Influence of Tobacco Additives on the Chemical Composition of Mainstream Smoke

J Hahn 1  and J Schaub 2
  • 1 Chemisches und VeterinaeruntersuchungsamtSigmaringen (Official Chemical and Veterinary Surveillance Institute Sigmaringen), Hedingerstrasse 2/1, 72488 Sigmaringen, Germany
  • 2 BundesministeriumfuerErnaehrung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz (German Federal Ministryfor Food, Agricultureand Consumer Protection), Wilhelmstrasse 54, 10117 Berlin, Germany


Additives used in tobacco product manufacturing are currently in the focus of public discussions with regard to potentially increased consumer health risks on account of certain additives. In addition, a few additives are suspected to enhance the addictiveness of tobacco products. In 2006, the German Federal Ministry for Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BundesministeriumfuerErnaehrung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz, BMELV) commissioned a research project intended to provide support for the evaluation of additives and their influence on the composition and properties of cigarette mainstream smoke. In this paper the results of the study are reported. Different amounts of glycerol, cocoa powder and sucrose were added to the tobacco of two kinds of filter-ventilated King size test cigarettes with ‘tar’ levels of 6 mg and 10 mg per cigarette. The tobacco of the test cigarettes consisted of a commercially available blend made of Virginia, Burley and Oriental tobaccos. Machine smoking was performed according to the applicable ISO smoking regimen. Various smoke components, which are suspected to be harmful for health, were determined in mainstream smoke. Increasing levels of sucrose were correlated with an increase of the amount of formaldehyde but not of acetaldehyde in the mainstream smoke of the test cigarettes. In cigarettes with different levels of added glycerol no substantial change in smoke composition was observed. The addition of cocoa powder to tobacco resulted in a decrease of tobaccospecific N-nitrosamines in mainstream smoke. The results obtained in this study can be used as evidence for the toxicological evaluation aimed at approving or banning specific additives for tobacco product manufacturing.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Gesetz über den Ver-kehr mit Lebensmitteln, Tabakerzeugnissen, kosme-tischen Mitteln und sonstigen Bedarfsgegenständen [Federal Republic of Germany: Law on the commer-cial use of foods, tobacco products, cosmetics and consumer goods]; 15. August 1974, Bundesgesetz-blatt, BGBl I.

  • 2. European Commission: Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety.

  • 3. Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Lebensmittel-, Bedarfsgegenstände- und Futtermittelgesetzbuch (LFGB) in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 24. Juli 2009 (BGBl. I S. 2205), das durch die Verordnung vom 3. August 2009 (BGBl. I S. 2630) geändert worden ist [Federal Republic of Germany: Code on foods, consumer products and feed in the version of July 24, 2009 (BGBI. I p. 2205) last amended by the law of August 3, 2009 (BGBl. I p. 2630)].

  • 4. Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Vorläufiges Tabak-gesetz in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 9. September 1997 (BGBl. I S. 2296), das zuletzt durch das Gesetz vom 6. Juli 2010 (BGBl. I S. 848) ge-ändert worden ist [Federal Republic of Germany: Provisional tobacco law in the version of September 9, 1997 (Bundesgesetzblatt, BGBl. I p. 2296), last amended by the law of July 6, 2010 (Bundes-gesetzblatt, BGBl. I p. 848)].

  • 5. Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Tabakverordnung vom 20. Dezember 1977 (BGBl. I S. 2831), die zuletzt durch die Verordnung vom 6. Juli 2010 (BGBl. I S. 851) geändert worden ist [Federal Republic of Germany: Tobacco Ordinance of December 20, 1977 (Bundesgesetzblatt, BGBl. I p. 2831), last amended by the ordinance of July 6, 2010 (Bundesgesetzblatt, BGBl. I p. 851)].

  • 6. Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Aromenverordnung in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 2. Mai 2006 (BGBl. I S. 1127), die zuletzt durch Artikel 1 der Verordnung vom 30. September 2008 (BGBl. I S. 1911) geändert worden ist [Federal Republic of Germany: Flavoring Ordinance in the version of May 2, 2006 (Bundesgesetzblatt, BGBl. I p. 1127), last amended by article 1 of the Ordinance of September 30, 2008 (Bundesgesetzblatt, BGBl. I p. 1911)].

  • 7. Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Tabakprodukt-Verord-nung vom 20. November 2002 (BGBl. I S. 4434), die zuletzt durch Artikel 360 der Verordnung vom 31. Oktober 2006 (BGBl. I S. 2407) geändert worden ist [Federal Republic of Germany: Tobacco Products Ordinance of November 20, 2002 (Bundesgesetz-blatt, BGBl. I p. 4434), last amended by article 360 of the Ordinance of October 31, 2006 (Bundesgesetz-blatt, BGBl. I p. 2407)].

  • 8. European Commission: Directive 2001/37/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of June 5, 2001 on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States concerning the manufacture, presentation and sale of tobacco products. Off. J. Eur. Commun. L194 (2001) 26–34.

  • 9. Doull, J., J. P. Frawley, W. J. George, T. A. Loomis, R. A. Squire, and S. L. Taylor: List of ingredients added to tobacco in the manufacture of cigarette by six major American cigarette companies; Covington and Burling, Washington, D. C., April 12, 1994 (INT-517941576 -1600).

  • 10. Rodgman, A. and T. A. Perfetti: The chemical components of tobacco and tobacco smoke; Taylor and Francis Group (2009).

  • 11. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Mainstream cigarette smoke in: Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary smoking; Vol. 83 Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, Lyon, 2004, pp. 68–88.

  • 12. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): ISO 3308 Routine analytical cigarette-smoking machine - Definitions and standard conditions. Geneva, ISO (2000).

  • 13. Baker, R. R. and L. J. Bishop: The pyrolysis of tobacco ingredients; J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis 1 (2004) 223–311.

  • 14. Laurene, A. H., R. H. Cundiff, and G. H. Greene: Determination of glycerol and propylene glycol in cigarette smoke; Tob. Sci. 9 (1965) 1–4.

  • 15. Rodgman, A.: Some Studies of the Effects of Additives on Cigarette Mainstream Smoke Properties. II. Casing Materials and Humectants; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 20 (2002) 279–299.

  • 16. Liu, C.: Glycerol Transfer in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 21 (2004) 111–116.

  • 17. Kröller, E.: Ergebnisse von Schwelversuchen an Zusatzstoffen zu Tabakwaren. 2. Mitteilung (Polyglykole, Glycerin) [Kröller, E.: Results of smoldering experiments with additives for tobacco products. 2nd Communication (polyglycols, glycerol)]; Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau 61 (1965) 16.

  • 18. Stein, Y. S., M. J. Jr. Antal, and M. Jr. Jones: A study of the gas-phase pyrolysis of glycerol; J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis 4 (1983) 283–296.

  • 19. Carmines, E. L. and C. L. Gaworski: Toxicological evaluation of glycerin as a cigarette ingredient; Food Chem. Toxicol. 43 (2005) 1521–1539.

  • 20. Yip, S. H., L. T. Taylor, M. Ashraf-Khorassani, J. Yu, M. F. Borgerding, W. M. Coleman III, and J. A. Bodnar: HPLC-MS Determination of Acrolein and Acetone Generated from 13C3-Labeled Glycerol Added to Cigarette Tobacco Using Two Machine-Smoking Regimes; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 24 (2010) 48–57.

  • 21. Baker, R. R. and L. J. Bishop: The pyrolysis of non-volatile tobacco ingredients using a system that simulates cigarette combustion conditions; J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis 74 (2005) 145–170.

  • 22. Gager, F. L. Jr., J. W. Nedlock and W. J. Martin: Tobacco additives and cigarette smoke. I. Transfer of D-glucose, sucrose, and their degradation products to the smoke; Carbohydr. Res. 17 (1971) 327–333.

  • 23. Gager, F. L. Jr., J. W. Nedlock and W. J. Martin: Tobacco additives and cigarette smoke. II. Organic, gas-phase products from D-glucose and sucrose; Carbohydr. Res. 17 (1971) 335–339.

  • 24. Sanders, E. B., A. I. Goldsmith, and J. I. Seeman: A model that distinguishes the pyrolysis of D-glucose, D-fructose, and sucrose from that of cellulose. Application to the understanding of cigarette smoke formation; J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis 66 (2003) 29–50.

  • 25. Paschke, T., G. Scherer, and W. -D. Heller: Effects of Ingredients on Cigarette Smoke Composition and Biological Activity: A Literature Overview; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 20 (2002) 107–247.

  • 26. Hoffmann, D. and I. Hoffmann: Tobacco Smoke Components; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 18 (1998) 49–52.

  • 27. Fowles, J. and E. Dybing: Application of toxicological risk assessment principles to the chemical constituents of cigarette smoke; Tob. Control 12 (2003) 424–430.

  • 28. Talhout, R., A. Opperhuizen, and J. G. van Amsterdam: Sugars as tobacco ingredient: Effects on mainstream smoke composition; Food Chem. Toxicol. 44 (2006) 1789–1798.

  • 29. Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (Hrsg.): Erhöhte Gesundheitsgefährdung durch Zusatzstoffe in Tabakerzeugnissen - Konsequenzen für die Produkt-regulation [German Cancer Research Center, Ed.: Increased health risks due to ingredients in tobacco products - Consequences for product regulation]; Heidelberg 2005, Available from (Accessed August 2010):

  • 30. Rambali, B., I. Van Andel, E. Schenk, G. Wolterink, G. van de Werken, H. Stevenson, and W. Vleeming: The contribution of cocoa powder additive to ciga-rette smoking addiction; RIVM report 650270002/2002 (2002), Bilthoven: Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM (National Institute for Public Health and Environment). Avail-able from (Accessed August 2010):

  • 31. Action on smoking and health (ASH): Bates, C., M. Jarvis, and G. Connolly: Tobacco additives. Cigarette engineering and nicotine addiction; (1999) Available from (Accessed August 2010):

  • 32. Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (Hrsg.): Die Tabakindustriedokumente I: Chemische Veränder-ungen an Zigaretten und Tabakabhängigkeit [German Cancer Research Center, Ed.: Tobacco industry documents I: Chemical changes in cigarettes and tobacco addictiveness] Heidelberg, 2005; Available from (Accessed August 2010):

  • 33. Phillpotts, D. F., D. Spincer, and D. T. Westcott: The Effect of the Natural Sugar Content of Tobacco Upon the Acetaldehyde Concentration found in Cigarette Smoke; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 8 (1975) 7–10.

  • 34. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): ISO 3402 Tobacco and tobacco products - Atmos-phere for conditioning and testing; Geneva, ISO (1999).

  • 35. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): ISO 10315 Cigarettes - Determination of nicotine in smoke condensates - Gas-chromatographic method. Geneva, ISO (4/2000). ISO 10315 Technical Corrigendum 1: Cigarettes - Determination of nicotine in smoke condensates - Gas-chromatographic method; Technical Corrigendum 1. Geneva, ISO (11/2000).

  • 36. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): ISO 4387 Cigarettes - Determination of total and nicotine-free dry particulate matter using a routine analytical smoking machine; Geneva, ISO (2000).

  • 37. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): ISO 10362–2 Cigarettes - Determination of water in smoke condensates - Part 2: Karl Fischer method; Geneva, ISO (1999).

  • 38. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): ISO 8454 Cigarettes - Determination of carbon monoxide in the vapour phase of cigarette smoke -NDIR method; Geneva, ISO (2000).

  • 39. Health Canada: Health Canada Tobacco Reporting Regulations: Official method of Health Canada T-104. Determination of selected carbonyls in main-stream tobacco smoke; 1999. Available from (Accessed August 2010):

  • 40. Health Canada: Health Canada Tobacco Reporting Regulations: Official method of Health Canada T-111. Determination of nitrosamines in mainstream tobacco smoke; 1999 Available from (Accessed August 200):

  • 41. Health Canada: Health Canada Tobacco Reporting Regulations: Official method of Health Canada T-103. Determination of benzo(a)pyren in mainstream tobacco smoke; 1999. Available from (Accessed August 2010):

  • 42. Health Canada: Health Canada Tobacco Reporting Regulations: Official method of Health Canada T-116. Determination of 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, acrylonitrile, benzene and toluene in mainstream tobacco smoke; 1999. Available from (Accessed August 2010):

  • 43. Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Sigma-ringen: Bestimmung von Feuchthaltemitteln in Tabakerzeugnissen - Gaschromatographisches Verfahren [Official Chemical and Veterinary Surveillance Institute Sigmaringen: Determination of humectants in tobacco products – Gas chromatographic method]; (2003) CVUA Sigmaringen; Prüfverfahren 01P0800.

  • 44. Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Bestimmung von Theobromin und Coffein in Kakao, Lebensmittel-, Bedarfsgegenstände- und Futtermittelgesetzbuch (LFGB) [Federal Republic of Germany: Determination of theobromine and caffeine in cocoa, Federal law collection concerning food, feed and consumer products (LFGB)]; L 45. 00-1 (1999). Amtliche Sammlung von Untersuchungsverfahren § 64 LFGB.

  • 45. German Institute for Standardization (DIN): DIN 10371 Analysis of tobacco and tobacco products -Determination of glucose, fructose and sucrose contents - Method using high performance liquid chromatography; Berlin, Beuth (2001).

  • 46. Baker, R. R.: Smoke chemistry; in: Tobacco. Production, Chemistry and Technology, edited by D. L. Davis and M. T. Nielsen, Blackwell Science Ltd, 1999, Chapter 12, pp. 398–439.

  • 47. Baker, R. R: The generation of formaldehyde in cigarettes. Overview and recent experiments; Food Chem. Toxicol. 44 (2006) 1799–1822.

  • 48. Rustemeier, K., R. Stabbert, H. J. Haussmann, E. Roemer, and E. L. Carmines: Evaluation of the potential effects of ingredients added to cigarettes. Part 2: Chemical composition of mainstream smoke; Food Chem. Toxicol. 40 (2002) 93–104.

  • 49. Baker, R. R., J. R. Pereira da Silva, and G. Smith: The effect of tobacco ingredients on smoke chemistry. Part II: Casing ingredients; Food Chem. Toxicol. Suppl 42 (2004) 39–52.

  • 50. Fischer S., B. Spiegelhalder, J. Eisenbarth, and R. Preussmann: Investigations on the origin of tobacco specific nitrosamines in mainstream smoke of cigarettes; Carcinogenesis 11 (1990) 723–730.

  • 51. Moldoveanu S. C. and M. F. Borgerding: Formation of Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke; Part 1, FTC Smoking; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 23 (2008) 19–31.

  • 52. NCI, National Cancer Institute, Smoking and Health Program: Toward less hazardous cigarettes: Report No. 3. The third set of experimental cigarettes; DHEW Publication (1977).

  • 53. Roemer, E., R. Stabbert, K. Rustemeier, D. J. Veltel, T. J. Meisgen, W. Reininghaus, R. A. Carchman, C. L. Gaworski, and K. F. Podraza: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of smoke from US commercial and reference cigarettes smoked under two sets of machine smoking conditions; Toxicology 195 (2004) 31–52.

  • 54. Counts, M. E., F. S. Hsu, S. W. Laffoon, R. W. Dwyer and R. H. Cox: Mainstream smoke constituent yields and predicting relationships from a worldwide market sample of cigarette brands: ISO smoking conditions; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 39 (2004) 111–134.

  • 55. Van Andel, I., E. Schenk, B. Rambali, G. Wolterink, G. van de Werken, H. Stevenson, L. A. G. J. M. van Aerts, and W. Vleeming: The health- and addictive effects due to exposure to aldehydes of cigarette smoke. Part 1: Acetaldehyde, Formaldehyde, Acrolein and Propionaldehyde; RIVM report 650270003/20021-98 Bilthoven (2002); Available from (Accessed August 2010):

  • 56. Seeman, J. I., S. W. Laffoon, and A. J. Kassman: Evaluation of relationships between mainstream smoke acetaldehyde and ’tar’ and carbon monoxide yields in tobacco smoke and reducing sugars in tobacco blends of U. S. commercial cigarettes; Inhal. Toxicol. 15 (2003) 373–395.

  • 57. Health Canada methods (Accessed November 2010);

  • 58. Borgerding, M. F., J. A. Bodnar, and D. E. Wingate: The 1999 Massachusetts benchmark study: final report. (2000) pp. 1–141; Available from (Accessed August 2010):;jsessionid=47AC7021F2B1980 A92E552D968974EC4.

  • 59. Hoffmann, D., I. Hoffmann, and K. El-Bayoumy: The less harmful cigarette: a controversial issue. A tribute to Ernst L. Wynder; Chem. Res. Toxicol. 14 (2001) 767–790.

  • 60. Rodgman, A. and C. R. Green: Toxic Chemicals in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke - Hazard and Hoopla; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 20 (2003) 481–545.

  • 61. Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (Hrsg.): Zusatz-stoffe in Tabakprodukten 1, Regulierungsbedarf zum Schutz der Gesundheit: Empfehlungen für eine Prüfstrategie für Tabakzusatzstoffe [German Cancer Research Center, Ed.: Additives in tobacco products 1, Need of regulations for health protection: Recom-mendations for a testing strategy for tobacco additives]; Heidelberg, 2010:. Available from (Accessed August 2010):

  • 62. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Developement OECD: OECD Guidelines for Testin g of Chemicals - Full List of Test Guidelines, August 2010. Available from (Accessed October 2010):

  • 63. Stotesbury, S., H. Digard, L. Willoughby, and A. Couch: The Pyrolysis of Tobacco Additives as a Means of Predicting their Behaviour in a Burning Cigarette; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 18 (1999) 147–163.

  • 64. Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN): DIN Fach-bericht 133, Toxikologische Bewertung von Zusatz-stoffen für Tabakprodukte - Ein Leitfaden [German Institute for Standardization (DIN): DIN Report 133: Toxicological evaluation of additives for tobacco products - a guideline]; Beuth Verlag, Berlin, Wien, Zürich, 2004: Available from (Accessed August 2010):

  • 65. Borgerding, M. F. and H. Klus: Analysis of complex mixtures - cigarette smoke; Exp Toxicol Pathol. 57 Suppl 1(2005)43-73.

  • 66. United States of America U. S. A.: Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control and Federal Retire-ment Reform Public Law 111-31 - June 22, 2009; 123 Stat. 1776 Available from (Accessed October 2010): Focus/ucm168412.htm and public_laws&docid=f:publ031.111.pdf.


Journal + Issues