: Direct Vapor Chromatographic Determination of Acetaldehyde Acrolein and Acetone in Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 8 (1964) 150–153.

  • 613. Laurene A.H. and B.A. Harbin: Improved Gas Chromatographic Determination of Acetaldehyde Acrolein and Acetone in Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 11 (1967) 37.

  • 614. Horton A.D. and M.R. Guerin: Determination of Acetaldehyde and Acrolein in the Gas Phase of Cigarette Smoke Using Cryothermal Gas Chromatography; Tob. Sci. 18 (1974) 19–22.

  • 615. Grob K.: Zur Gaschromatographie des Cigarettenrauches. 4. Teil Identifikation mit Hilfe des Massenspektrometers [Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Cigarette Smoke. Part 4 Mass Spectrometric Analysis]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1966) 403–408. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0133

  • 616. Völlmin J.A. I. Omura J. Seibl K. Grob and W. Simon: Einsatz gas-chromatographischer Kolonnen hoher Trennleistung in direkter Kombination mit Massenspektrometer [Use of Gaschromatographic Columns with High Separation Efficiency in Direct Combination with Mass Spectrometer]; Helv. Chim. Acta 49 (1966) 1768–1778.

  • 617. Dorsey J.A. R.H. Hunt and M.J. O’Neal: Rapid-Scanning Mass Spectrometry – Continuous Analysis of Fractions From Capillary Gas Chromatography; Anal. Chem. 35 (1963) 511–515.

  • 618. Ryhage R. S. Wikstrom and G.R. Waller: Mass Spectrometer Used as Detector and Analyzer for Effluent Emerging from Capillary Gas Liquid Chromatography Column; Anal. Chem. 37 (1965) 435–436.

  • 619. De Souza J.F. and M. Scherbak: The Effect of Glycerol Added to Tobacco on the Constituents of Cigarette Smoke; Analyst 89 (1964) 735–739.

  • 620. Newman R.H. W.L. Jones and R.W. Jenkins: Automated Device for the Evaluation of Total Mainstream Cigarette Smoke; Anal. Chem. 41 (1969) 543–545.

  • 621. Tobacco Advisory Council (U.K.): Standard Methods for the Analysis of Cigarette Smoke; Research Paper 11 3rd edition 1986. Available at: http://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/hnjx0113

  • 622. Pailer M. W.J. Hübsch and H. Kuhn: Untersuchungen der aliphatischen und aromatischen primären und sekundären Amine des Zigarettenrauches mit Hilfe der Gaschromatographie und Massenspektrometrie [Investigation of the Aliphatic and Aromatic Primary and Secondary Amines of Cigarette Smoke by Means of Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 7 (1967) 109–118.

  • 623. Health Canada: Official Method T-101 – Determination of Ammonia in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke; Health Canada Ottawa Canada1999.

  • 624. Health Canada: Official Method T-108 – Determination of Mercury in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke; Health Canada Ottawa Canada1999.

  • 625. Health Canada: Official Method T-104 – Determination of Selected Carbonyls in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke; Health Canada Ottawa Canada 1999.

  • 626. Health Canada: Official Method T-116 – Determination of 13-Butadiene Isoprene Acrylonitrile Benzene und Toluene in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke; Health Canada Ottawa Canada 1999.

  • 627. Health Canada: Official Method T-112 – Determination of Pyridine Quinoline and Styrene in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke; Health Canada Ottawa Canada1999.

  • 628. Rochus W.: Eine neue maschinelle Abrauch- und Rauchabscheidungsapparatur zur Gewinnung von “nativem” Tabakteer [A New Smoking Machine and Smoke Collection Device for Production of “Native” Tobacco-Tar]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 1 (1962) 165–169. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0025

  • 629. Pailer M. W. Hübsch and H. Kuhn: Beitrag zur Bestimmung des Benzo[a]pyrens in Tabakrauchkondensaten [Contribution to the Determination of Benzo[a]pyrene in Tobacco Smoke Condensates]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie Sonderheft 1965 1–10.

  • 630. Barkemeyer H.: Zur Untersuchung der Gas-Dampf-Phase des Cigarettenrauches. 1. Mitteilung: Der Rotationsabscheider ein Gerät zur Absorption von Aerosolen Dämpfen und Gasen in Flüssigkeiten [Investigation of the Gas/Vapor-Phase of Cigarette Smoke. 1st Report: The Rotation Separator an Apparatus for the Collection of Aerosols Vapors and Gases in Liquids]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1965) 91–93. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0101

  • 631. Grob K. and J.A. Völlmin: Analyse der „Semi-Volatiles“ aus Cigarettenrauch mit Hilfe einer Kombination von hochauflösender Gaschromatographie mit Massenspektrometrie [Analysis of the Semi-Volatiles with the Aid of Combination High Resolution Gaschromatography and Mass Spectrometry]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 5 (1969) 52–57. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0216

  • 632. Collins P.F. N.M. Sarji and J.F. Williams: An Automated Method for Determination of Hydrogen Cyanide in Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 14 (1970) 12–15.

  • 633. Kuhn H. and C. Braun: Beitrag zur Blausäurebestimmung im Zigarettenrauch [Contribution to the Analysis of Hydrogen Cyanide in Cigarette Smoke]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 11 (1970) 175–180.

  • 634. Mattina C.F.: A Potentiometric Method for the Determination of Hydrogen Cyanide and Hydrogen Sulfide in Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 16 (1972) 113–114.

  • 635. Vickroy D.G. and G.L. Gaunt Jr: Determination of Cyanide in Cigarette Smoke by a Cyanide Ion-Selective Electrode; Tob. Sci. 16 (1972) 22–25.

  • 636. Reif H.: Die Verwendung der ionenselektiven Elektrode zur Cyanidbestimmung im Zigarettenrauch [The Use of the Ion-Selective Electrode for Cyanide Determination in Cigarette Smoke]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 13 (1972) 220–224.

  • 637. Zeldes S.G. and A.D. Horton: Trapping and Determination of Labile Compounds in the Gas Phase of Cigarette Smoke; Anal. Chem. 50 (1978) 779–782.

  • 638. Higgins C.E. W.H. Griest and G. Olerich: Application of Tenax Trapping to Analysis of Gas Phase Organic Compounds in Ultra-Low Tar Cigarette Smoke; J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 66 (1983) 1074–1083.

  • 639. Behrsing H. H. Raabe J. Manuppello B. Bombick R. Curren K. Sullivan S. Sethi R. Phipps Y. Tesfaigzi S. Yan C. D’Ruiz R. Tarran S. Constant G. Phillips M. Gaça P. Hayden X. Cao C. Mathis J. Hoeng A. Braun and E. Hill: Assessment of In Vitro COPD Models for Tobacco Regulatory Science: Workshop Proceedings Conclusions and Paths Forward for In Vitro Model Use; ATLA 44 (2016) 129–166.

  • 640. Food and Drug Administration – Center for Tobacco Products: Research Priorities (January 2012). Available at: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/tobaccoproducts/newsevents/ucm293998.pdf

  • 641. Kamber M.: Comparison of 4 Cytotoxicity Assays Performed Sequentially on the Same Cell Sample; Poster presented at the 37th Annual meeting of the European Environmental Mutagen Society September 9–13 2007 Basel Switzerland.

  • 642. Adamson J. L.E Haswell G. Phillips and M.D. Gaça: In Vitro Models of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD); in: Bronchitis edited by Ignacio Martin-Loeches InTech (2011) pp. 41–66. Available at: http://www.intechopen.com/books/bronchitis

  • 643. Cerulean Data Sheet: Electrostatic Precipitation Traps ETS 100/101/102 (2014). Available at: http://www.cerulean.com/product-services/tobacco/smoking-machines/smoking-accessories/ets100101102

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2018: 0.69

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.295
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.491

Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 1552 1054 31
PDF Downloads 1682 1196 44