Influence of Additives on Cigarette Related Health Risks

Open access


Tobacco additives play an important role in the manufacturing and for the quality of tobacco products, particularly cigarettes and roll-your-own tobaccos. Attention is increasingly given to the potential effects of additives on consumer behavior and health. This review is intended to compile, collate and - to some degree - evaluate the wealth of pertinent scientific information available from the published literature and other special sources. At first, the reasons are set forth for the use of additives in cigarette manufacturing. In response to the growing controversy over the attractiveness and addictiveness of smoking, the clarification of terms and concepts is followed by a detailed discussion of two kinds of substances with particular relevance: Additives like ammonium compounds that are claimed to increase nicotine availability, and additives that are claimed to increase nicotine addictiveness.

The composition and toxicity of mainstream smoke of cigarettes with and without additives are assessed in several respects. The potentials of pyrolysis studies are explored by looking at a number of key studies and some basic considerations regarding in vitro and in vivo toxicity testing are addressed. Five major literature reviews on additives published between 1994 and 2004, and the results of several comprehensive experimental studies covering a large range of additives, released between 2002 and 2012, are dealt with in detail. Single tobacco additives of particular importance (menthol, glycerol, 1,2-propylene glycol, sorbitol, sugars, cocoa, licorice, citric acid, triacetin, and ammonium compounds) are discussed in dedicated chapters, which are generally subdivided into special sections: Use and toxicological assessment; inclusion level in cigarettes, transfer and pyrolysis; attractiveness and addictiveness; effect on cigarette mainstream smoke composition; effect on cigarette mainstream smoke toxicity. Epidemiological findings and data obtained by the biomonitoring of smokers consuming cigarettes with and without additives are compiled and interpreted specifically for American blend cigarettes, Virginia cigarettes, “French” (dark) cigarettes and menthol cigarettes whereby the focus is on the effects of additives on smoking topography and potential health risks.

Opinionated reviews were published in recent years that are compromised by arbitrary selection of sources and unbalanced views. Leaving those unconsidered, the aggregated scientific knowledge shows that tobacco additives have only occasional and limited effects on cigarette mainstream smoke composition, which are almost never reflected in the results of toxicological in vitro assays or in vivo studies. This supports the conclusion that tobacco additives are not likely to increase the known health risks of smoking. There is also no evidence for sustaining claims that certain additives increase nicotine availability or nicotine addictiveness.

1. Oxford Dictionaries, Online Edition, available at: *

2. European Parliament and Council: Directive 2001/37/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 June 2001 on the Approximation of the Laws, Regulations and Administrative Provisions of the Member States Concerning the Manufacture, Pre-sentation and Sale of Tobacco Products; Off. J. Eur. Commun. L 194 (2001) 26–35.

3. WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Guidelines for Implementation Article 5.3 | Article 8 | Articles 9 and 10 | Article 11 | Article 12 | Article 13 | Article 14 (2011 edition); available at: http://whq eng.pdf.

4. Kozlowski, S.: Der Schnupftabak im früheren Polen [Snuff in Former Poland]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabak-regie 2 (1902) 20–24.

5. Berka, F.: Die bei der Tabakfabrikation in Verwen-dung stehenden ätherischen Öle [The Essential Oils Used in Tobacco Manufacturing]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 3 (1903) 6–14.

6. Berka, F.: Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der bei der Tabak-regie in Verwendung stehenden aromatischen Ingre-dienzien [A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Aromatic Ingredients Used by the K.K. Tobacco Monopoly]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 4 (1904) 41–50.

7. Fisher, P.: Tobacco Blending; in: Tobacco. Pro-duction, Chemistry and Technology, edited by D.L. Davis and M.T. Nielsen, Blackwell, Oxford, 1999, pp. 346–352.

8. N.N.: The Toxic Factor in Tobacco; Lancet, 179 (1912) 944–947, ibid. 180 (1912) 547–548.

9. RJReynolds Website: Transforming Tobacco – History: A Look into Our Past; available at: http://

10. Philip Morris International: Philip Morris International's Input to the Public Consultation on the Pos-sible Revision of the Tobacco Products Directive 2001/37/EC; available at: tobacco_regulation/submissions/documents/pmi_ input_to_public_consultation_on_tobacco_products_ directive_with%20annexes_15_dec_2010.pdf.

11. Philip Morris Ltd. Australia: Letter to Dr Michael Wooldridge, Minister for Health and Family Services, July 31, 1998; Bates-No. 2064813389–3399, available at:

12. La Voie, E.J., S.S. Hecht, D. Hoffmann and E.L. Wynder: The Less Harmful Cigarette and Tobacco Smoke Flavors; in: Banbury Report 3, A Safe Cigarette?, edited by G.B. Gori and F.G. Bock, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY (1980), pp. 251–260.

13. Wynder, E.L. and D. Hoffmann: Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke: Studies in Experimental Carcino-genesis; Academic Press, New York, 1967.

14. Hoffmann, D. and I. Hoffmann: The Changing Ciga-rette: Chemical Studies and Bioassay; in: Risks Associated with Smoking Cigarettes with Low Machine-Measured Yields of Tar and Nicotine, edited by D.R. Shopland and D.M. Burns, Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 13, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, 2001, pp. 159–191.

15. World Health Organization (WHO): Monograph. Ad-vancing Knowledge on Regulating Tobacco Products; WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001, pp. 40–46.

16. Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ, German Cancer Research Center): Erhöhte Gesundheitsgefähr-dung durch Zusatzstoffe in Tabakerzeugnissen – Konsequenzen für die Produktregulation [Increased Health Hazards Due to Additives in Tobacco Products – Consequences for Product Regulation]; DKFZ, Heidelberg, 2005.

17. Bates, C., M. Jarvis, and G. Connolly: Tobacco Additives – Cigarette Engineering and Nicotine Ad-diction: 14 July 1999; available at: http://www.ash.

18. Tiedemann, M. and T. Wall: Bill C-32: An Act to Amend the Tobacco Act; 4 June 2009, revised 4 February 2010, Library of Parliament, Canada, avail-able at: Summaries/40/2/c32-e.pdf.

19. Frankenburg, W.G.: Resilient Tobacco Product and Method of Making the Same; United States Patent 2,592,554, General Cigar Co. Inc., New York, NY (Application Date: August 24,1946).

20. Schweitzer, W.P. and N. Flaxman: Method of Making a Reconstituted Tobacco Sheet Having Improved Filling Power; United States Patent 3,430,634, Kimberly-Clark Corp. (Filing Date: April 14, 1967).

21. Rodgman, A.: Some Studies of the Effects of Additives on Cigarette Mainstream Smoke Properties. II. Casing Materials and Humectants; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 20 (2002) 279–299.

22. Pelouze, J.: Über eine neue Zuckerart aus den Vogel-beeren (A New Type of Sugar in Rowan Berries); Justus Liebigs Ann. Chemie 83 (1852) 47–57.

23. Mäkinen, K.K. and E. Söderling: A Quantitative Study of Mannitol, Sorbitol, Xylitol, and Xylose in Wild Berries and Commercial Fruits; J. Food Sci. 45 (1980) 367–374.

24. Leffingwell, J.C.: Leaf Chemistry: Basic Chemical Constituents of Tobacco Leaf and Differences among Tobacco Types; in: Tobacco. Production, Chemistry and Technology, edited by D.L. Davis and M.T. Nielsen, Blackwell, Oxford, 1999, pp. 265–284.

25. Bradford, J.A., E.S. Harlow, W.R. Harlan, and H.R. Hanmer: Nature of Cigarette Smoke. Volatile Bases and Acids; Ind. Eng. Chem. 29 (1937) 45–50.

26. Sugawara, S., I. Ishizu, and U. Kobashi: Studies on Casing Effects on Cigarettes. I. Change in Chemical Composition with Casing Additives; Sci. Papers Centr. Res. Inst. Jap. Tob. Salt Monop. Corp. 105 (1963) 203–207.

27. Pyriki, C. and W. Moldenhauer: Die Auswirkung der Tabakbehandlung mit verschiedenen Materialien auf den Zigarettenrauch [Effect on Cigarette Smoke of the Treatment of Tobacco with Various Agents]; Ber. Inst. Tabakforsch. Dresden 7 (1960) 216–240.

28. Yoshitani, H., K. Shimura, S. Wakui, K. Yoshifuji, T. Akaki, T. Shinkai, T. Kamachi, and I. Morishita: Studies on Tobacco Casing. (I). Casing Effect of Saccharides (1); Nippon Senbai Kosha Chuo Kenkyusho Kenkyu Hokoku 106 (1964) 281–284.

29. Kamachi, T., H. Nishi, and H. Yoshitani: Studies on Tobacco Casing. (V). On “Casing Agent” as Neutral Sauce; Nippon Senbai Kosha Chuo Kenkyusho Kenkyu Hokoku 109 (1967) 99–105.

30. Spiegelhalder, B., S.J. Kubacki, and S. Fischer: A Method for the Determination of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines (TSNA), Nitrate and Nitrite in Tobacco Leaves and Processed Tobacco; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 14 (1989) 135–144.

31. Hoffmann, D., K.D. Brunnemann, B. Prokopczyk, and M.V. Djordjevic: Tobacco Specific N-Nitrosamines and Areca-Derived N-Nitrosamines: Chemistry, Biochemistry, Carcinogenicity, and Relevance to Humans; J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 41 (1994) 1–52.

32. Wiernik, A., A. Christakopoulos, L. Johansson, and I. Wahlberg: Effect of Air-Curing on the Chemical Composition of Tobacco; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 21 (1995) 39–80.

33. Andersen, R.A., H.R. Burton, P.D. Fleming, T.R. Hamilton-Kemp, and S.L. Gay: Effects of Air-Curing Environment on Alkaloid-Derived Nitrosamines in Burley Tobacco; IARC Sci. Publ. 84 (1987) 451–455.

34. Burton, H.R., L.P. Bush, and J.L. Hamilton: Effect of Curing on the Chemical Composition of Burley Tobacco; Rec, Adv. Tob. Sci. 9 (1983) 91–153.

35. Begutter, H., H. Klus, and I. Ultsch: Kapillargas-chromatographische Bestimmung flüchtiger und tabakspezifischer N-Nitrosamine mittels des Thermo-Energy-Analyzers [Determination of Volatile and Tobacco-Specific N-Nitrosamines by Capillary Gas Chromatography – Thermo Energy Analyzer]; J. Chromatogr. 321 (1985) 475–479.

36. Klus, H.: Volatile N-Nitrosamines in the Burley Toaster Exhaust; 1983, unpublished.

37. Bright, M.N., T.M. Larson, and C.I. Lewis: Analytical Method for Determination of Pyrazines and Alkyl-pyrazines in Shredded Tobacco; Paper presented at the 29th Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference 1975, Oct. 9–10.

38. Coleman III, W.M. and T.A. Perfetti: The Roles of Amino Acids and Sugars in the Production of Volatile Materials in Microwave Heated Tobacco Dust Suspensions; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 17 (1997) 75–95.

39. Schönberg, A. and R. Moubacher: The Strecker De-gradation of -Amino Acids; Chem. Rev. 50 (1952) 261–277.

40. Mauron, J.: The Maillard Reaction in Food: A Critical Review from the Nutritional Standpoint; Prog. Food Nutr. Sci. 5 (1981) 5–35.

41. Fors, S.: Sensory Properties of Volatile Maillard Reaction Products and Related Compounds. A Literature Review; in: The Maillard Reaction in Foods and Nutrition; American Chemical Society Sym-posium Series, No. 215, edited by G.R. Waller and M.S. Feather, ACS, Washington, DC, 1983, pp. 185–286.

42. Li, P., M. Wu, and J. Xie: Changes in Levels of Amino Acids and Basic Components in Burley Tobacco Produced by Roasting; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 20 (2003) 459–466.

43. Amrani-Hemaimi, M., C. Cerny, and L.B. Fay: Mechanisms of Formation of Alkylpyrazines in the Maillard Reaction; J. Agric. Food Chem. 43 (1995) 2818–2822.

44. Dewick, P.M.: Medicinal Natural Products. A Biosyn-thetic Approach; 2nd edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, 2002, pp. 221–222.

45. Chandler, R.F.: Licorice, More than Just a Flavor; Can. Pharm. J. 118 (1985) 421–424.

46. Vora, P.S.: Characteristics and Applications of Lico-rice Products in Tobacco; Tob. Int. (1984) 13–20.

47. Tilley, N.M.: The Bright-Tobacco Industry, 1860–1929; University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1948, pp. 511–512.

48. Harllee, G.C. and J.C. Leffingwell: Casing Materials – Cocoa (Part I); Tob. Int. 181 (1979) 40–52.

49. Armstrong, R.G., E.J. Deszyck, J.W. Madures, and R.H. Young: Process for Puffing Tobacco; United States Patent 3,771,533, Philip Morris Inc., New York, NY (Filing Date: August 31, 1970).

50. White, J.L. and L.J. Conrad: Process for Increasing Filling Capacity of Tobacco; United States Patent 4,531,529, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., Winston-Salem, NC (Filing Date: October 4, 1982).

51. de la Burde, R.Z. and P.E. Aument: Expanding Tobacco; United States Patent Re. 32,013, Philip Morris Inc., New York, NY (Filing Date: June 28, 1984).

52. Ziehn, K.-D.: Process for Improving the Fillability of Tobacco; United States Patent 4,577,646, H.F. & Ph.F. Reemtsma GmbH & Co., Hamburg (Filing Date: April 20, 1984).

53. Fredrickson, J.D.: Process for Increasing the Filling Capacity of Tobacco; United States Patent 3,524,451, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., Winston-Salem, NC (Filing Date: April 10, 1968).

54. Rowland, F.S. and M.J. Molina: Chlorofluoro-methanes in the Environment; Rev. Geophys. 13 (1975) 1–35.

55. Dontenwill, W., H.-J. Chevalier, H.-P. Harke, H.-J. Klimisch, G. Reckzeh, B. Fleischmann, and W. Keller: Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die tumorerzeugende Wirkung von Zigarettenrauch-Kondensaten an der Mäusehaut. VII. Mitteilung: Einzelvergleiche von Kondensaten verschiedener modifizierter Zigaretten [Experimental Investigations on the Tumorigenic Activity of Cigarette Smoke Condensate on Mouse Skin. VII. Comparative Studies of Condensates from Different Modified Cigarettes]; Z. Krebsforsch. Klin. Onkol. 89 (1977) 145–151.

56. Coggins, C.R.E., P.H. Ayres, A.T. Mosberg, J.W. Sagartz, and A.W. Hayes: Comparative Inhalation Study in Rats Using Cigarettes Containing Tobacco Expanded with Chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11) or Hydrochlorofluorocarbon-123 (HCFC-123); Inhal. Toxicol. 5 (1993) 97–115.

57. Theophilus, E.H., D.B. Poindexter, D.R. Meckley, B.R. Bombick, M.F. Borgerding, M.A. Higuchi, P.H. Ayres, M.J. Morton, A.T. Mosberg, and J.E. Swauger: Toxicological Evaluation of Dry Ice Expanded Tobacco; Toxicol. Lett. 145 (2003) 107–119.

58. Theophilus, E.H., B.R. Bombick, D.R. Meckley, M.A. Higuchi, M.F. Borgerding, M.J. Morton, A.T. Mosberg, and J.E. Swauger: Toxicological Evaluation of Propane Expanded Tobacco; Food Chem. Toxicol. 41 (2003) 1771–1780.

59. Theophilus, E.H., D.H. Pence, D.R. Meckley, M.A Higuchi, B.R. Bombick, M.F. Borgerding, P.H. Ayres, and J.E. Swauger: Toxicological Evaluation of Expanded Shredded Tobacco Stems; Food Chem. Toxicol. 42 (2004) 631–639.

60. Christensson, E. and E. Falke: Method for Adding a Flavoring Substance to a Tobacco Rod and Apparatus for Carrying Out the Method; United States Patent 4,913,166, Svenska Tobaks AB, Stockholm (Filing Date: August 15, 1988).

61. Bynre, S.W., B.J. Tompkins, and E.B. Hayes: Production of Tobacco Smoke Filters; United States Patent 4,281,671, American Filtrona Corp., Richmond, VA (Filing Date: April 19, 1979).

62. Deevi, S.: Laminated Metal Foil Packaging Material and Method of Making; United States Patent Application 2004/0139702 A1, Philip Morris Inc. (Filing Date: January 12, 2004).

63. Wilson, S.A.: Theoretical Aspects of Menthol Migration and Transfer; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 19 (1993) 129–153.

64. Borschke, A.J.: Review of Technologies Relating to Menthol Use in Cigarettes; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 19 (1993) 47–70.

65. Klus, H., A. Pachinger, and A. Nowak: Comparison of the Selective Retention Capacity of Cigarette Filters Made from Cellulose Acetate and Polypropylene; CORESTA Joint Meeting of the Smoke and Technology Study Groups, Xian, China, 2001, No. ST 53.

66. Puls, J., S.A. Wilson, and D. Hölter: Degradation of Cellulose Acetate-Based Materials: A Review; J. Polym. Environ. 19 (2011) 152–165.

67. Hoffmann, D., I. Hoffmann, and K. El-Bayoumy: The Less Harmful Cigarette: A Controversial Issue. A Tribute to Ernst L. Wynder; Chem. Res. Toxicol. 14 (2001) 767–790.

68. National Cancer Institute, Smoking and Health Program: Report No. 3. Toward Less Hazardous Ciga-rettes. The Third Set of Experimental Cigarettes; edited by G.B. Gori, NCI, DHEW, Publ. No. (NIH) 77-1280, Washington, DC, 1977.

69. Xue, L., C.E. Thomas, and K.B. Koller: Mainstream Smoke Gas Phase Filtration Performance of Adsorption Materials Evaluated with a Puff-by-Puff Multiplex GC-MS Method; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 20 (2002) 251–256.

70. Figueiredo, J.L., M.F.R. Pereira, M.M.A Freitas, and J.J.M. Orfao: Modification of the Surface Chemistry of Activated Carbons; Carbon 37 (1999) 1379–1389.

71. Ceschini, P.: Aktivitätsverlust der Kohle in Cigaretten-filtern [Decrease of the Carbon Activity in Cigarette Filters]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 6 (1972) 220–222.

72. Purkis, S.W., C. Mueller, M. Intorp, and H. Seidel: The Influence of Cigarette Designs and Smoking Regimes on Vapour Phase Yields; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 24 (2010) 33–46.

73. International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO): International Standard ISO 3308:2000. Routine Analytical Cigarette-Smoking Machine. Definitions and Standard Conditions; 4th Edition, Geneva, Switzerland, 2000.

74. Health Canada: Determination of “Tar”, Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke. Official Method T-115; December 1999, available at: pdf/tobac-tabac/legislation/reg/indust/method/_main-principal/nicotine-eng.pdf.

75. Pauly, J.L., H.A. Allaart, M.I. Rodriguez, and R.J. Streck: Fibers Released from Cigarette Filters: An Additional Health Risk to the Smoker?; Cancer Res. 55 (1995) 253–258.

76. Pauly, J.L., S.J. Stegmeier, A.G. Mayer, J.D. Lesses, and R.J. Streck: Release of Carbon Granules from Cigarettes with Charcoal Filters; Tob. Control 6 (1997) 33–40.

78. Pauly, J.L., S.J. Stegmeier, H.A. Allaart, R.T. Cheney, P.J. Zhang, A.G. Mayer, and RJ. Streck: Inhaled Cellulosic and Plastic Fibers Found in Human Lung Tissue; Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 7 (1998) 419-428.

79. Pauly, J.L., A.B. Mepani, J.D. Lesses, K.M. Cum-mings, and RJ. Streck: Cigarettes with Defective Filters Marketed for 40 Years: What Philip Morris Never Told Smokers; Tob. Control 11, Suppl. I (2002) i51-i61.

80. Hengstberger, M. and M. Stark: Fibre and Particle Release from Cigarette Filters; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 23 (2009) 338-358.

81. Deutsches Institut für Normung: DIN Fachbericht 160. Freisetzung von Fasern und Partikeln aus Zigaretten-filtern [Release of Fibres and Particles from Cigarette Filters]; Beuth Verlag, Berlin, 2008.

82. Agyei-Aye, K., S. Appleton, R.A. Rogers, and CR Taylor: Assessment of the Elution of Charcoal, Cellulose Acetate, and Other Particles from Cigarettes with Charcoal and Activated Charcoal/Resin Filters; Inhal. Toxicol. 16 (2004) 615-635.

83. Johnson, V.C: Carbon particle fallout; Philip Morris USA Inter-Office correspondence, September 25, 1963, Bates-No. 1001885385-5386, available at:

84. Hasegawa, I.: Carbon Fallout Determination with Bausch and Lomb Image Analyzer; Philip Morris USA Inter-Office Correspondence, September 16, 1975, Bates-No. 0362451-2452, available at:

85. European Commission: Commission Implementing Decision of 9 August 2011 on the Compliance of Standard EN 16156:2010 ‘Cigarettes - Assessment of the Ignition Propensity - Safety Requirement’ and of Standard EN ISO 12863:2010 ‘Standard Test Method for Assessing the Ignition Propensity of Cigarettes’ with the General Safety Requirement of Directive 2001/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Publication of the References of Standard EN 16156:2010 ‘Cigarettes - Assessment of the Ignition Propensity - Safety Requirement’ and of Standard EN ISO 12863:2010 ‘Standard Test Method for Assessing the Ignition Propensity of Cigarettes’ in the Official Journal of the European Union (notified under document C(2011) 5626); Off J. Europ. Union L 205 (10.08.2011) 31-32.

86. The State of New York: Amended Notice of Adoption. Fire Safety Standards for Cigarettes; The New York State Register 26 (April 21, 2004) 19-21.

87. Theophilus, E.H., D.H. Pence, D.R. Meckley, W.K. Shreve, P.H. Ayres, B.R. Bombick, M.F. Borgerding, CD. Garner, and J.E. Swauger: Toxicological Evalu-ation of Cigarettes with Two Banded Cigarette Paper Technologies; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 59 (2007) 17-27.

88. Appleton, S., G.R. Krauter, and J.H. Lauterbach: Toxicological Evaluation of a New Cigarette Paper Designed for Lowered Ignition Propensity; presented at the 57th Tobacco Science Research Conference, Norfolk, VA, No. 16, 2003.

89. Lulham, G., J. Miller, W.S. Rickert, and A. Trevedi: In vitro Toxicity of Lower Ignition Propensity (LIP) and Conventional Cigarettes; Toxicologist 90 (2006) No. 1965.

89. Misra, M., R.D. Leverette, J.T. Hamm, M.B. Bennet, J.D. Heck, R. Morrissey, and N. Rajendran: Toxicological Evaluation of a Cigarette Paper with Reduced Ignition Propensity: In vitro and in vivo Tests; Toxicologist 84 (2005) No. 1186.

90. Patskan G., F. Hsu, T. Meisgen, R. Stabbert, P. Van-scheeuwijck, and D. Veltel: Toxicological Characteri-zation of a Novel Cigarette Paper; presented at the 39th Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology, Philadelphia, PA, Toxicologist 54 (2000) No. 398.

91. Commission of the European Communities: Report from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council and the European Economic and Social Committee: Second Report on the Application of the Tobacco Products Directive; COM (2007) 754 final, Brussels, November 27, 2007.

92. European Commission: Directorate-General for Health & Consumers. Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Risks (SCENIHR): Addictiveness and Attractiveness of Tobacco Additives; 2010, available at: tees/emerging/docs/scenihr o 031.pdf.

93. World Health Organization (WHO): WHO Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs - 13th Report; Technical Report Series No. 273, available at: TRS 273.pdf.

94. World Health Organization (WHO): Management of Substance Abuse - Dependence Syndrome; available at: definition1/en/.

95. World Health Organization (WHO): International Sta-tistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10), Chapter V: Mental and Behavioural Disorders; WHO, version 2010, available at: icd10/browse/2010/en#/V.

96. O'Dell, L.E. and T.V. Khroyan: Rodent Models of Nicotine Reward: What Do They Tell Us about Tobacco Abuse in Humans?; Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 91 (2009) 481–488.

97. O'Brien, C.P. and E.L. Gardner: Critical Assessment of How to Study Addiction and its Treatment: Human and Non-Human Animal Models; Pharmacol. Ther. 108 (2005) 18-58.

98. Antony, J.C, L.A. Warner, and R.C Kessler: Com-parative Epidemiology of Dependence on Tobacco, Alcohol, Controlled Substances, and Inhalants: Basic Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey; Exp. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 2 (1994) 244-268.

99. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition; American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, 1994.

100. Fagerstrom, K.-O. and N.G. Schneider: Measuring Nicotine Dependence: A Review of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire; J. Behav. Med. 12 (1989) 159-182.

101. Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Center (TTURC) Tobacco Dependence Phenotype Work-group - T.B. Baker, M.E. Piper, D.E. McCarthy, D.M. Bolt, S.S. Smith, S.-Y. Kim, S. Colby, D. Conti, G.A. Giovino, D. Hatsukami, A. Hyland, S. Krishnan-Sarin, R. Niaura, K.A. Perkins, and B.A. Toll: Time to First Cigarette in the Morning as an Index of Ability to Quit Smoking: Implications for Nicotine Dependence; Nicotine Tob. Res. 9, Suppl. 4 (2007) S555–S570.

102. Carter L.P., M.L. Stitzer, J.E. Henningfield, R.J. O'Connor, K.M. Cummings, and D.K. Hatsukami: Abuse Liability Assessment of Tobacco Products Including Potential Reduced Exposure Products; Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 18 (2009) 3241–3262.

103. Wenusch, A.: Die Reaktion des Tabakrauches [The Reaction of Tobacco Smoke]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 2 (1930) 13–15.

104. Brunnemann, K.D. and D. Hoffmann: [Chemical Studies on Tobacco Smoke. XXV.] The pH of Tobacco Smoke; Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 12 (1974) 115–124.

105. Armitage, A.K. and D.M. Turner: Absorption of Nicotine in Cigarette and Cigar Smoke through the Oral Mucosa; Nature 226 (1970) 1231–1232.

106. Riehl, T., D. McMurtrie, V. Heemann, and R. Crellin: Project SHIP Review of Progress; November 12, 1984, Minn. Trial Exhibit 10752, available at: 19841112. Rg.html.

107. Woods, J.D. and G.C. Harllee: Historical Review of Smoke pH Data and Sales Trends for Competitive Brand Filter Cigarettes; Project No. 1210, RJR, May 10, 1973, Bates-No. 514804875–4890, available at:

108. Newsome, J.R.: Development of a Cigarette with an Increased Smoke pH; (Progress during 1973 on Project TE 5001), January 29, 1974, Bates-No. CGSKLIG19740129.LR, available at: http://legacy.

109. Evelyn, S.R.: The Effects of Additives on Smoke Chemistry. Action of Gaseous Ammonia on Flue-Cured Tobacco; Report No. RD 334-R, 1.6.1965, available at: 24897.html.

110. Teague Jr., C.E.: Research Planning Memorandum on Effects of Ammonia and its Salts on Smoke Quality; R.J. Reynolds. Bates-No. 511242075–2078, available at:

111. Henningfield, J.E. and M. Zeller: Could Science-Based Regulation Make Tobacco Products Less Addictive?; Yale J. Health Policy Law Ethics 3 (2002) 127–138.

112. Pankow, J.F., A.D. Tavakoli, W. Luo, and L.M. Isabelle: Percent Free Base Nicotine in the Tobacco Smoke Particulate Matter of Selected Commercial and Reference Cigarettes; Chem. Res. Toxicol. 16 (2003) 1014–1018.

113. Henningfield, J.E., J.F. Pankow, and B.E. Garrett: Ammonia and Other Chemical Base Tobacco Additives and Cigarette Nicotine Delivery: Issues and Research Needs; Nicotine Tob. Res. 6 (2004) 199–205.

114. Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (Hrsg.): Fakten zum Rauchen: Tabakrauch – ein Giftgemisch [Facts on Smoking: Tobacco Smoke – a Mixture of Toxic Substances]; DKFZ, Heidelberg, Germany, 2008.

115. Wayne, G.F. and C.M. Carpenter: Tobacco Industry Manipulation of Nicotine Dosing; Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. 192 (2009) 457–485.

116. World Health Organization, WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation: Report on the Scientific Basis of Tobacco Product Regulation. Fourth Report of a WHO Study Group; WHO Technical Report Series 967, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2012.

117. Rickert, W.S.: Partial Characterization of 10 “Common” Brands of American Cigarettes; Project Report for Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Labstat, Inc., Kitchener, Canada, January 30, 1997.

118. Klus, H., H. Begutter, and I. Ultsch: The Effect of Filter Ventilation on the pH of the Mainstream Smoke; Presentation at the CORESTA Smoke Study Meeting, Albufeira, Portugal, 1981, Bates-No. 100544728– 4745, available at:

119. Ellis, C.L., R.H. Cox, C.H. Callicut, S.W. Laffoon, K.F. Podraza, J.I. Seeman, R.D. Kinser, D.E. Farthing, and F.S. Hsu: The Effect of Ingredients, Added to Tobacco in a Commercial Marlboro Lights Cigarette, on FTC Nicotine Yield, “Smoke pH”, and Cambridge Filter Trapping Efficiency; Presentation at the CORESTA Smoke and Technology Meeting, Innsbruck, Austria, September 1999. Bates-No. 83171402–1423; available at: http://legacy.library.

120. Callicutt, C.H., R.H. Cox, F. Hsu, R.D. Kinser, S.W. Laffoon, P.N. Lee, K.F. Podraza, E.B. Sanders, and J.I. Seeman: The Role of Ammonia in the Transfer of Nicotine from Tobacco to Mainstream Smoke; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 46 (2006) 1–17.

121. Rodgman, A.: “Smoke pH”: A review; Beitr. Tabak-forsch. Int. 19 (2000) 117–139.

122. Pankow, J.F.: A Consideration of the Role of Gas/Particle Partitioning in the Deposition of Nicotine and Other Tobacco Smoke Compounds in the Respiratory Tract; Chem. Res. Toxicol. 14 (2001) 1465–1481.

123. Ingebrethsen, B.J., C.S. Lyman, C.H. Risner, P. Martin, and B.M. Gordon: Particle-Gas Equilibria of Ammonia and Nicotine in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke; Aerosol Sci. Technol. 35 (2001) 874–886.

124. Benowitz, N.L.: Nicotine Pharmacology and Addiction; in: Nicotine Safety and Toxicity, edited by N.L. Benowitz, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 1998, pp. 3–16.

125. Benowitz, N.L., H. Porchet, and P. Jacob III: Nicotine Dependence and Tolerance in Man: Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Investigations; Prog. Brain Res. 79 (1989) 279–287.

126. Schievelbein, H.: Nicotine, Resorption and Fate; Pharmacol. Ther. 18 (1982) 233–248.

127. Slade, J.: Nicotine Delivery Devices; in: Nicotine Addiction: Principles and Management, Vol. 4, edited by C.T. Orleans and J. Slade, Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K., 1993, pp. 3–23.

128. Gourley, S.G. and J.J. McNeil: Antismoking Products; Med. J. Aust. 153 (1990) 699–707.

129. Dixon, M., K. Lambing, and J.I. Seeman: Mini-Review: On the Transfer of Nicotine from Tobacco to the Smoker. A Brief Review of Ammonia and “pH” Factors; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 19 (2000) 103–113.

130. Holma, B. and P.O. Hegg: pH- and Protein-Dependent Buffer Capacity and Viscosity of Respiratory Mucus. Their Interrelationships and Influence on Health; Sci. Total Environ. 84 (1989) 71–82.

131. Armitage, A.K., M. Dixon, B.E. Frost, D.C. Mariner, and N.M. Sinclair: The Effect of Tobacco Blend Additives on the Retention of Nicotine and Solanesol in the Human Respiratory Tract and on Subsequent Plasma Nicotine Concentrations During Cigarette Smoking; Chem. Res. Toxicol. 17 (2004) 537–544.

132. Willems, E.W., B. Rambali, W. Vleeming, A. Opperhuizen, and J.G.C. van Amsterdam: Signifi-cance of Ammonium Compounds on Nicotine Expo-sure to Cigarette Smokers; Food Chem. Toxicol. 44 (2006) 678–688.

133. Hunt, J.F., K. Fang, R. Malik, A. Snyder, N. Malhorta, T.A.E. Platts-Mills, and B. Gaston: Endogenous Airway Acidification. Implications for Asthma Patho-physiology; Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 161 (2000) 694–699.

134. Kostikas, K., G. Papatheodorou, K. Ganas, K. Psathakis, P. Panagou, and S. Loukides: pH in Expired Breath Condensate of Patients with Inflammatory Airway Diseases; Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 165 (2002) 1364–1370.

135. Hunt, J.F., E. Erwin, L. Palmer, J. Vaughan, N. Malhotra, T.A.E. Platts-Mills, and B. Gaston: Ex-pression and Activity of the pH-Regulatory Gluta-minase in the Human Airway Epithelium; Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 165 (2002) 101–107.

136. Reininghaus, W.: Bioavailability of Nicotine; INBIFO correspondence to Philip Morris, November 15, 1994, Bates-No.: 2050878704–8707, available at: http://

137. Hoffmann, D. and I. Hoffmann: Chemistry and Toxicology; in: Cigars: Health Effects and Trends; edited by D.R. Shopland and D.M. Burns, Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 9; National Cancer Institute, 1998, pp. 55–104.

138. Seeman, J.I.: Possible Role of Ammonia on the Deposition, Retention and Absorption of Nicotine in Humans While Smoking; Chem. Res. Toxicol. 20 (2007) 326–343.

139. Seeman, J.I. and R.A. Carchman: The Possible Role of Ammonia Toxicity on the Exposure, Deposition, Retention, and the Bioavailability of Nicotine During Smoking; Food. Chem. Toxicol. 46 (2008) 1863–1881.

140. Chen, C. and J.F. Pankow: Gas/Particle Partitioning of Two Acid-Base Active Compounds in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke: Nicotine and Ammonia; J. Agric. Food Chem. 57 (2009) 2678–2690.

141. Lauterbach, J.H.: Comment on Gas/Particle Partitioning of Two Acid-Base Active Compounds in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke: Nicotine and Ammonia; J. Agric. Food. Chem. 58 (2010) 9287–9288.

142. Federal Trade Commission: Cigarettes: Testing for Tar and Nicotine Content; Federal Register, Washington, DC, August 1, 1967, Vol. 32, No. 147, p. 11178.

143. Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Public Health: Cigarette and Smokeless Tobacco Products: Reports of Added Constituents and Nicotine Ratings (105 CMR 660.000); available at: http://

144. Chen, C. and J.F. Pankow: Rebuttal to the Comment on Gas/Particle Partitioning of Two Acid-Base Active Compounds in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke: Nicotine and Ammonia; Agric. Food Chem. 58 (2010) 9289.

145. Van Amsterdam, J., A. Sleijffers, P. van Spiegel, R. Blom, M. Witte, J. van de Kassteele, M. Blokland, P. Steerenberg, and A. Opperhuizen: Effect of Ammonia in Cigarette Tobacco on Nicotine Absorption in Human Smokers; Food Chem. Toxicol. 49 (2011) 3025–3030.

146. Müller, L. and W. Röper: Commentary: It Ain't Necessarily so; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 19 (2000) 51–54.

147. Hind, J.D. and R.B. Seligman: Method of Preparing a Reconstituted Tobacco Sheet Employing a Pectin Adhesive; United States Patent 3,420,241, Philip Morris Inc., New York, NY (Application Date: June 16, 1966).

148. Papeteries de Mauduit: Developments in Cigarette Paper: Manufacturing of Cigarette Paper. Fundamental characteristics; 1984, Bates-No. 2028560522–0536, available at: zaz94g00.

149. N.N.: Improved Process of Manufacturing Cigarette Paper; United Kingdom Patent Specification 646,031, Ecusta Paper Corporation (Application Date: May 15, 1947).

150. Goodman, B.L. and W.G. Houck, Jr.: Smoking Article Exhibiting Reduced Sidestream Smoke, and Wrapper Paper Therefor; European Patent Application 0402059 A2, Philip Morris Products Inc., Richmond VA (Priority: June 5, 1989).

151. Ishikawa, S., T. Tsutsumi, M. Sato, and K. Inoue: Winding Paper for Smoking Goods; European Patent Specification EP 1403431 B1, Japan Tobacco Inc., Tokyo (Priority: May 16, 2001).

152. DeNoble, V.J. and P.C. Mele: Behavioral Pharma-cology Annual Report June 01, 1983. Philip Morris U.S.A.; Bates-No. 2056144550–4633, available at:

153. Johnson, R.R., E.D. Alford, and G.W. Kinzer: Formation of Sucrose Pyrolysis Products; J. Agr. Food Chem. 17 (1969) 22–24.

154. Gager Jr., F.L., J.W. Nedlock, and W.J. Martin: Tobacco Additives and Cigarette Smoke. II. Organic, Gas-Phase Products from D-Glucose and Sucrose; Carbohyd. Res. 17 (1971) 335–339.

155. Fenner, M.L. and J. Braven: The Mechanism of Carcinogenesis by Tobacco Smoke. Further Experimental Evidence and a Prediction from the Thiol-Defence Hypothesis; Brit. J. Cancer 22 (1968) 474–479.

156. Pomerleau, O.F.: Neurobiological Interactions of Alcohol and Nicotine; in: Alcohol and Tobacco: From Basic Science to Clinical Practice, edited by J.B. Fertig and J.P. Allen, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 1995, pp. 145–158.

157. Gray, N.: Reflections on the Saga of Tar Content: Why Did We Measure the Wrong Thing?; Tob. Control 9 (2000) 90–94.

158. Stedman, R.L.: The Chemical Composition of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke; Chem. Rev. 68 (1968) 153–207.

159. Cremer, D.R. and K. Eichner: Formation of Volatile Compounds During Heating of Spice Paprika (Capsicum annuum) powder; J. Agric. Food Chem. 48 (2000) 2454–2460.

160. Greger, V. and P. Schieberle: Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Apricots (Prunus armeniaca) by Application of the Molecular Sensory Science Concept; J. Agric Food Chem. 55 (2007) 5221–5228.

161. Fuhrmann, E. and W. Grosch: Character Impact Odorants of the Apple Cultivars Elstar and Cox Orange; Nahrung 46 (2002) 187–193.

162. Phillpotts, D.F., D. Spincer, and D.T. Westcott: The Effects of the Natural Sugar Content of Tobacco upon the Acetaldehyde Concentration Found in Cigarette Smoke; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 8 (1975) 7–10.

163. Baker, R.R.: Smoke Chemistry; in: Tobacco. Production, Chemistry and Technology, edited by D.L. Davis and M.T. Nielsen, Blackwell, Oxford, 1999, pp. 398–439.

164. Pailer, M., H. Kuhn, and I. Grünberger: Über quantitative Unterschiede im Auftreten von nieder-molekularen Carbonylverbindungen im Rauch von Zigaretten verschiedener Tabakmischungen und verschiedenen Feuchtigkeitsgehaltes [On the Quantitative Differences in the Presence of Low Molecular Weight Carbonyls in the Smoke of Cigarettes with Different Tobacco Blends and Different Moisture Content]; Fachl. Mitt. Österr. Tabakregie 3 (1962) 34–39.

165. Chepiga, T.A., M.J. Morton, P.A. Murphy, J.T. Avalos, B.R. Bombick, D.J. Doolittle, M.F. Borger-ding, and J.E. Swauger: A Comparison of the Mainstream Smoke Chemistry and Mutagenicity of a Representative Sample of the US Cigarette Market with Two Kentucky Reference Cigarettes (K1R4F and K1R5F); Food Chem. Toxicol. 38 (2000) 949–962.

166. Quertemont, E. and P. De Witte: Conditioned Stimulus Preference after Acetaldehyde but Not Ethanol Injections; Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 68 (2001) 449–454.

167. Seeman, J.I., M. Dixon, and H.-J. Haussmann: Acetaldehyde in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke: Formation and Occurrence in Smoke and Bioavailability in the Smoker; Chem. Res. Toxicol. 15 (2002) 1331–1350.

168. Egle Jr., J.L.: Retention of Inhaled Acetaldehyde in Man; J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 174 (1970) 14–19.

169. Brien, J.F. and C.W. Loomis: Pharmacology of Acetaldehyde; Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 61 (1983) 1–22.

170. McLaughlin, S.D., B.K. Scott, and C.M. Peterson: The Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Breath and Whole Blood-Associated Acetaldehyde; Alcohol 7 (1990) 285-287.

171. Belluzzi, J.D., R. Wang, and F.M. Leslie: Acetaldehyde Enhances Acquisition of Nicotine Self-Administration in Adolescent Rats; Neuropsycho-pharmacology 30 (2005) 705-712.

172. Talhout, R., A. Opperhuizen, and J.G.C. van Amsterdam: Role of Acetaldehyde in Tobacco Smoke Addiction; Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol. 17 (2007) 627-636.

173. Kaburaki, Y., H. Shigematsu, and H. Kusakabe: The Composition of Tobacco Smoke. X. Relation Between Vapor Phase Components of Smoke and Constituents of Tobacco; Nippon Senbai Kosha Chuo Kenkyusho Kenkyu Hokoku 107 (1969) 135-142.

174. Seeman, J.I., S.W. Laffoon, and AJ. Kassman: Evaluation of Relationships Between Mainstream Smoke Acetaldehyde and “Tar” and Carbon Monoxide Yields in Tobacco Smoke and Reducing Sugars in Tobacco Blends of U.S. Commercial Cigarettes; Inhal. Toxicol. 15 (2003) 373-395.

175. Burton, H.R. and G. Childs Jr.: The Thermal Degradation of Tobacco. VI. Influence of Extraction on the Formation of Some Major Gas Phase Constituents; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 8 (1975) 174-180.

176. Hahn, J. and J. Schaub: Influence of Tobacco Additives on the Chemical Composition of Mainstream Smoke; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 24 (2010) 100-116.

177. Roemer, E., S. Wittke, E. Trelles Sticken, J.-J. Piade, T. Bonk, and M.K. Schorp: The Addition of Cocoa, Glycerol, and Saccharose to the Tobacco of Cigarettes: Implications for Smoke Chemistry, in vitro Cytotoxicity, Mutagenicity and Further Endpoints; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 24 (2010) 117-138.

178. Intorp, M., J. Pani, and M. Blumenstock: Influence of Tobacco Additives on the Chemical Composition of Mainstream Smoke - Additional Analysis of Three Tobacco Industry Based Laboratories; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 24 (2010) 139-144.

179. Cahours, X., T. Verron, and S. Purkis: Effect of Sugar Content on Acetaldehyde Yield in Cigarette Smoke; Paper presented at the CORESTA Joint Study Groups Meeting Science / Product Technology Study Groups, Graz, Austria, 2011, abstract ST27.

180. Cahours, X., T. Verron, and S. Purkis: Effect of Sugar Content on Acetaldehyde Yield in Cigarette Smoke; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 25 (2012) 381-395.

181. Baker, R.R.: Sugars, Carbonyls and Smoke. Letter to the Editor; Food Chem. Toxicol. 45 (2007) 1783-1786.

182. Henningfield, J.E., D.K. Hatsukami, M. Zeller, and E. Peters: Conference on Abuse Liability and Appeal of Tobacco Products: Conclusions and Recommen-dations; Drug Alcohol Depend. 116 (2011) 1-7.

183. WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): Conference of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Fourth session, Punta del Este, Uruguay, November 15-20, 2010. Provisional agenda item 5.2: Draft Guidelines for the Implementation of Articles 9 and 10 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; available at: FCTC_COP4_6Rev1-en.pdf.

184. Euromonitor: Tobacco in the United States; May 2005.

185. TNS Opinion & Social: Special Eurobarometer 332, Eurobarometer 73.2: Tobacco; May 2010, TNS Opinion & Social, Brussels, Belgium, p. 15.

186. Sanders E., R. Weitkunat, A. Utan, and R. Dempsey: Does the Use of Ingredients Added to Tobacco In-crease Cigarette Addictiveness? A Detailed Analysis; Inhal. Toxicol. 24 (2012) 227–245.

187. Connolly, G.N.: Sweet and Spicy Flavours: New Brands for Minorities and Youth; Tob. Control 13 (2004) 211–212.

188. Manning, K.C., K.J. Kelly, and M.L. Comello: Flavoured Cigarettes, Sensation Seeking, and Adolescents’ Perceptions of Cigarette Brands; Tob. Control 18 (2009) 459–465.

189. Lewis, M.J. and O. Wackowski: Dealing with an Innovative Industry: A Look at Flavored Cigarettes Promoted by Mainstream Brands; Am. J. Public Health 96 (2006) 244–251.

190. Klein, S.M., G.A. Giovani, D.C. Barker, C. Tworek, K.M. Cummings, and R.J. O'Connor: Use of Flavored Cigarettes among Older Adolescent and Adult Smokers: United States, 2004–2005; Nicotine Tob. Res. 10 (2008) 1209–1214.

191. Wikipedia: Generally Recognized as Safe; available at: _as_safe.

192. Wynder, E.L. and D. Hoffmann: Experimental Tobacco Carcinogenesis; Adv. Cancer Res. 8 (1964) 249–453.

193. Schmeltz, I., A. Wenger, D. Hoffmann, and T.C. Tso: Chemical Studies on Tobacco Smoke. 63. On the Fate of Nicotine During Pyrolysis and in a Burning Cigarette; J. Agric. Food Chem. 27 (1979) 602–608.

194. Baker, R.R.: A Review of Pyrolysis Studies to Unravel Reaction Steps in Burning Tobacco; J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis 11 (1987) 555–573.

195. White, J.L., B.T. Conner, T.A. Perfetti, B.R. Bombick, J.T. Avalos, K.W. Fowler, C.J. Smith, and D.J. Doolittle: Effect of Pyrolysis Temperature on the Mutagenicity of Tobacco Smoke Condensate; Food Chem. Toxicol. 39 (2001) 499–505.

196. Stotesbury, S., H. Digard, L. Willoughby, and A. Couch: The Pyrolysis of Tobacco Additives as a Means of Predicting Their Behavior in a Burning Cigarette; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 18 (1999) 147–163.

197. Stotesbury, S.J., L.J. Willoughby, and A. Couch: Pyrolysis of Cigarette Ingredients Labelled with Stable Isotopes; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 19 (2000) 55–64.

198. Green, J.D., J. Chalmers, and P.J. Kinnard: The Transfer of Tobacco Additives to Cigarette Smoke. Examination of the Possible Contribution of Pyrolysis Products to Mainstream Smoke Composition; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 14 (1989) 283–288.

199. Baker, R.R. and L.J. Bishop: The Pyrolysis of Tobacco Ingredients; J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis 71 (2004) 223–311.

200. Baker, R.R. and L.J. Bishop: The Pyrolysis of Non-Volatile Tobacco Ingredients Using a System That Simulates Cigarette Combustion Conditions; J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis 74 (2005) 145-170.

201. Muramatsu, M.: Studies on the Transport Phenomena in Naturally Smouldering Cigarettes; Sci. Papers, Centr. Res. Inst, Japan Tob. Salt Monop. Corp. 123 (1981) 9-77.

202. Baker, R.R.: Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Regions Inside a Burning Cigarette; Combust. Flame 30 (1977) 21-32.

203. Baker, R.R.: Product Formation Mechanisms Inside a Burning Cigarette; Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 7 (1981) 135-153.

204. Massachusetts Department of Public Health: 105 CMR 665.200: Testing for Mainstream Smoke Constituents, 2001. Bates-No. 2081569220-9224; available at: ony82c00.

205. Health Canada: Tobacco Reporting Regulations -Analytical Methods for the Determination of Several Different Constituents in Mainstream Smoke; available at: legislation/reg/indust/method/index-eng.php.

206. Hoffmann, D. and I. Hoffmann: Tobacco Smoke Com-ponents. Letter to the Editor; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 18 (1998) 49-52.

207. Baker, R.R., J.R. Pereira da Silva, and G. Smith: The Effect of Tobacco Ingredients on Smoke Chemistry. Part I: Flavourings and Additives; Food Chem. Toxicol. 42S (2004) S3-S37.

208. Baker, R.R., J.R. Pereira da Silva, and G. Smith: The Effect of Tobacco Ingredients on Smoke Chemistry. Part II: Casing Ingredients; Food Chem. Toxicol. 42S (2004) S39-S52.

209. Purkis, S.W., C. Mueller, and M. Intorp: The Fate of Ingredients in and Impact on Cigarette Smoke; Food Chem. Toxicol. 49 (2011) 3238-3248.

210. Eisenbrand, G., B. Pool-Zobel, V. Baker, M. Balls, BJ. Blaauboer, A. Boobis, A. Carere, S. Kevekordes, J.-C. Lhuguenot, R. Pieters, and J. Kleiner: Methods of in vitro Toxicology; Food Chem. Toxicol. 40 (2002) 193-236.

211. CORESTA in vitro Toxicology Task Force: The Rationale and Strategy for Conducting in vitro Toxicology Testing of Tobacco Smoke (May 2004); available at: TF Rationale-IVT-Testing-Tob.-Smoke_Report_ Jun04.pdf.

212. Andreoli, C, D. Gigante, and A. Nunziata: A Review of in vitro Methods to Assess the Biological Activity of Tobacco Smoke with the Aim of Reducing the Toxicity of Smoke; Toxicol. in vitro 17 (2003) 587-594.

213. Johnson, M.D., J. Schilz, M.V. Djordjevic, J.R. Rice, and P.G. Shields: Evaluation of in vitro Assays for Assessing the Toxicity of Cigarette Smoke and Smokeless Tobacco; Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 18 (2009) 3263-3304.

214. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company: Chemical and Biological Studies on New Cigarette Prototypes That Heat Instead of Burn Tobacco; R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston-Salem, NC, 1988, pp. 274-436, Bates-No. 533436276-6657, available at:

215. Coggins, C.R.E.: A Review of Chronic Inhalation Studies with Mainstream Cigarette Smoke in Rats and Mice; Toxicol. Pathol. 26 (1998) 307–314.

216. Coggins, C.R.E.: A Review of Chronic Inhalation Studies with Mainstream Cigarette Smoke, in Hamsters, Dogs, and Nonhuman Primates; Toxicol. Pathol. 29 (2001) 550–557.

217. Witschi, H., I. Espiritu, S.T. Dance, and M.S. Miller: A Mouse Lung Tumor Model of Tobacco Smoke Carcinogenesis; Toxicol. Sci. 68 (2002) 322–330.

218. Witschi, H.: The A/J Mouse Lung Tumor Model: Strengths and Weaknesses; Presentation at the LSRO Biological Effects Assessment (BEA) Committee Meeting, Bethesda, MD, June 28–29, 2005.

219. Mauderly, J.L., A.P. Gigliotti, E.B. Barr, W.E. Bechtold, S.A. Belinsky, F.F. Hahn, C.A. Hobbs, T.H. March, S.K. Seilkop, and G.L. Finch: Chronic Inhalation Exposure to Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Increases Lung and Nasal Tumor Incidence in Rats; Toxicol. Sci. 81 (2004) 280–292.

220. Hutt J.A., B.R. Vuillemenot, E.B. Barr, M.J. Grimes, F.F. Hahn, C.H. Hobbs, T.H. March, A.P. Gigliotti, S.K. Seilkop, G.L. Finch, J.L. Mauderly, and S.A. Belinsky: Life-Span Inhalation Exposure to Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Induces Lung Cancer in B6C3F1 Mice Through Genetic and Epigenetic Pathways; Carcinogenesis 26 (2005) 1999–2009.

221. Walaszek, Z., M. Hanausek, and T.J. Slaga: The Role of Skin Painting in Predicting Lung Cancer; Int. J. Toxicol. 26 (2007) 345–351.

222. Roemer, E., T.H. Ottmueller, H.-J. Urban, and C. Baillet-Mignard: SKH-1 Mouse Skin Painting: A Short-Term Assay to Evaluate the Tumorigenic Activity of Cigarette Smoke Condensate; Toxicol. Lett. 192 (2010) 155–161.

223. Doull, J., J.P. Frawley, W.J. George, T.A. Loomis, R.A. Squire, and S.L. Taylor: Cigarette Ingredients. A Complete List and Background; Bates-No. 517941576–1600, available at: http://legacy.library.

224. Paschke, T., G. Scherer, and W.D. Heller: Effects of Ingredients on Cigarette Smoke Composition and Biological Activity: A Literature Overview; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 20 (2002) 107–247.

225. Rodgman, A.: Some Studies of the Effects of Additives on Cigarette Mainstream Smoke Properties. I. Flavorants; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 20 (2002) 83–103.

226. Rodgman, A.: Some Studies of the Effects of Additives on Cigarette Mainstream Smoke Properties. III. Ingredients Reportedly Used in Various Commercial Cigarette Products in the USA and Elsewhere; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 21 (2004) 47–104.

227. Matula, T.: A Comparative Study of the Mutagenicity of Tobacco Smoke Condensates; Bio-Research Laboratories Ltd. for R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., 1977; Bates-No. 501542614–2636, available at: For decoding the test material designations, see (225).

228. R.J. Reynolds: RJRT Document Information; available at:

229. Carmines, E.L.: Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Ingredients Added to Cigarettes. Part 1: Cigarette Design, Testing Approach, and Review of Results. Food Chem. Toxicol. 40 (2002) 77-91.

230. Rustemeier, K., R. Stabbert, H.-J. Haussmann, E. Roemer, and E.L. Carmines: Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Ingredients Added to Cigarettes. Part 2: Chemical Composition of Mainstream Smoke; Food Chem. Toxicol. 40 (2002) 93-104.

231. Roemer, E., FJ. Tewes, TJ. Meisgen, D.J. Veltel, and E.L. Carmines: Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Ingredients Added to Cigarettes. Part 3: in vitro Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity; Food Chem. Toxicol. 40 (2002) 105-111.

232. Vanscheeuwijck, P.M., A. Teredesai, P.M. Terpstra, J. Verbeeck, P. Kuhl, B. Gerstenberg, S. Gebel, and E.L. Carmines: Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Ingredients Added to Cigarettes. Part 4: Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity; Food Chem. Toxicol. 40 (2002) 113-131.

233. Wertz, M.S., T. Kyriss, S. Paranjape, and S.A. Glantz: The Toxic Effects of Cigarette Additives. Philip Morris’ Project Mix Reconsidered: An Analysis of Documents Released through Litigation; PLoS Med. 8 (2011): e1001145.

234. Dempsey, R.: Comments re: Wertz et al. “The toxic Effects of Cigarette Additives. Philip Morris’ Project Mix Reconsidered: An Analysis of Documents Released Through Litigation; PLoS Medicine 8 (12), published online Dec. 21, 2011, available at: http:// root=17399.

235. Oldham, MJ. and W.J. McKinney Jr.: Comments re: Wertz et al: “The Toxic Effects of Cigarette Additives. Philip Morris’ Project MIX Reconsidered: An Analysis of Documents Released Through Litigation” PLoS Medicine December 2011, Vol 8(12); available at: annotation/listThread.action?root=13441.

236. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA): Toxi-cological Principles for the Safety Assessment of Direct Food Additives and Color Additives Used in Food. Redbook II. Draft Guidance, 1993; available at: Regulatory Information/GuidanceDocuments/FoodIn gredientsandPackaging/Redbook/ucm078717.htm.

237. U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Toxicity Testing Plan, Vol. 5. Toxicity Testing Plan for Low Ignition-Potential Cigarettes; Washington, DC, 1993, Bates-No. 2023696254-6452, available at: http://

238. Lee, P.N., B.A. Forey, J.S. Fry, J.S. Hamling, J.F. Hamling, E.B. Sanders, and R.A. Carchman: Does Use of Flue-Cured Rather than Blended Cigarettes Affect International Variation in Mortality from Lung Cancer and COPD?; Inhal. Toxicol. 21 (2009) 404-430.

239. Baker, R.R., E.D. Massey, and G. Smith: An Overview of the Effects of Tobacco Ingredients on Smoke Chemistry and Toxicity; Food Chem. Toxicol. 42S (2004) S53-S83.

241. Renne, R.A., H. Yoshimura, K. Yoshino, G. Lulham, S. Minamisawa, A. Tribukait, D.D. Dietz, K.M. Lee, and R.B. Westerberg: Effects of Flavoring and Casing Ingredients on the Toxicity of Mainstream Cigarette Smoke in Rats; Inhal. Toxicol. 18 (2006) 685-706.

242. Gaworski, CL., MJ. Oldham, K.A. Wagner, C.R.E. Coggins, and G.J. Patskan: An Evaluation of the Toxicity of 95 Ingredients Added Individually to Experimental Cigarettes: Approach and Methods; Inhal. Toxicol. 23 Suppl. 1 (2011) 1-12.

243. Coggins, C.R.E., K.A. Wagner, M.S. Werley, and MJ. Oldham: A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Toxicology of Cigarette Ingredients: Carbohydrates and Natural Products; Inhal. Toxicol. 23 S1 (2011) 13-40.

244. Coggins, C.R.E., J.S. Edmiston, A.M. Jerome, T.B. Langston, EJ. Sena, D.C. Smith, and MJ. Oldham: A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Toxicology of Cigarette Ingredients: Essential Oils and Resins; Inhal. Toxicol. 23 S1 (2011) 41-69.

245. Coggins, C.R.E., M.T. Fisher, D.C. Smith, and MJ. Oldham: A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Toxicology of Cigarette Ingredients: Cocoa-Derived Ingredients; Inhal. Toxicol. 23 S1 (2011) 70-83.

246. Coggins, C.R.E., J.A. Merski, and MJ. Oldham: A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Toxicology of Cigarette Ingredients: Heterocyclic Nitrogen Com-pounds; Inhal. Toxicol. 23 S1 (2011) 84-89.

247. Coggins, C.R.E., EJ. Sena, T.B. Langston, and MJ. Oldham: A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Toxi-cology of Cigarette Ingredients: Aromatic Carbonyl Compounds; Inhal. Toxicol. 23 S1 (2011) 90-101.

248. Coggins, C.R.E., A.M. Jerome, J.S. Edmiston, and MJ. Oldham: A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Toxicology of Cigarette Ingredients: Aliphatic Carbonyl Compounds; Inhal. Toxicol. 23 S1 (2011) 102-118.

249. Coggins, C.R.E., J. Liu, J.A. Merski, M.S. Werley, and MJ. Oldham: A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Toxicology of Cigarette Ingredients: Aliphatic and Aromatic Carboxylic Acids; Inhal. Toxicol. 23 S1 (2011) 119-140.

250. Coggins, C.R.E., K. Frost-Pineda, D.C. Smith, and MJ. Oldham: A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Toxicology of Cigarette Ingredients: Aromatic and Aliphatic Alcohol Compounds; Inhal. Toxicol. 23 S1 (2011) 141-156.

251. Coggins C.R.E., EJ. Sena, and MJ. Oldham: A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Toxicology of Cigarette Ingredients: Inorganic Compounds; Inhal. Toxicol. 23 S1 (2011) 157-171.

252. Gaworski, CL., K.A. Wagner, MJ. Morton, and MJ. Oldham: Insights from a Multi-Year Program Designed to Test the Impact of Ingredients on Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Toxicity; Inhal. Toxicol. 23 S 1 (2011) 172-183.

253. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Ad-ministration, Office of Applied Studies: The NSDUH Report: Use of Menthol Cigarettes; Rockville, MD, November 19, 2009, available at: http://oas.samhsa. gov/2k9/134/134MentholCigarettes.htm.

254. Oldham, M.J., H.-J. Haussmann, W. Gomm, L.T. Rimmer, M.J. Morton, and W.J. McKinney: Discrimi-natory Power of Standard Toxicity Assays Used to Evaluate Ingredients Added to Cigarettes; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 62 (2012) 49–61.

254. Wynder, E.L. and D. Hoffmann: Ein experimenteller Beitrag zur Tabakrauchkanzerogenese [An Experi-mental Contribution to the Problem of Tobacco Smoke Carcinogenesis]; Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 88 (1963) 623–628.

255. Mizusaki, S., T. Takashima, and K. Tomaru: Factors Affecting Mutagenic Activity of Cigarette Smoke Condensate in Salmonella typhimurium TA 1538; Mutat. Res. 48 (1977) 29–36.

256. Mizusaki, S., H. Okamoto, A. Akiyama, and Y. Fukuhara: Relation Between Chemical Constituents of Tobacco and Mutagenic Activity of Cigarette Smoke Condensate; Mutat. Res. 48 (1977) 319–326.

257. Gairola, C.: Genetic Effects of Fresh Cigarette Smoke in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Mutat. Res. 102 (1982) 123–136.

258. Roemer, E., T.J. Meisgen, F.J. Tewes, and R.P. Solana: Discrimination of Cigarette Mainstream Smoke Condensates with the Salmonella Reverse Mutation Assay; Poster presented at the 37th Society of Toxicology Meeting, Seattle, WA, March 1–5, 1998, Abs. 1449; Toxicologist 42 (1998) 295 (full poster text available at

259. Schramke, H., T.J. Meisgen, F.J. Tewes, W. Gomm, and E. Roemer: The Mouse Lymphoma Thymidine Kinase Assay for the Assessment and Comparison of the Mutagenic Activity of Cigarette Mainstream Smoke Particulate Phase; Toxicology 227 (2006) 193–210.

260. Cole, J., W.J. Muriel, and B.A. Bridges: The Mutagenicity of Sodium Fluoride to L5178Y [wild-type and TK+/- (3.7.2c)] Mouse Lymphoma Cells; Mutagenesis 1 (1986) 157–167.

261. Gaworski, C.L., R. Lemus-Olalde, and E.L. Carmines: Toxicological Evaluation of Potassium Sorbate Added to Cigarette Tobacco; Food Chem. Toxicol. 46 (2008) 339–351.

262. Lemus, R., E.L. Carmines, E. van Miert, C.R.E. Coggins, E. Anskeit, B. Gerstenberg, T.J. Meisgen, H. Schramke, R. Stabbert, H. Völkel, and P.M. Terpstra: Toxicological Comparisons of Cigarettes Containing Different Amounts of Vanillin; Inhal. Toxicol. 19 (2007) 683–699.

263. Eccles, R.: Menthol and Related Cooling Compounds; J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46 (1994) 618–630.

264. Hall, R.L. and B.L. Oser: Recent Progress in the Consideration of Flavoring Ingredients under the Food Additives Amendment. III. GRAS Substances; Food Technol. 253 (1965) 151–197.

265. Adams, T.B., J.B. Hallagan, J.M. Putnam, T.L. Gierke, J. Doull, I.C. Munro, P. Newberne, P.S. Portoghese, R.L. Smith, B.M. Wagner, C.S. Weil, L.A. Woods, and R.A. Ford: The FEMA GRAS Assessment of Alicyclic Substances Used as Flavour Ingredients; Food Chem. Toxicol. 34 (1996) 763–828.

266. Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Tabakverordnung vom 20. Dezember 1977 (BGBl. I S. 2831), zuletzt durch die Verordnung vom 28. Juni 2010 (BGBl. I S. 851) geändert [Federal Republic of Germany: Tobacco Ordinance of December 20, 1977 (Bundesgesetzblatt I p. 2831), last amended by the ordinance of June 28, 2010 (Bundesgesetzblatt I p. 851)].

267. Heck, J.D.: A Review and Assessment of Menthol Employed as a Cigarette Flavoring Ingredient; Food Chem. Toxicol, 48 (2010) S1-S38.

268. Andersen, P.H. and N.J. Jensen: Mutagenic Investigation of Peppermint Oil in the Salmo-nella/Mammalian-Microsome Test; Mutat. Res. 138 (1984) 17-20.

269. Ishidate Jr., M, T. Sofuni, K. Yoshikawa, M. Hayashi, T. Nohmi, M. Sawada, and A. Matsuoka: Primary Mutagenicity Screening of Food Additives Currently Used in Japan; Food Chem. Toxicol. 22 (1984) 623-636.

270. Ivett, J.L., B.M. Brown, C. Rodgers, B.E. Anderson, M.A. Resnick, and E. Zeiger: Chromosomal Aberrations and Sister Chromatid Exchange Tests in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells in vitro. IV. Results with 15 Chemicals; Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 14 (1989) 165-187.

271. Hopp, R.: Menthol: Its Origins, Chemistry, Physiology and Toxicological Properties; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 19 (1993) 3-46.

272. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH): Health Hazard Evaluation Determination Report No. HE 77-66-531, Sucrets Department, Merck, Sharp and Dohme, West Point, PA, 1978.

273. Stoner, G.D., M.B. Shimkin, AJ. Kniazeff, J.H. Weisburger, E.K. Weisburger, and G.B. Gori: Test for Carcinogenicity of Food Additives and Chemothera-peutic Agents by the Pulmonary Tumor Response in Strain A Mice; Cancer Res. 33 (1973) 3069-3085.

274. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare: Bioassay of dl-Menthol for Possible Carcinogenicity, CAS No. 89-78-1; National Cancer Institute, Carcinogenesis, Technical Report Series No. 98, 1979, pp. 79-83.

275. Russin, W.A., J.D. Hoesly, CE. Elson, M.A. Tanner, and M.N. Gould: Inhibition of Rat Mammary Carcino-genesis by Monoterpenoids; Carcinogenesis 10 (1989) 2161-2164.

276. Goldstein, E., A.D. Cooper, and B. Tarkington: Effect of Inhaling Medication Vapors from a Colds Preparation on Murine Pulmonary Bacterial Defense Systems; J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 2 (1976) 371-388.

277. Riechelmann, H., C. Brommer, M. Hinni, and C. Martin: Response of Human Ciliated Respiratory Cells to a Mixture of Menthol, Eucalyptus Oil and Pine Needle Oil; Arzneimittelforschung 47 (1997) 1035-1039.

278. Rakieten, N., M.L. Rakieten, and M. Boykin: Effects of Menthol Vapor on the Intact Animal with Special Reference to the Upper Respiratory Tract; J. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 43 (1954) 390-392.

279. RIFM Expert Panel, D. Belsito, D. Bickers, M. Bruze, P. Calow, H. Greim, J.M. Hanifin, A.E. Rogers, J.H. Saurat, I.G. Sipes, and H. Tagami: A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Cyclic and Non-Cyclic Terpene Alcohols When Used as Fragrance Ingredients; Food Chem. Toxicol. 46 (2008) S1–S71.

280. Altria Client Services: Background Information to the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee, Menthol Discussion; submission of June 30, 2010, available at: Committees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/Tobacco ProductsScientificAdvisoryCommittee/UCM 218779.pdf.

281. Mitchell, B.C., E.P. Barbee, and R.M. Irby Jr.: The Chromatographic Determination of Menthol in Ciga-rettes and Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 7 (1963) 64–66.

282. Newell, M.P., P.H. Latimer, and L.R. Haefele: The Fate of Menthol in Cigarette Smoke; presented at the 22nd Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference, Richmond, VA, 1968, paper No. 24.

283. Jenkins Jr., R.W., R.H. Newman, and M.K. Chavis: Cigarette Smoke Formation Studies. II. Smoke Distri-bution and Mainstream Pyrolytic Composition of Added 14C Menthol (U); Beitr. Tabakforsch. 5 (1970) 299–301.

284. Brozinski, M., U. Dölberg, and G. Lipp: Untersuchun-gen über die Verteilung des Menthols auf Tabak, Filter und Rauch von Mentholcigaretten [The Distribution of Menthol in Tobacco, in Filters and in the Smoke of Mentholated Cigarettes]; Beitr. Tabak-forsch. 6 (1972) 124–130.

285. Best, F.W.: Effects of Some Cigarette Construction Parameters on Menthol Migration and Transfer; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 19 (1993) 155–201.

286. Cook, C.J., J.H. Lauterbach, W.T. Pannell, B.F. Price, W.M. Bowser, D.O. Pinion, and A.K. Spencer: Transfer of Semi-Volatile Components from Tobacco to Smoke; Report at the Joint Meeting of the CORESTA Smoke and Technology Groups, 1999, Innsbruck, Austria, paper ST21.

287. Schmeltz, I. and W.S. Schlotzhauer: Benzo[a]pyrene, Phenols and Other Products from Pyrolysis of the Cigarette Additive, (d,l)-Menthol; Nature 219 (1968) 370–371.

288. Sidney, S., I.S. Tekawa, G.D. Friedman, M.C. Sadler, and D.P. Tashkin: Mentholated Cigarette Use and Lung Cancer; Arch. Intern. Med. 155 (1995) 727–732.

289. Hébert, R.: What`s New in Nicotine & Tobacco Research?; Nicotine Tob. Res. 6, Suppl. 1 (2004) S1–S4.

290. Brinkman, M.C., S.M. Gordon, J.R. Satola, R.R. Kroeger, and J.T. Bernert: Exposure of Nonsmokers to Sidestream Smoke in an Environmental Chamber; presented at the 14th Annual Conference of the International Society of Exposure Analysis, Philadelphia, PA, October 17–21, 2004.

291. Bernert, J.T., S.M. Gordon, R.B. Jain, M.C. Brinkman, C.S. Sosnoff, T.H. Seyler, Y. Xia, J.E. McGuffey, D.L. Ashley, J.L. Pirkle, and E.J. Samp-son: Increases in Tobacco Exposure Biomarkers Measured in Non-Smokers Exposed to Sidestream Cigarette Smoke under Controlled Conditions; Bio-markers 14 (2009) 82–93.

292. Brinkman, M.C., J.C. Chuang, S.M. Gordon, H. Kim, R.R. Kroeger, and P.A. Richter: Uptake and Chemical Characterization of Fine and Ultrafine Particles by Smokers of Different Cigarette Types; Poster presented at the Joint Conference of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco and SRNT-Europe, Dublin, Ireland, April 27–30, 2009.

293. Brinkman, M.C., J.C. Chuang, S.M. Gordon, H. Kim, R.R. Kroeger, G.M. Polzin, and P.A. Richter: Exposure to and Deposition of Fine and Ultrafine Particles in Smokers of Menthol and Nonmenthol Cigarettes; Inhal. Toxicol. 24 (2012) 255–269.

294. Hinds, W.C.: Size Characteristics of Cigarette Smoke; Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 39 (1978) 48–54.

295. Ingebrethsen, B.J.: Evolution of the Particle Size Distribution of Mainstream Cigarette Smoke During a Puff; Aerosol Sci. Technol. 5 (1986) 423–433.

296. Chen, B.T., J. Namenyi, H.C. Yeh, J.L. Mauderly, and R.G. Cuddihy: Physical Characterization of Cigarette Smoke Arerosol Generated from a Walton Smoke Machine; Aerosol Sci. Technol. 12 (1990) 364–375.

297. Bernstein, D.M.: A Review of the Influence of Particle Size, Puff Volume, and Inhalation Pattern on the Deposition of Cigarette Smoke Particles in the Respiratory Tract; Inhal. Toxicol. 16 (2004) 675–689.

298. Van Dijk, W.D., S. Gopal, and P.T.J. Scheepers: Nanoparticles in Cigarette Smoke. Real-Time Un-diluted Measurements by a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer; Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 399 (2011) 3573–3578.

299. Reid, J.R.: A History of Mentholated Cigarettes: “This Spud's for You”; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 19 (1993) 71–94.

300. Giovino, G.A., S. Sidney, J.C. Gfroerer, P.M. O'Malley, J.A. Allen, P.A. Richter, K.M. Cummings: Epidemiology of Menthol Cigarette Use; Nicotine Tob. Res. 6, Suppl. 1 (2004) S67–S81.

301. Lawrence, D., B. Cadman, and A.C. Hoffmann: Sensory Properties of Menthol and Smoking Topography; Tob. Induc. Dis. 9, Suppl. 1 (2011) S3.

302. Moolchan, E.T.: Adolescent Menthol Smokers: Will They Be a Harder Target for Smoking Cessation?; Nicotine Tob. Res. 6, Suppl. 1 (2004) S93–S95.

303. Kreslake, J.M., G. Ferris Wayne, H.R. Alpert, H.K. Koh, and G.N. Connolly: Tobacco Industry Control of Menthol in Cigarettes and Targeting of Adolescents and Young Adults; Am. J. Public Health 98 (2008) 1685–1692.

304. Center for Regulatory Effectiveness: Request for Correction, Pursuant to the Information Quality Act and its Guidelines, of Information Being Disseminated by the Food and Drug Administration and its Center for Tobacco Products Regarding Menthol Cigarettes and Public Health; e-mail to the Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration, Sept. 20, 2010; available at: AdviseryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/ TobaccoProductsScientificAdviseryCommittee/UC M237548.pdf.

305. Hyland, A., S. Garten, G.A. Giovino, and K.M. Cummings: Mentholated Cigarettes and Smoking Cessation: Findings from COMMIT; Tob. Control 11 (2002) 135–139.

306. Muscat, J.E., J.P. Richie Jr., and S.D. Stellman: Mentholated Cigarettes and Smoking Habits in Whites and Blacks; Tob. Control 11 (2002) 368–371.

307. Okuyemi, K.S., M. Ebersole-Robinson, N. Nazir, and J.S. Ahluwalia: African-American Menthol and Non-menthol Smokers: Differences in Smoking Cessation Experiences; J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 96 (2004) 1208–1211.

308. Okuyemi, K.S., B. Faseru, L. Sanderson Cox, C.A. Bronars, and J.S. Ahluwalia: Relationship Between Menthol Cigarettes and Smoking Cessation among African American Light Smokers; Addiction 102 (2007) 1979–1986.

309. Ahluwalia, J.S., K. Okuyemi, N. Nollen, W.S. Choi, H. Kaur, K. Pulvers, and M.S. Mayo: The Effects of Nicotine Gum and Counseling among African American Light Smokers: A 2 × 2 Factorial Design; Addiction 101 (2006) 883–891.

310. Okuyemi, K.S., L.S. Cox, N.L. Nollen, T.M. Snow, H. Kaur, W. Choi, N. Nazir, M.S. Mayo, and J.S. Ahluwalia: Baseline Characteristics and Recruitment Strategies in a Randomized Clinical Trial of African-American Light Smokers; Am. J. Health Promot. 21 (2007) 183–191.

311. Center for Regulatory Effectiveness: Center for Regulatory Effectiveness (CRE) Assessment of the Fol-lowing Research Report: “Relationship Between Men-thol Cigarettes and Smoking Cessation among African American Light Smokers” by: Kolawole S. Okuyemi, Babalola Faseru, Lisa Sanderson Cox, Carrie A. Bronars & Jasjit S. Ahluwalia (2007), August 2010.

312. Monteiro-Riviere, N.A.: Anatomical Factors Affecting Barrier Function; in: Dermatotoxicology, 5th Ed, edited by F.N. Marzulli and H.I. Maibach, Taylor & Francis, Washington, DC, 1996.

313. Abobo, C.V., J. Ma, and D. Liang: Effect of Menthol on Nicotine Pharmacokinetics in Rats after Cigarette Smoke Inhalation; Nicotine Tob. Res. 14 (2012) 801–808.

314. Werley, M.S., C.R.E. Coggins, and P.N. Lee: Possible Effects on Smokers of Cigarette Mentholation: A Review of the Evidence Relating to Key Research Questions; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 47 (2007) 189–203.

315. Li, Q., A. Hyland, G. Giovino, J. Bauer, and M. Cummings: Nicotine Dependence: Comparing Men-thol and Non-Menthol Cigarette Smokers; presented at the 2005 National Conference on Tobacco or Health, Chicago, IL, May 2005.

316. Fagan, P., E.T. Moolchan, A. Hart Jr., A. Rose, D. Lawrence, V.L. Shavers, and J.T. Gibson: Nicotine Dependence and Quitting Behaviors among Menthol and Non-Menthol Smokers with Similar Consumptive Patterns; Addiction 105, Suppl. 1 (2010) 55–74.

317. National Cancer Institute: Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods. Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS); available at: http://

318. Delnevo, C.D., D.A. Gundersen, M. Hrywna, S.E. Echeverria, and M.B. Steinberg: Smoking-Cessation Prevalence among U.S. Smokers of Menthol Versus Non-Menthol Cigarettes; Am. J. Prev. Med. 41 (2011) 357–365.

319. Hoffman, A.C. and D. Simmons: Menthol Cigarette Smoking and Nicotine Dependence; Tob. Induc. Dis. 9, Suppl. 1 (2011) S5.

321. American Legacy Foundation: Cigarette Smoking among Youth – Results from the 2000 National Youth Tobacco Survey; Legacy First Look Report 7, Washington, DC, 2001.

322. American Legacy Foundation: Cigarette Smoking among Youth – Results from the 2002 National Youth Tobacco Survey; Legacy First Look Report 13, Washington, DC, 2004.

323. Hersey, J.C., S.W. Ng, J.M. Nonnemaker, P. Mowery, K.Y. Thomas, M.-C. Vilsaint, J.A. Allen, and M.L. Haviland: Are Menthol Cigarettes a Starter Product for Youth?; Nicotine Tob. Res. 8 (2006) 403–413.

324. Hersey, J.C., J.M. Nonnemaker, and G. Homsi: Menthol Cigarettes Contribute to the Appeal and Addiction Potential of Smoking for Youth; Nicotine Tob. Res. 12, Suppl. 2 (2010) S136–S146.

325. American Legacy Foundation: Cigarette Preferences among Youth – Results from the 2006 Legacy Media Tracking Online (LMTO); First Look Report 17, Washington DC, 2007, available at:

326. Wackowski, O. and C.D. Delnevo: Menthol Cigarettes and Indicators of Tobacco Dependence among Adolescents; Addict. Behav. 32 (2007) 1964–1969.

327. ORC Macro International Inc.: 2004 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Methodology Report; August 31, 2005, available at: statistics/surveys/nyts/.

328. Collins, C.C. and E.T. Moolchan: Shorter Time to First Cigarette of the Day in Menthol Adolescent Ci-garette Smokers; Addict. Behav. 31 (2006) 1460–1464.

329. Murray, R.P., J.E. Connett, M.A. Skeans, and D.P. Tashkin: Menthol Cigarettes and Health Risks in Lung Health Study Data; Nicotine Tob. Res. 9 (2007) 101–107.

330. Lung Health Research Group, Connett, J.E., J.W. Kusek, W.C. Baily, P. O'Hara, and M. Wu: Design of the Lung Health Study: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Early Intervention for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Control. Clin. Trials 14, 2 Suppl. (1993) 3S–19S.

331. Anthonisen, N.R., J.E. Connett, and R.P. Murray for the Lung Health Study Research Group: Smoking and Lung Function of Lung Health Study Participants after 11 Years; Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 166 (2002) 675–679.

332. Murray, R.P., J.E. Connett, C.S. Rand, W. Pan, and N.R. Anthonisen: Persistence of the Effect of the Lung Health Study (LHS) Smoking Intervention over Eleven Years; Prev. Med. 35 (2002) 314–319.

333. Fu, S.S., K.S. Okuyemi, M.R. Partin, J.S. Ahluwalia, D.B. Nelson, B.A. Clothier, and A.M. Joseph: Menthol Cigarettes and Smoking Cessation During an Aided Quit Attempt; Nicotine Tob. Res. 10 (2008) 457–462.

334. Muscat, J.E., G. Chen, A. Knipe, S.D. Stellman, P. Lazarus, and J.P. Richie Jr.: Effects of Menthol on Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Nicotine Dependence, and NNAL Glucuronidation; Cancer Epidemiol. Bio-markers Prev. 18 (2009) 35–41.

335. Foulds J., M. Webb Hooper, M.J. Pletcher, and K.S. Okuyemi: Do Smokers of Menthol Cigarettes Find it Harder to Quit Smoking?; Nicotine Tob. Res. 12, Suppl. 2 (2010) S102–S109.

335. Hoffman, A.C. and D. Miceli: Menthol Cigarettes and Smoking Cessation Behavior; Tob. Induc. Dis. 9, Suppl. 1 (2011) S6.

336. Muscat, J.E., H.-P. Liu, S.D. Stellman, and J.P. Richie Jr.: Menthol Smoking in Relation to Time to First Cigarette and Cotinine: Results from a Community-Based Study; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 63 (2012) 166–170.

337. Blot, W.J., S.S. Cohen, M. Aldrich, J.K. McLaughlin, M.K. Hargreaves, and L.B. Signorello: Lung Cancer Risk among Smokers of Menthol Cigarettes; J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 103 (2011) 810–816.

338. Heck, J.D., L.A. Hamm, and J.H. Lauterbach (for the Non-Voting Industry Representatives on TPSAC): The Industry Menthol Report. Menthol cigarettes: No Disproportionate Impact on Public Health; submitted to the FDA, March 23, 2011, available at: mitteesMeetingMaterials/TobaccoProductsScientific AdvisoryCommittee/UCM249320.pdf.

339. Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee (TPSAC): Menthol Cigarettes and Public Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations; submitted to FDA on March 23, 2011, final edits from the July 21, 2011 meeting included, available at: Committees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/Tobacco ProductsScientificAdvisoryCommittee/ucm237359. htm.

340. Kaiserman, M.J. and W.S. Rickert: Carcinogens in Tobacco Smoke: Benzo[a]pyrene from Canadian Cigarettes and Cigarette Tobacco; Am. J. Public Health 82 (1992) 1023–1026.

341. Bodnar, J.A. and M.F. Borgerding: Comparison of Selected Smoke Constituent Yields for Menthol and Non-Menthol Cigarettes That Primarily Heat Tobacco and Menthol and Non-Menthol Cigarettes That Burn Tobacco; ACD Test Memorandum, Research and Development Report R.J. Reynolds Tobacco, 2000, Document No.: ACD-MJAB2000-242; Bates-No. 521216275–6308.

342. Steelman, D.T. and B.W. Dawson: Quantitative Determination of 1,3-Butadiene, Acrylonitrile, Iso-prene, Benzene, and Toluene in the Mainstream Vapor Phase Smoke from Prototypes SP111999AA, SP111999AB, PD8609, PD8610, Merit Ultra Light Box, Kentucky Reference 1R4F and 1R5F Cigarettes; Research and Development Report R.J. Reynolds Tobacco, 2000, Document No.: ACD-MTDS2000-024; Bates-No. 521216061–6070.

343. Clapp, W.L. and P. Martin: Determination of Quino-line in Mainstream Smoke TPM from GN19502 Products; Research and Development Report R.J. Reynolds Tobacco, 2000, Document No.: ACD-MWLC2000-060, Bates-No. 521216194–6197.

344. Steelman, D. and B. Smith: Quantitative Deter-mination of 2-Furancarboxaldehyde in Mainstream Smoke from Eclipse SP111999AA, Eclipse SP111999AB (Menthol), PD 8609 (Menthol), 610, Merit Ultra Lights Box, Kentucky Reference 1R4F, Kentucky 1R5F and Industry Monitor 15 cigarettes; Research and Development Report R.J. Reynolds Tobacco, 2000, Document No.: ACD-MDTS 2000-61, Bates-No. 521216168–6175.

345. Blakley, R.L. and D.D. Henry: Yields of Vapor Phase Radicals in Mainstream Smoke from SP111999AA, SP111999AB, PD8609, PD8610, Merit Ultra Light Box, Kentucky Reference 1R4F and 1R5F Cigarettes and a Smoke Blank; Research and Development Report RJ Reynolds Tobacco, 2000, Document No.: ACD-MRLB2000-33; Bates-No. 522187872–7880.

346. Brooks, C.O., D.D. Henry, and H. Chung: Com-parison of Mainstream Smoke from SP111999AA, SP111999AB, PD8609, PD8610, Merit Ultra Lights Box, and 1R4F and 1R5F Kentucky Reference Cigarettes by Gas Chromatography with Mass Selective Detection; Research and Development Report RJ Reynolds Tobacco, 2000, Document No.: ACD-MCOB 2000-315.

347. Gordon, S.M., M.C. Brinkman, R.Q. Meng, G.M. Anderson, J.C. Chuang, R.R. Kroeger, I.L. Reyes, and P.I. Clark: Effect of Cigarette Menthol Content on Mainstream Smoke Emissions; Chem. Res. Toxicol. 24 (2011) 1744–1753.

348. Adam, T., R.R. Baker, and R. Zimmermann: Characterization of Puff-by-Puff Resolved Cigarette Mainstream Smoke by Single Proton Ionization–Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry and Principal Component Analysis; J. Agric. Food Chem. 55 (2007) 2055–2061.

349. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS): The Health Consequences of Smoking. A Report of the Surgeon General; Atlanta, GA, 2004.

350. Lee, Y.O. and S.A. Glantz: Menthol: Putting the Pieces Together; Tob. Control 20, Suppl. 2 (2011) ii1–ii7.

351. Avalos J.T., K.W. Fowler, and J.E. Swauger: A Comparison of Ames Activity on Smoke Condensate Derived from Menthol and Non-Menthol Eclipse Ci-garette Prototypes and Menthol and Non-Menthol Tobacco-Burning Cigarettes; R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Research and Development Report, 2000, Document No. EMT2000 113, Bates-No. 521872124–2203; available at: http://legacy.library.

352. Putnam, K.P., D.W. Bombick, and D.J. Doolittle: Use of the Neutral Red Cytotoxicity Assay to Determine the Cytotoxic Potential of Cigarette Smoke Con-densate from Menthol and Non-Menthol Eclipse and Tobacco-Burning Cigarettes; R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Research and Development Report, 2000, Document No. EMT2000 0223, available at:

353. Bombick, B.R., D.L. Bowman, J.B. Mabe, and W.T. Morgan: A Comparative Study of Sister Chromatid Exchange Frequencies in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Exposed to Cigarette Smoke Condensate from Eclipse Menthol and Non-Menthol Cigarettes, To-bacco-Burning Menthol and Non-Menthol Cigarettes, and Kentucky Reference 1R4F; R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Research and Development Report, July 17, 2000, Document No. EMT000717, Bates-No.: 524775190–5210; available at: http://

354. Camarasa, G. and A. Alomar: Menthol Dermatitis from Cigarettes; Contact Dermatitis 4 (1978) 169–170.

355. Chrisman, B.B.: Menthol and Dermatitis; Arch. Dermatol. 114 (1978) 286.

356. Bock, F.G., G.E. Moore, and P.C. Clark: Carcinogenic Activity of Cigarette Smoke Condensate. III. Biological Activity of Refined Tar from Several Types of Cigarettes; J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 34 (1965) 481–493.

357. Schievelbein, H.: Gesundheitsrisiko beim Rauchen von Menthol-Zigaretten? [Risks to Health in Smoking Menthol Cigarettes?]; Münch. Med. Wochenschr. 111 (1969) 2457.

358. Gaworski, C.L., J.D. Heck, M.B. Bennett, and M.L. Wenk: Toxicologic Evaluation of Flavor Ingredients Added to Cigarette Tobacco: Skin Painting Bioassay of Cigarette Smoke Condensate in SENCAR Mice; Toxicology 139 (1999) 1–17.

359. Coggins, C.R.E., P.H. Ayres, A.T. Mosberg, G.T. Burger, J.W. Sagartz, and A.W. Hayes: Comparative Inhalation Study in Rats, Using a Second Prototype of a Cigarette that Heats Rather than Burns Tobacco; Inhal. Toxicol. 1 (1989) 197–226.

360. Coggins, C.R.E., A.T. Mosberg, P.H. Ayres, J.W. Sagartz, G.T. Burger, and A.W. Hayes: Inhalation Comparison in Rats of Menthol Cigarettes Which Burn or Which Only Heat Tobacco; Abstract, 29th Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology, Miami Beach, FL, Toxicologist 10 (1990) 200.

361. Gaworski, C.L., M.M. Dozier, J.M. Gerhart, N. Ra-jendran, L.H. Brennecke, C. Aranyi, and J.D. Heck: 13-Week Inhalation Toxicity Study of Menthol Ciga-rette Smoke; Food Chem. Toxicol. 35 (1997) 683–692.

362. Gaworski, C.L., M.M. Dozier, J.D. Heck, J.M. Gerhart, N. Rajendran, R.M. David, L.H. Brennecke, and R. Morrissey: Toxicologic Evaluation of Flavor Ingredients Added to Cigarette Tobacco: 13-Week Inhalation Exposures in Rats; Inhal. Toxicol. 10 (1998) 357–381.

363. Cundiff, R.H., G.H. Greene, and A.H. Laurene: Column Elution of Humectants from Tobacco and Determination by Vapor Chromatography; Tob. Sci. 8 (1964) 163–168.

364. Smyth Jr., H.F., J. Seaton, and L. Fischer: The Single Dose Toxicity of Some Glycols and Derivatives; J. Ind. Hyg. Toxicol. 23 (1941) 259–268.

365. Kudo, K. and R. Ito: Comparison of Acute Toxicity of Polyglycerin, Natural Glycerin, and Synthetic Gly-cerin; Toho Igakkai Zasshi 19 (1972) 415–417.

366. Gerarde, H.W.: The Pathogenesis of Pulmonary Injury in Kerosene Intoxication; Delaware State Med. J. 31 (1959) 276–280.

367. Deichmann, W.: Glycerol. Effects upon Rabbits and Rats; Am. Indust. Hygiene Assoc. Quart. 2 (1941) 5–6.

368. Haag, H.B. and A.M. Ambrose: Studies on the Phy-siological Effect of Diethylene Glycol. II. Toxicity and Fate; J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 59 (1937) 93–100.

369. Johnson, V., A.J. Carlson, and A. Johnson: Studies on the Physiological Action of Glycerol on the Animal Organism; Am. J. Physiol. 103 (1933) 517-534.

370. Inayama, Y., H. Kitamura, T. Ito, and M. Kanisawa: Effects of Glycerol on 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide Induced Pulmonary Tumorigenesis in ddY Mice; Jpn. J. Cancer Res. (GANN) 77 (1986) 103-105.

371. Kitamura, H., Y. Inayama, T. Ito, M. Yabana, W.W. Piegorsch, and M. Kanisawa: Morphologic Alteration of Mouse Clara Cells Induced by Glycerol: Ultrastruc-tural and Morphometric Studies; Exp. Lung Res. 12 (1987) 281-302.

372. Whitlock, G.P., N.B. Guerrant, and R.A. Dutcher: Response of Rats to Diets Containing Propylene Glycol and Glycerol; Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 57 (1944) 124-125.

373. RJ. Reynolds Tobacco Co.: Chemical and Biological Studies on New Cigarette Prototypes That Heat Instead of Burn Tobacco; RJ. Reynolds Tobacco Co., Winston-Salem, NC, 1988, pp. 622-691, Bates-No. 533436276-6657, available at: http://legacy.library.

374. Doolittle, D.J., D.A. Lee, and CK. Lee: The Geno-toxic Activity of Glycerol in an in vitro Test Battery; Food Chem. Toxicol. 26 (1988) 631-635.

375. Litton Bionetics Inc.: Mutagenic Evaluation of Compound FDA 71-89, Glycerine; NTIS PB-245 479, Kensington, MD, 1975.

376. Greenspan, B.J., O.R. Moss, A.P. Wehner, R.A. Renne, H.A. Ragan, R.B. Westerberg, C.W. Wright, R. Deskin, A.W. Hayes, G.T. Burger, and A.T. Mosberg: Inhalation Studies of Humectant Aerosols in Rats; Toxicologist 8 (1988) 255.

377. Renne, R.A., A.P. Wehner, B.J. Greenspan, H.S. DeFord, H.A. Ragan, R.B. Westerberg, R.L. Busch-bom, G.T. Burger, A.W. Hayes, R.L. Suber, and A. T. Mosberg: 2-Week and 13-Week Inhalation Studies of Aerosolized Glycerol in Rats; Inhal. Toxicol. 4 (1992) 95-111.

378. Guerrant, N.B., G.P. Whitlock, M.L. Wolff, and R.A. Dutcher: Response of Rats to Diets Containing Varying Amounts of Glycerol and Propylene Glycol; Bull. Nat. Formul. Comm./Am. Pharm. Assoc. 15 (1947) 205-229.

379. Wegener, H.: Über die Fortpflanzungsfähigkeit der Ratte nach Einwirkung von Diäthylenglykol [On the Ability of Rats to Reproduce under the Influence of Diethylene Glycol]; Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol. [Arch. Exp. Pathol. Pharmacol.] 220 (1953) 414-417.

380. Food and Drug Research Laboratories, Inc.: Teratologic Evaluation of FDA 71-89 (Glycerol: Glycerine) in Mice, Rats and Rabbits; NTIS No. PB-234 876, 1974.

381. Verrett, M.J., W.F. Scott, E.F. Reynaldo, E.K. Alterman, and CA. Thomas: Toxicity and Teratogenicity of Food Additive Chemicals in the Developing Chicken Embryo; Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 56 (1980) 265-273.

382. Larson, P.S. and E.S. Harlow: Some Current Applications of Carbon-14 to Animal and Human Physiological Research: Studies with Tobacco and its Constituents; in: Radioisotopes in Scientific Research, Vol. 3. Research with Radioisotopes in Human and Animal Biology and Medicine, edited by R.C Extermann, Pergamon Press, New York, NY, 1958, pp. 62-78. 383. Laurene, A.H., R.H. Cundiff, and G.H. Greene: Determination of Glycerol and Propylene Glycol in Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 9 (1965) 1–4.

384. Kobashi, U.T., S. Doihara, S. Sugawara, and Y. Kaburaki: Changes in Chemical Composition of Smoke from Cigarettes Imparted with Several Polyols; Sci. Papers, Centr. Res. Inst, Japan Tob. Salt Monop. Corp. 107 (1965) 319-323.

385. Best, F.W.: Radiotracer Studies with Carbon-14 Labeled Glycerol. Fate in Total Smoke; in: Proceedings of the International Conference on the Physical and Chemical Processes Occurring in a Burning Cigarette, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC, April 26-29, 1987, pp. 244-260.

386. Liu, C: Glycerol Transfer in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 21 (2004) 111-116.

387. Stein, Y.S., M.J. Antal, and M. Jones Jr.: A Study of Gas-Phase Pyrolysis of Glycerol; J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis 4 (1983) 283-296.

388. Carmines, E.L. and CL. Gaworski: Toxicological Evaluation of Glycerin as a Cigarette Ingredient; Food Chem. Toxicol. 43 (2005) 1521-1539.

389. Gager Jr., F.L., CE. Brunot, R.D. Carpenter, F.E. Resnik, and C.J. Varsel: Cigarette Smoke Precursors. I. The Contribution of the Humectant Glycerol to the Acrolein Content of Cigarette smoke; Philip Morris Internal Report, 1961, Bates-No. 2023015684-5690, available at:

390. De Souza, J.E. and M. Scherbak: The Effect of Glycerol Added to Tobacco on the Constituents of Cigarette Smoke; Analyst 89 (1964) 735-739.

391. Yip, S.H., L.T. Taylor, M. Ashraf-Khorassani, J. Yu, M.F. Borgerding, W.M. Coleman III, and J.A. Bodnar: HPLC-MS Determination of Acrolein and Acetone Generated from 13C3-Labeled Glycerol Added to Cigarette Tobacco Using Two Machine-Smoking Regimes; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 24 (2010) 48-57.

392. Cinkotai, F.F.: The Growth of Cigarette Smoke Particles Suspended on Fine Platinum Wire in Moist Air; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 4 (1968) 189-195.

393. Robinson, R.J. and C.P. Yu: Theoretical Analysis of Hygroscopic Growth Rate of Mainstream and Side-stream Cigarette Smoke Particles in the Human Respi-ratory Tract; Aerosol Sci. Technol. 28 (1998) 21-32.

394. Baker, R.R. and M. Dixon: The Retention of Tobacco Smoke Constituents in the Human Respiratory Tract; Inhal. Toxicol. 18 (2006) 255-294.

395. Moldoveanu, S.C. and W.M. Coleman III: The Influence of a Humectant on the Retention by Humans of Solanesol from Cigarette Smoke (Part 2, Glycerin); Beitr. Tabakforsch Int. 23 (2009) 377-383.

396. Wilson, J., M.J.L. Clapp, and D.M. Conning: Effect of Glycerol on Local and Systemic Carcinogenicity of Topically Applied Tobacco Condensate; Br. J. Cancer 38 (1978) 250-257.

397. Heck, J.D., CL Gaworski, N. Rajendran, and R.L. Morrissey: Toxicologic Evaluation of Humectants Added to Cigarette Tobacco: 13-Week Smoke Inhalation Study of Glycerin and Propylene Glycol in Fischer 344 Rats; Inhal. Toxicol. 14 (2002) 1135–1152.

398. Florin, I., L. Rutberg, M. Curvall, and C.R. Enzell: Screening of Tobacco Smoke Constituents for Mutagenicity Using the Ames’ Test; Toxicology 18 (1980) 219–232.

399. Sheftel, V.O.: Indirect Food Additives and Polymers. Migration and Toxicology; CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2000, p. 275.

400. LaKind, J.S., E.A. McKenna, R.P. Hubner, and R.G. Tardiff: A Review of the Comparative Mammalian Toxicity of Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol; Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 29 (1999) 331–365.

401. Suber, R.L., R. Deskin, I. Nikiforov, X. Fouillet, and C.R.E. Coggins: Subchronic Nose-Only Inhalation Study of Propylene Glycol in Sprague-Dawley Rats; Food Chem. Toxicol. 27 (1989) 578–583.

402. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services – National Toxicology Program. Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction: NTP-CERHR Monograph on the Potential Human Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Propylene Glycol; NIH Publication No. 04-4482, NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2004.

403. Kagan, M.R., J. A. Cunningham, and D. Hoffmann: Propylene Glycol: A Precursor of Propylene Oxide in Cigarette Smoke; 53rd Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference, 1999, Program Booklet and Abstracts, Vol. 53, Paper No. 41, pp. 42–43.

404. Gordon, B.M. and W.M. Coleman III: Determination of Vinyl Chloride, Ethylene Oxide and Propylene Oxide in Fresh Mainstream Smoke via Gas Chroma-tography/Mass Spectrometry; Presentation at the 57th Tobacco Science Research Conference, Norfolk, VA, Sept. 2003, Program Booklet and Abstracts, Paper 63, P. 58.

405. Diekmann, J., M. Douda, and K. Rustemeier: Rapid and Sensitive Method for the Determination of Propylene Oxide in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry; J. Chroma-togr. Sci. 44 (2006) 32–34.

406. Gaworski, C.L., M.J. Oldham, and C.R.E. Coggins: Toxicological Considerations on the Use of Propylene Glycol as a Humectant in Cigarettes; Toxicology 269 (2010) 54–66.

407. Bootman J., D.C. Lodge, and H.E. Whalley: Muta-genic Activity of Propylene Oxide in Bacterial and Mammalian Systems; Mutat. Res. 67 (1979) 101–112.

408. Kuper, C.F., P.G.J. Reuzel, V.J. Feron, and H. Ver-schuuren: Chronic Inhalation Toxicity and Carcinogenicity Study of Propylene Oxide in Wistar Rats; Food Chem. Toxicol. 26 (1988) 159–167.

409. Rios-Blanco, M.N., K. Plna, T. Faller, W. Kessler, K. Hakansson, P.E. Kreutzer, A. Ranasinghe, J.G. Filser, D. Segerbäck, and J.A. Swenberg: Propylene Oxide: Mutagenesis, Carcinogenesis and Molecular Dose; Mutat. Res. 380 (1997) 179–197.

410. Kolman, A., M. Chovanec, and S. Osterman-Golkar: Genotoxic Effects of Ethylene Oxide, Propylene Oxide and Epichlorohydrin in Humans: Update Review (1990–2001); Mutat. Res. 512 (2002) 173–194.

411. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs, Volumes 1–105, last updated August 7, 2012; available at:

412. Moldoveanu S.C. and W.M. Coleman III: The Influence of a Humectant on the Retention by Humans of Solanesol from Cigarette Smoke (Part 1, Propylene Glycol); Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 23 (2008) 153–159.

413. Staples, R., A. Misher, and J. Wardell Jr.: Gastro-intestinal Irritant Effect of Glycerin as Compared with Sorbitol and Propylene Glycol in Rats and Dogs; J. Pharm. Sci. 56 (1967) 398–400.

414. MacKenzie, K.M., W.N. Hauck, A.G. Wheeler, and F.J.C. Roe: Three-Generation Reproduction Study of Rats Ingesting up to 10% Sorbitol in the Diet – and a Brief Review of the Toxicological Status of Sorbitol; Food Chem. Toxicol. 24 (1986) 191–200.

415. World Health Organization (WHO): Summary of Toxicological Data of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants; WHO Food Additive Series No. 13: Sorbitol, 2006; available at: documents/jecfa/jecmono/v13je08.htm.

416. United Kingdom, Department of Health: Permitted Additives to Tobacco Products in the United Kingdom; London, October 2003.

417. Kobashi, Y. and S. Sakaguchi: Free Sugars in Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 3 (1959) 161–163.

418. Jetta, G.: The Dehydration of the Pentosanes of Tobacco During Curing and Fermentation [Sulla disidratazione dei pentosani del tabacco durante la cura e la fermentazione]; Boll. Tecnico. Coltiv. Tabacchi (Scafati) III (1904) 25.

419. Sato, S., T. Ohka, M. Nagao, K. Tsuji, and T. Kosuge: Reduction in Mutagenicity of Cigarette Smoke Condensate by Added Sugars; Mutat. Res. 60 (1979) 155–161.

420. Halter, H.M. and T.I. Ito: Effect of Tobacco Reconstitution and Expansion Processes on Smoke Composition; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 4 (1978) 113–132.

421. Gager Jr., F.L., J.W. Nedlock, and W.J. Martin: Tobacco Additives and Cigarette Smoke. Part I. Transfer of D-Glucose, Sucrose and Their Degradation Products to the Smoke; Carbohydr. Res. 17 (1971) 327–333.

422. Gilbert, J.A.S. and A.J. Lindsey: The Thermal Decomposition of Some Tobacco Constituents; Brit. J. Cancer 11 (1957) 398–402.

423. Johnson, R.R. and E.D. Alford: Products from the Pyrolysis of Sucrose; 20th Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference, Winston-Salem, NC, 1966, Program Booklet and Abstracts, Abstract No. 29, pp. 37–39.

424. Kato, K., N. Takahashi, and Y. Kaburaki: Thermal Analysis of Tobacco Stem Constituents; Sci. Papers, Centr. Res. Inst., Japan Monopoly Corp. 107 (1965) 165–169.

425. Kato, K.: Pyrolysis of Cellulose. Part III. Comparative Studies of Volatile Compounds from Pyrolysates of Cellulose and its Related Compounds; Agr. Biol. Chem. 31 (1967) 657–663.

426. Fagerson, I.S.: Thermal Degradation of Carbo-hydrates. A Review; J. Agric. Food Chem. 17 (1969) 747–750.

427. Roberts, D.L., J.N. Schumacher, R.A. Lloyd, and R.A. Heckman: Carbohydrate Pyrolysis Products. A Review of the Literature; R.J. Reynolds Tobacco RDM, No.7, February 4, 1976; Bates-No. 500616624–6642; available at: http://legacy.library.

428. Sanders, E.B., A.I. Goldsmith, and J.I. Seeman: A Model That Distinguishes the Pyrolysis of D-Glucose, D-Fructose, and Sucrose from That of Cellulose. Application to the Understanding of Cigarette Smoke Formation; J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis 66 (2002) 29–50.

429. Talhout, R., A. Opperhuizen, J.G.C. van Amsterdam: Sugars as Tobacco Ingredient: Effects on Mainstream Smoke Composition; Food Chem. Toxicol. 44 (2006) 1789–1798.

430. May, T., H. Rommelspacher, and M. Pawlik: [3H]Har-man Binding Experiments. I: A Reversible and Se-lective Radioligand for Monoamine Oxidase Subtype A in the CNS of the Rat; J. Neurochem. 56 (1991) 490–499.

431. Rommelspacher, H., M. Meier-Henco, M. Smolka, and C. Kloft: The Levels of Norharman Are High Enough after Smoking to Affect Monoamino Oxidase B in Platelets; Eur. J. Pharmacol. 441 (2002) 115–125.

432. De la Burde, R., F. Crayton, and A. Bavley: The Fate of Carbohydrates During the Thermal Degradation of Tobacco; Presentation at the 16th Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference, Program Booklet and Abstracts, 1962, No.13, Bates-No. 1000700733 available at:

433. De la Burde, R. and E.H. Poindexter Jr.: Oxidative Products of Hexoses in Thermally Treated Tobacco; Nature 198 (1963) 1089–1090.

434. Bell, J.H., A.O. Saunders, and A.W. Spears: The Contribution of Tobacco Constituents to Phenol Yield of Cigarettes; Tob. Sci. 10 (1966) 138–142.

435. Best, F.W.: Sugar Content of Flue-Cured Tobacco and its Relationship to Tobacco and Smoke Composition; R.J. Reynolds Tobacco, RDR, No. 6, January 30, 1970, Bates-No. 511111200–1220; available at: http://

436. Thornton, R.E. and S.R. Massey: Some Effects of Adding Sugars to Tobacco; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 8 (1975) 11–15.

437. Passey, R.D. and L.A. Elson: Different Smoking Risks of Flue-Cured and Air-Cured Tobaccos; J. Pathol. 101 (1970) P48.

438. O'Connor, R.J. and P.J. Hurley: Existing Technologies to Reduce Specific Toxicant Emissions in Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Control 17, Suppl. I (2008) i39–i48.

439. Baker, R.R.: The Generation of Formaldehyde in Cigarettes – Overview and Recent Experiments; Food Chem. Toxicol. 44 (2006) 1799–1822.

440. Miyake, T. and T. Shibamoto: Quantitative Analysis by Gas Chromatography of Volatile Carbonyl Compounds in Cigarette Smoke; J. Chromatogr. A 693 (1995) 376–381.

441. Smith, C.J., T.A. Perfetti, M.A. Rumple, A. Rodgman, and D.J. Doolittle: “IARC Group 2A Carcinogens” Reported in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke; Food Chem. Toxicol. 38 (2000) 371–383.

442. Zilkey, B.F., W.A. Court, M. R. Binns, E.K. Walker, V.A. Dirks, and P.K. Basrur: Chemical Studies on Canadian Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke. 1. Tobacco, Tobacco Sheet, and Cigarette Smoke Chemical Analysis on Various Treatments of Bright and Burley Tobacco; Tob. Sci. 26 (1982) 54–60.

443. Shelar, G.R., P.F. Bernasek, and O.P. Furin: Sugar/ Nicotine Study; R.J. Reynolds Tobacco, ATP 92-210, Bates-No. 510697389–7410, available at:

444. National Cancer Institute, Smoking and Health Program: Report No. 5. Toward Less Hazardous Cigarettes. Summary: Four Skin Painting Bioassays Using Condensate from Experimental Cigarettes; NCI, Bethesda, MA, 1980, p. 13.

445. Borgerding, M. and H. Klus: Analysis of Complex Mixtures – Cigarette Smoke; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 57 (2005) 43–73.

446. Stavanja, M.S., P.H. Ayres, D.R. Meckley, B.R. Bombick, D.H. Pence, M.F. Borgerding, M.J. Morton, A.T. Mosberg, and J.E. Swauger: Toxicological Evaluation of Honey as an Ingredient Added to Cigarette Tobacco; J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A, 66 (2003) 1453–1473.

447. Stavanja, M.S., P.H. Ayres, D.R. Meckley, E.R. Bombick, M.F. Borgerding, M.J. Morton, C.D. Gar-ner, D.H. Pence, and J.E. Swauger: Safety Assessment of High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) as an Ingredient Added to Tobacco; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 57 (2006) 267–281.

448. Roemer E., M.K. Schorp, J.-J. Piadé, J.I. Seeman, D.E. Leyden, and H.-J. Haussmann: Scientific Assessment of the Use of Sugars as Cigarette Tobacco Ingredients: A Review of Published and Other Publicly Available Studies; Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 42 (2012) 244–278.

449. Harllee, J.C. and J.C. Leffingwell: Composition of Casing Materials: Cocoa, its Constituents and Their Organoleptic Properties; 32nd Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference, Program Booklet and Abstracts, Paper No. 25, 1978, p. 13, Presentation Bates-No. 504421772–1807, available at: http://legacy.library.

450. Tarka Jr., S.M., R.B. Morrissey, J.L. Apgar, K.A. Hostetler, and C.A. Shively: Chronic Toxicity/ Carcinogenicity Studies of Cocoa Powder in Rats; Food Chem. Toxicol. 29 (1991) 7–19.

451. Kreiser W.R. and R.A. Martin: Cocoa Products. High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Theobromine and Caffeine in Cocoa and Chocolate Products; J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 61 (1978) 1424–1427.

452. Tarka Jr., S.M.: The Toxicology of Cocoa and Methylxanthines: A Review of the Literature; Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 9 (1982) 275–312.

453. Brusick, D., B. Myhr, S. Galloway, J. Rundell, D.R. Jagannath, and S. Tarka: Genotoxicity of Theo-bromine in a Series of Short-Term Assays; Mutat. Res. 169 (1986) 105–114.

454. Rosenkranz, H.S. and F.K. Ennever: Evaluation of the Genotoxicity of Theobromine and Caffeine; Food Chem. Toxicol. 25 (1987) 247–251.

455. Rosenkranz, H.S., G. Klopman, V. Chankong, J. Pet-Edwards, and Y.Y. Haimes: Prediction of Environmental Carcinogens: A Strategy for the Mid-1980s; Environ. Mutagen. 6 (1984) 231–258.

456. Tarka Jr., S.M., R.S. Applebaum, and J.F. Borzelleca: Evaluation of the Teratogenic Potential of Cocoa Powder and Theobromine in New Zealand White Rabbits; Food Chem. Toxicol. 24 (1986) 363–374.

457. Tarka Jr., S.M., R.S. Applebaum, and J.F. Borzelleca: Evaluation of the Perinatal, Postnatal and Teratogenic Effects of Cocoa Powder and Theobromine in Sprague-Dawley/CD Rats; Food Chem. Toxicol. 24 (1986) 375–382.

458. Hostetler, K.A., R.B. Morrissey, S.M. Tarka Jr., J.L. Apgar, and C.A. Shively: Three-Generation Reproductive Study of Cocoa Powder in Rats; Food Chem. Toxicol. 28 (1990) 483–490.

459. Fix Sr., R.J. and F.D. Jordan: Indirect Analysis of Cocoa in Tobacco Products via the Determination of Theobromine; R.J. Reynolds Tobacco R&DM, No. 34, Feb. 14, 1990, Bates-No. 508381660–1679; available at:

460. Zaidi, Z.R.: Determination of Theobromine Added to Cigarette Tobacco and Smoke; Laboratory Report No. L.470-R, British-American Tobacco, November 27, 1974, Bates-No. 570320984–570321009, available at:

461. Schlotzhauer, W.S.: Fatty Acids and Phenols from Pyrolysis of Cocoa Powder, a Tobacco Product Flavo-rant; Tob. Sci. 22 (1978) 1–2.

462. Park, J.Y., O.C. Kim, D.Y. Na, and Y.T. Kim: The Study of Volatile Compounds in the Pyrolyzates of Cocoa Powder, a Tobacco Product Flavorant; 44th Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference, Program Booklet and Abstracts, Paper No. 56, 1990, p. 40.

463. Sugimura, T., T. Kawachi, M. Nagao, T. Yahagi, Y. Seino, T. Okamoto, K. Shudo, T. Kosuge, K. Tsuji, K. Wakabayashi, Y. Iitaka, and A. Itai: Mutagenic Principle(s) in Tryptophan and Phenylalanine Pyrolysis Products; Proc. Japan Acad. 53 (1977) 58–61.

464. Yamamoto, T., K. Tsuji, T. Kosuge, T. Okamoto, K. Shudo, K. Takeda, Y. Iitaka, K. Yamaguchi, Y. Seino, T. Yahagi, M. Nagao, and T. Sugimura: Isolation and Structure Determination of Mutagenic Substances in L-Glutamic Acid Pyrolysate. Proc. Japan. Acad. 54 B (1978) 248–250.

465. Simons, F.E.R., A.B. Becker, K.J. Simons, and C.A. Gillespie: The Bronchodilator Effect and Pharmaco-kinetics of Theobromine in Young Patients with Asthma; J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 76 (1985) 703–707.

466. Rambali, B., I. van Andel, E. Schenk, G. Wolterink, G. van de Werken, H. Stevenson, and W. Vleeming: The Contribution of Cocoa Additive to Cigarette Smoking Addiction; RIVM Report 650270002/2002; RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, 2003.

467. Roemer, E. and U. Hackenberg: Mouse Skin Bioassay of Smoke Condensates from Cigarettes Containing Different Levels of Cocoa; Food Addit. Contam. 7 (1990) 563–569.

468. Samuelsson, G.: Drugs of Natural Origin. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy; Swedish Pharmaceutical Press, Stockholm, 4th edition, 1999, pp. 308–310.

469. Tanaka, M., N. Mano, E. Akazai, Y. Narui, F. Kato, and Y. Koyama: Inhibition of Mutagenicity by Glycyrrhiza Extract and Glycyrrhizin; J. Pharmaco-biodyn. 10 (1987) 685–688.

470. Størmer, F.C., R. Reistad, and J. Alexander: Glycyr-rhizic Acid in Liquorice. Evaluation of Health Hazards; Food Chem. Toxicol. 31 (1993) 303–312.

471. Isbrucker, R.A. and G.A. Burdock: Risk and Safety Assessment on the Consumption of Licorice Root (Glycyrrhiza sp.), its Extract and Powder as a Food Ingredient, with Emphasis on the Pharmacology and Toxicology of Glycyrrhizin; Regul. Toxicol. Pharma-col. 46 (2006) 167–192.

472. Maser, E.: Significance of Reductases in the Detoxi-fication of the Tobacco-Specific Carcinogen NNK; Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 25 (2004) 235–237.

473. Carmines, E.L., R. Lemus, and C.L. Gaworski: Toxi-cologic Evaluation of Licorice Extract as a Cigarette Ingredient; Food Chem. Toxicol. 43 (2005) 1303–1322.

474. Sakagami, H.: Studies on Components of Licorice Root Used for Tobacco Flavoring. Part III. The Behavior of Glycyrrhizic Acid and Glycyrrhetinic Acid Added to Tobacco on Smoking; Nippon Nougei Kagaku Kaishi 47 (1973) 623–626.

475. Van Andel I., G. Wolterink, G. van de Werken, H. Stevenson, L.A.G.J.M. van Aerts, and W. Vleeming: The Health and Addiction Risk of the Glycyrrhizic Acid Component of Liquorice Root Used in Tobacco Products; RIVM Report 34063001/2003, RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, 2003.

476. Vora, P.S. and R.M. Tuorto: The Behavior of Licorice Components During the Burning Process of Tobacco Products; 38th Tobacco Chemists’ Research Confe-rence, Program Booklet and Abstracts, Paper No. 38, 1984, p. 20.

477. Green, C.R. and F.W. Best: Pyrolysis Products of Licorice; R.J. Reynolds Tobacco RDM, No.20, Aug. 28, 1974, Bates-No. 521574480–4485, available at:

478. Green, C.R. and F.W. Best: Pyrolysis Products of Various Smoking Materials; R.J. Reynolds Tobacco; RDR, No. 1, January 7, 1975, Bates-No. 501003513– 3531, available at: mij59d00.

479. Frattini, C., C. Bicchi, C. Barettini, and G.M. Nano: Volatile Flavor Components of Licorice; J. Agric. Food Chem. 25 (1977) 1238–1241.

480. Yongkuan, C. and H. Wangyun: Pyroloysis of Glycyrrhizic Acid and its Sodium Salts; Tob. Sci. 39 (1995) 49–54.

481. Chung, H.L. and J.C. Aldridge: Thermal Study of Licorice by Online Thermogravimetry/Gas Chromato-graphy/Mass Spectrometry; Presentation at the 53rd Tobacco Science Research Conference, Montreal, Canada, Program Booklet and Abstracts, Paper No. 07, 1999, p. 23.

482. Department of Public Health: Public Hearing on Proposed Regulations: Reports of Added Constituents and Nicotine Ratings. Testimony of William Farone, Former Researcher; Philip Morris, June 12, 1997, Bates-No. 2072822298–2313, available at:

483. Lyerly, L.A.: Direct Vapor Chromatographic Determination of Menthol, Propylene Glycol, Nicotine, and Triacetin in Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 11 (1967) 49–51.

484. Stavanja, M.S., G.M. Curtin, P.H. Ayres, E.R. Bombick, M.F. Borgerding, W.T. Morgan, C.D. Garner, D.H. Pence, and J.E. Swauger: Safety Assessment of Diammonium Phosphate and Urea Used in the Manufacture of Cigarettes; Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 59 (2008) 339–353.

485. United Kingdom, House of Commons, Health Committee: Health – Second report. The Tobacco Industry and the Health Risks of Smoking; 5th June, 2000, available at: http://www.publications.parlia 2702.htm.

486. Benhamou, S., E. Benhamou, M. Tirmarche, and R. Flamant: Lung Cancer and Use of Cigarettes: A French Case-Control Study; J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 74 (1985) 1169–1175.

487. Benhamou, E., S. Benhamou, and R. Flamant: Lung Cancer and Women: Results of a French Case-Control Study; Br. J. Cancer 55 (1987) 91–95.

488. Benhamou, E., S. Benhamou, A. Auquier, and R. Flamant: Changes in Pattern of Cigarette Smoking and Lung Cancer Risk: Results of a Case-Control Study; Br. J. Cancer 60 (1989) 601–604.

489. Benhamou, S., E. Benhamou, A. Auquier, and R. Flamant: Differential Effects of Tar Content, Type of Tobacco and Use of a Filter on Lung Cancer Risk in Male Cigarette Smokers; Int. J. Epidemiol. 23 (1994) 437–443.

490. Richie Jr., J.P., S.G. Carmella, J.E. Muscat, D.G. Scott, S.A. Akerkar, and S.S. Hecht: Differences in the Urinary Metabolites of the Tobacco-Specific Lung Carcinogen 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in Black and White Smokers; Cancer Epide-miol. Biomarkers Prev. 6 (1997) 783–790.

491. Melikian, A.A., M.V. Djordjevic, S. Chen, J. Richie Jr., and S.D. Stellman: Effect of Delivered Dosage of Cigarette Smoke Toxins on the Levels of Urinary Biomarkers of Exposure; Cancer Epidemiol. Bio-markers Prev. 16 (2007) 1408–1415.

492. Heck, J.D.: Smokers of Menthol and Nonmenthol Cigarettes Exhibit Similar Levels of Biomarkers of Smoke Exposure; Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 18 (2009) 622–629.

493. Ho, M.K., B. Faseru, W.S. Choi, N.L. Nollen, M.S. Mayo, J.L. Thomas, K.S. Okuyemi, J.S. Ahluwalia, N.L. Benowitz, and R.F. Tyndale: Utility and Re-lationships of Biomarkers of Smoking in African-American Light Smokers; Cancer Epidemiol. Bio-markers Prev. 18 (2009) 3426–3434.

494. Mariner, D.C., M. Ashley, C.J. Shepperd, G. Mullard, and M. Dixon: Mouth Level Smoke Exposure Using Analysis of Filters from Smoked Cigarettes: A Study of Eight Countries; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 61 Suppl. 3 (2011) S39–S50.

495. Shepperd, C.J., A.C. Eldridge, D.C. Mariner, M. McEwan, G. Errington, and M. Dixon: A Study to Estimate and Correlate Cigarette Smoke Exposure in Smokers in Germany as Determined by Filter Analysis and Biomarkers of Exposure; Regul. Toxicol. Pharma-col. 55 (2009) 97–109.

496. Morin, A., C.J. Shepperd, A.C. Eldridge, N. Poirier, and R. Voisine: Estimation and Correlation of Cigarette Smoke Exposure in Canadian Smokers as Determined by Filter Analysis and Biomarkers of Exposure; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 61, Suppl. 3 (2011) S3–S12.

497. St. Charles, F.K., G.R. Krautter, M. Dixon, and D.C. Mariner: A Comparison of Nicotine Dose Estimates in Smokers Between Filter Analysis, Salivary Cotinine, and Urinary Excretion of Nicotine Metabolites; Psychopharmacology 189 (2006) 345–354.

498. Shepperd, C.J., F.K. St. Charles, M. Lien, and M. Dixon: Validation of Methods for Determining Con-sumer Smoked Cigarette Yields from Cigarette Filter Analysis; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 22 (2006) 176–184.

499. Forey, B., J. Hamling, P. Lee, and N. Wald (editors): International Smoking Statistics. Web Edition. A Collection of Worldwide Historical Data from Thirty Economically Developed Countries; 2nd edition. Oxford University Press, 2002. Online updates available at:

500. Lee, P.N., B.A. Forey, and K.J. Young: International Evidence on Smoking and Lung Cancer (Project IESLC). A First Report. Part I: The Databases – Me-thods Used to Collect and Analyse the Data and Scope of the Information Obtained; P.N. Lee Statistics and Computing Ltd., Sutton, UK, 2003, available at:

501. Lee, P.N., B.A. Forey, and K.J. Young: International Evidence on Smoking and Lung Cancer (project IESLC). A First Report. Part II: Results of Selected Meta-Analyses; P.N. Lee Statistics and Computing Ltd., Sutton, UK, 2003; available at:

502. Friedman, G.D., I. Tekawa, M. Sadler, and S. Sidney: Smoking and Mortality: The Kaiser Permanente Experience; in: Changes in Cigarette-Related Disease Risks and Their Implications for Prevention and Control, Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 8; edited by D. Shopland, D.M. Burns, L. Gar-finkel, and J.M. Samet, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, 1997, pp. 477–499.

503. Lange, P., J. Nyboe, M. Appleyard, G. Jensen, and P. Schnohr: Relationship of the Type of Tobacco and Inhalation Pattern to Pulmonary and Total Mortality; Eur. Respir. J. 5 (1992) 1111–1117.

504. Speizer, F.E., M.E. Fay, D.W. Dockery, and B.G. Ferris Jr.: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mortality in Six U.S. Cities; Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 140 (1989) S49–S55.

505. Thun, M.J. and C.W. Heath Jr.: Changes in Mortality from Smoking in Two American Cancer Society Prospective Studies since 1959; Prev. Med. 26 (1997) 422–426.

506. Wald, N.J. and H.C. Watt: Prospective Study of Effect of Switching from Cigarettes to Pipes or Cigars on Mortality from Three Smoking Related Diseases; Brit. Med. J. 314 (1997) 1860–1863.

507. Kreyberg, L.: Histological Lung Cancer Types. A Morphological and Biological Correlation; Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. Suppl. 157 (1962) 1–103.

508. Munoz N., P. Correa, and F.G Bock: Comparative Carcinogenic Effect of Two Types of Tobacco; Cancer 21 (1968) 376–389.

509. Joly, O.G., J.H. Lubin, and M. Caraballoso: Dark Tobacco and Lung Cancer in Cuba; J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 70 (1983) 1033–1039.

510. Hatsukami, D.K., N.L. Benowitz, S.I. Rennard, C. Oncken, and S.S. Hecht: Biomarkers to Assess the Utility of Potential Reduced Exposure Tobacco Products; Nicotine Tob. Res. 8 (2006) 169–191, corrected and republished: Nicotine Tob. Res. 8 (2006) 600–622.

511. Wagenknecht, L.E, G.R. Cutter, N.J. Haley, S. Sidney, T.A. Manolio, G.H. Hughes, and D.R. Jacobs: Racial Differences in Serum Cotinine Levels among Smokers in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults Study; Am. J. Public Health 80 (1990) 1053–1056.

512. Garten, S. and R.V. Falkner: Role of Mentholated Cigarettes in Increased Nicotine Dependence and Greater Risk of Tobacco-Attributable Disease; Prev. Med. 38 (2004) 793–798.

513. Ahijevych, K. and B.E. Garrett: Menthol Pharmacology and its Potential Impact on Cigarette Smoking Behavior; Nicotine Tob. Res. 6, Suppl. 1 (2004) S17–S28.

514. Green, B.G. and B.L. McAuliffe: Menthol Desensitization of Capsaicin Irritation: Evidence of a Short-Term Anti-Nociceptive Effect; Physiol. Behav. 68 (2000) 631–639.

515. Nil, R. and K. Bättig: Separate Effects of Cigarette Smoke Yield and Smoke Taste on Smoking Behavior; Psychopharmacology 99 (1989) 54–59.

516. Ahijevych, K.L. and M.E. Wewers: Patterns of Cigarette Consumption and Cotinine Levels among African American Women Smokers; Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 150 (1994) 1229–1233.

517. Ahijevych, K., J. Gillespie, M. Demirci, and J. Jagadeesh: Menthol and Nonmenthol Cigarettes and Smoke Exposure in Black and White Women; Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 53 (1996) 355–360.

518. Ahijevych, K. and L.A. Parsley: Smoke Constituent Exposure and Stage of Change in Black and White Women Cigarette Smokers; Addict. Behav. 24 (1999) 115–120.

519. Comer, A.K. and D.E. Creighton: The Effect of Experimential Conditions on Smoking Behaviour; in: Smoking Behaviour. Physiological and Psychological Influences; edited by R.E. Thornton, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, U.K., 1978, pp. 76–86.

520. Miller, G.E., M.E. Jarvik, N.H. Caskey, S.C. Seger-strom, M.R. Rosenblatt, and W.J. McCarthy: Cigarette Mentholation Increases Smokers’ Exhaled Carbon Monoxide Levels; Exp. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 2 (1994) 154–160.

521. Jarvik, M.E., D.P. Tashkin, N.H. Caskey, W.J. McCarthy, and M.R. Rosenblatt: Mentholated Cigarettes Decrease Puff Volume of Smoke and Increase Carbon Monoxide Absorption; Physiol. Behav. 56 (1994) 563–570.

522. McCarthy, W.J., N.H. Caskey, M.E. Jarvik, T.M. Gross, M.R. Rosenblatt, and C. Carpenter: Menthol vs Nonmenthol Cigarettes: Effects on Smoking Behavior; Am. J. Public Health 85 (1995) 67–72.

523. Clark, P.I., S. Gautam, and L.W. Gerson: Effect of Menthol Cigarettes on Biochemical Markers of Smoke Exposure among Black and White Smokers; Chest 110 (1996) 1194–1198.

524. Ernst, A. and J.D. Zibrak: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning; New Engl. J. Med. 339 (1998) 1603–1608, Correction: New Engl. J. Med. 340 (1999) 1290.

525. Benowitz, N.L.: Cotinine as a Biomarker of En-vironmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure; Epidemiol. Rev. 18 (1996) 188–204.

526. Rosenblatt, M.R., R.E. Olmstead, P.N. Iwamoto-Schaap, and M.E. Jarvik: Olfactory Thresholds for Nicotine and Menthol in Smokers (Abstinent and Nonabstinent) and Nonsmokers; Physiol. Behav. 65 (1998) 575–579.

527. Pritchard, W.S., M.E. Houlihan, T.D. Guy, and J.H. Robinson: Little Evidence That “Denicotinized” Menthol Cigarettes Have Pharmacological Effects: An EEG/Heart-Rate/Subjective-Response Study; Psycho-pharmacology 143 (1999) 273–279.

528. Wang, J., H.J. Roethig, S. Appleton, M. Werley, R. Muhammad-Kah, and P. Mendes: The Effect of Menthol Containing Cigarettes on Adult Smokers’ Exposure to Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 57 (2010) 24–30.

529. Nelson, P.R., P. Chen, M. Dixon, and T. Steichen: A Survey of Mouth Level Exposure to Cigarette Smoke in the United States; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 61, Suppl. 3 (2011) S25–S38.

530. Ashley, M., M. Dixon, A. Sisodiya, and K. Prasad: Lack of Effect of Menthol Level and Type on Smokers’ Estimated Mouth Level Exposures to Tar and Nicotine Perceived Sensory Characteristics of Cigarette Smoke; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 63 (2012) 381–390.

531. Pickworth, W.B., E.T. Moolchan, I. Berlin, and R. Murty: Sensory and Physiologic Effects of Menthol and Nonmenthol Cigarettes with Differing Nicotine Delivery; Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 71 (2002) 55–61.

532. Patterson, F., N. Benowitz, P. Shields, V. Kaufmann, C. Jepson, P. Wileyto, S. Kucharski, and C. Lerman: Individual Differences in Nicotine Intake per Cigarette; Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 12 (2003) 468–471.

533. Benowitz, N.L., B. Herrera, and P. Jacob III: Mentholated Cigarette Smoking Inhibits Nicotine Metabolism; J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therap. 310 (2004) 1208–1215.

534. Benowitz, N.L., K.M. Dains, D. Dempsey, C. Havel, M. Wilson, and P. Jacob III: Urine Menthol as a Biomarker of Mentholated Cigarette Smoking; Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 19 (2010) 3013–3019.

535. St. Charles, F.K., G.R. Krautter, and D.C. Mariner: Post-Puff Respiration Measures on Smokers of Different Tar Yield Cigarettes; Inhal. Toxicol. 21 (2009) 712–718.

536. St. Charles, K., G. Krautter, and D. Mariner: Inhalation Volumes in Smokers of Different Tar Yield Cigarettes; Poster presented at the Meeting of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT), March 20–23, 2005, Prague, Czech Republic, available at: sites/BAT_7AWFH3.nsf/vwPagesWebLive/DO7A XLK3?opendocument&SKN=1.

537. Caraballo, R.S., D.B. Holiday, S.D. Stellman, P.D. Mowery, G.A. Giovino, J.E. Muscat, M.P. Eriksen, J.T. Bernert, P.A. Richter, and L.T. Kozlowski: Comparison of Serum Cotinine Concentration Within and Across Smokers of Menthol and Nonmenthol Cigarette Brands among Non-Hispanic Black and Non-Hispanic White U.S. Adult Smokers, 2001–2006; Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 20 (2011) 1329–1340.

538. National Center for Health Statistics: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; available at: naires.htm.

539. Hebert, J.R. and G.C. Kabat: Menthol Cigarette Smoking and Oesophageal Cancer; Int. J. Epidemiol. 18 (1989) 37–44.

540. Kabat, G.C. and J.R. Hebert: Use of Mentholated Cigarettes and Lung Cancer Risk; Cancer Res. 51 (1991) 6510–6513.

541. Kabat, G.C. and J.R. Hebert: Use of Mentholated Cigarettes and Oropharyngeal Cancer; Epidemiology 5 (1994) 183–188.

542. Carpenter, C.L., M.E. Jarvik, H. Morgenstern, W.J. McCarthy, and S.J. London: Mentholated Cigarette Smoking and Lung Cancer Risk; Ann. Epidemiol. 9 (1999) 114–120.

543. Brooks, D.R., J.R. Palmer, B.L. Strom, and L. Rosenberg: Menthol Cigarettes and Risk of Lung Cancer; Am. J. Epidemiol. 158 (2003) 609–616.

544. Stellman, S.D., Y. Chen, J.E. Muscat, M.V. Djord-jevic, J.P. Richie Jr., P. Lazarus, S. Thompson, N. Al-torki, M. Berwick, M.L. Citron, S. Harlap, T.B. Kaur, A.I. Neugut, S. Olson, J.M. Travaline, P. Witorsch, and Z.-F. Zhang: Lung Cancer Risk in White and Black Americans; Ann. Epidemiol. 13 (2003) 294–302.

545. Jöckel, K.-H., H. Pohlabeln, and I. Jahn: Use of Menthol Cigarettes and Risk of Lung Cancer; Biom. J. 46 Suppl. (2004) 33

546. Etzel, C.J., S. Kachroo, M. Liu, A. D'Amelio, Q. Dong, M.L. Cote, A.S. Wenzlaff, W.K. Hong, A.J. Greisinger, A.G. Schwartz, and M.R. Spitz: Development and Validation of a Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Model for African-Americans; Cancer Prev. Res. 1 (2008) 255–265.

547. Friedman, G.D., M. Sadler, I.S. Tekawa, and S. Sidney: Mentholated Cigarettes and Non-Lung Smoking Related Cancers in California, USA; J. Epidemiol. Community Health 52 (1998) 202.

548. Scanlon, P.D., J.E. Connett, L.A. Waller, M.D. Altose, W.C. Bailey, A.S. Buist, and D.P. Tashkin: Smoking Cessation and Lung Function in Mild-to-Moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. The Lung Health Study; Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 161 (2000) 381–390.

549. Pletcher, M.J., B.J. Hulley, T. Houston, C.I. Kiefe, N. Benowitz, and S. Sidney: Menthol Cigarettes, Smoking Cessation, Atherosclerosis, and Pulmonary Function: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study; Arch. Intern. Med. 166 (2006) 1915–1922.

550. Lee, P.N.: Systematic Review of the Epidemiological Evidence Comparing Lung Cancer Risk in Smokers of Mentholated and Unmentholated Cigarettes; BMC Pulm. Med. 11 (2011) 18.

551. Rostron, B.: Lung Cancer Mortality Risk for U.S. Menthol Cigarette Smokers; Nicotine Tob. Res. Online: March 1, 2012.

552. Schoenborn, C.A. and G.M. Boyd: Smoking and Other Tobacco Use: United States, 1987; National Center for Health Statistics, Vital Health Stat. 10, No. 169, 1989.

553. National Center for Health Statistics: 2010 NHIS Linked Mortality Files; available at: http://www.cdc. gov/nchs/data_access/data_linkage/mortality/nhis_ linkage.htm#data_files.

554. National Center for Health Statistics: 2011 National Health Interview Survey; available at:

555. National Center for Health Statistics, Data Linkage Team: Comparative Analysis of the NHIS Public-Use and Restricted-Use Linked Mortality Files: 2010 Public-Use Data Release; National Center for Health Statistics, March 2010, Hyattsville, MD, available at: http://www.cdc. gov/nchs/data_access/data_linkage/mortality/nhis_ linkage.htm#data_fileslinkage/nhis_mort_compare_ 2010_final.pdf.

556. Durkin, D.A., M.O. Kjelsberg, A.S. Buist, J.E. Connett, G.R. Owens, and Recruitment Directors of the Lung Health Study for the Lung Health Study Research Group: Recruitment of Participants in the Lung Health Study, I. Description of Methods; Control. Clin. Trials 14, Suppl. 2 (1993) 20S–37S.

557. Connett, J.E., W.M. Bjornson-Benson, and K. Daniels for the Lung Health Study Research Group: Recruitment of Participants in the Lung Health Study, II. Assessment of Recruiting Strategies; Control. Clin. Trials 14, Suppl. 2 (1993) 38S–51S.

558. Vozoris, N.T.: Mentholated Cigarettes and Cardio-vascular and Pulmonary Diseases: A Population-Based Study; Arch. Intern. Med. 172 (2012) 590–591.

559. Alberg, A.J., M.-J.D. Horner, V.C. Daguise, M.J. Carpenter, C.M. Mosley, B. Vincent, G. Silvestri, C.E. Reed, and J.R. Hebert: Lung and Bronchus Cancer Disparities in South Carolina: Epidemiology and Strategies for Prevention; J. S. C. Med. Assoc. 102 (2006) 183–191.

560. Hebert, J.R.: Invited Commentary: Menthol Cigarettes and Risk of Lung Cancer; Am. J. Epidemiol. 158 (2003) 617–620.

561. Hoffman, A.C.: The Health Effects of Menthol Cigarettes as Compared to Non-Menthol Cigarettes; Tob. Induc. Dis. 9, Suppl. 1 (2011) S7.

562. Kabat, G.C., N. Shivappa, and J.R. Hébert: Mentholated Cigarettes and Smoking-Related Cancers Revisited: An Ecologic Examination; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 63 (2012) 132–139.

563. Song, F., A.J. Eastwood, S. Gilbody, L. Duley, and A.J. Sutton: Publication and Related Biases; Health Technol. Assess. 4 (2000) No. 10.

564. Fowles, J. and D. Noiton: Chemical Factors Influen-cing the Addictiveness and Attractiveness of Cigarettes in New Zealand; Report for the New Zealand Ministry of Health, March 2001.

565. Connolly G.N., G.D. Wayne, D. Lymperis, and M.C. Doherty: How Cigarette Additives Are Used to Mask Environmental Tobacco Smoke; Tob. Control 9 (2000) 283–291.

566. Keithly, L., G.F. Wayne, D.M. Cullen, and G.N Connolly: Industry Research on the Use and Effects of Levulinic Acid: A Case Study in Cigarette Additives; Nicotine Tob. Res. 7 (2005) 761–771.

567. Quin, L.D., W. George, and B.S. Menefee: Some Semiquantitative Gas Chromatographic Studies on the Organic Acids of Tobacco and its Smoke; J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 44 (1961) 367–373.

568. Court, W.A. and J.G. Hendel: Determination of Nonvolatile Organic and Fatty Acids in Flue-Cured Tobacco by Gas-Liquid Chromatography; J. Chromat. Sci. 16 (1978) 314–317.

569. Sakuma, H., M. Kusama, N. Shimojima, and S. Sugawara: Gas Chromatographic Analysis of the p-Nitrophenylhydrazones of Low Boiling Carbonyl Compounds in Cigarette Smoke; Tob. Sci. 22 (1976) 156–158.

570. Lawson, J.W., B.R. Bullings, and T.A. Perfetti: Salts Provided from Nicotine and Organic Acid as Cigarette Additives; United States Patent 4,830,028, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., Winston-Salem, NC (Filing Date: February 10, 1987).

571. Rabinoff, M., N. Caskey, A. Rissling, and C. Park: Pharmacological and Chemical Effects of Cigarette Additives; Am. J. Public Health 97 (2007) 1981–1991.

572. Verband der Cigarettenindustrie: Scientific Statement from the VdC Working Group ‘Additives’ Concerning the Allegations from C. Bates, M. Jarvis and G. Connolly in ‘Tobacco Additives – Cigarette Engineering and Nicotine Addiction’ on the Additives: Ammonia Compounds, Sugar – Acetaldehyde, Cocoa – Theobromine, Licorice – Glycyrrhizin, Levulinic Acid, Pyridine; November 12, 1999; Bates-No. 2078377943–7949; available at: http://legacy.library.

573. Van Andel, I., E. Schenk, B. Rambali, G. Wolterink, G. van de Werken, H. Stevenson, L.A.G.J.M. van Aerts, and W. Vleeming: The Health- and Addictive Effects Due to Exposure to Aldehydes of Cigarette Smoke, Part 1: Acetaldehyde, Formaldehyde, Acrolein and Propionaldehyde; RIVM report 650270003/2002, RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, 2003.

574. Stevenson, T. and R.N. Proctor: The Secret and Soul of Marlboro: Phillip [sic] Morris and the Origins, Spread, and Denial of Nicotine Freebasing; Am. J. Public Health 98 (2008) 1184–1194.

575. Green, C.R. and A. Rodgman: The Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference: A Half Century Forum for Advances in Analytical Methodology of Tobacco and Its Products; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 22 (1996) 131–304.

576. Green, C.R. and A. Rodgman: The Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference: A Half Century Forum for Advances in Analytical Methodology of Tobacco and Its Products; R.J. Reynolds, 1996, Bates-No. 525445600–5772, qzt82a00.

577. Danish Cancer Society: Tobacco Additives – A Study of the Available Literature; Copenhagen, Denmark, 2008.

578. Kahnert, S., U. Nair, U. Mons, and M. Pötschke-Langer: Wirkungen von Menthol als Zusatzstoff in Tabakprodukten und die Notwendigkeit einer Regulie-rung [Effects of Menthol as an Additive in Tobacco Products and the Need for Regulation]; Bundes-gesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheits-schutz 55 (2012) 409–415.

579. Hecht, S.S.: Research Opportunities Related to Establishing Standards for Tobacco Products under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; Nicotine Tob. Res. 14 (2012) 18–28.

Journal Information

CiteScore 2017: 0.63

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.309
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.403


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 284 284 50
PDF Downloads 112 112 20